AP CHEMISTRY SYLLABUS

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AP
CHEMISTRY

SYLLABUS

Liberty High School

Rex E. Brown



COURSE OVERVIEW



The AP Chemistry course serves as
a

second year chemistry course that
possesses

an intense lab component
coupled with

a
rigorous
mathematical basis for developing
chemistry
concepts.
S
tudents who
meet the published prerequisites
[(
1)
successful completion of a high
school chemistry
Pre
-
AP
course and
, (2)

a second
-
year algebra
course
]

are allowed to take the course
. Students are expected, but
not required, to take the AP Exa
m at the end of the course.



Course
content

level

and pace

of
study

are

comparable

to a college
level course

and exceeds that of a Chemistry Pre
-
AP high school
course

and high school Chemistry I course
.
S
tudents
are expected to
be independent learners
p
ossessing the abilities

to

apply facts and
concepts
relating to

real world situations.

AP Chemistry
participants
should develop a strong conceptual base in chemistry
including
above average
computational skills and
laboratory

techniques.

By
utilizing
inquiry methods, teacher lecture, mathematical computations,
laboratory work, computer

aided instruction

and
simulations
, the
student

should be able to construct a viable conceptual base of
chemistry knowledge
.
The AP Chemistry course will provide diverse

instructional strategies that will
facilitate the learning process in such a
manner that students will

successful
ly master the

course

materials and
content
.

Critical objectives of the course focus on development and
improvement of students’ problem solvin
g
abilities

and mathematical
computational skills.


Since the AP Chemistry course is analogous

to a freshman college
chemistry course
, the textbook, laboratory activities, and resources are

definitely more sophisticated and advanced when compared to a
regular, high school course and its content. The textbook selected for
the AP course emphasizes a conceptual attitude toward the chemistry
topics that will
aid

the students in their comprehension of the concepts.
I n order to streamline the laboratory exe
rcises and facilitate rapid
preparation, chemistry “kits” obtained from Flinn Scientific Company
will be utilized as
primary
laboratory resources. Additionally, when
applicable, microchemistry laboratory activities will be employed since
real world resear
ch and refinery laboratories (such as ExxonMobil and

2

Celanese) often stress the use of analytical techniques on the
micro
chemical

scale.





GENERAL COURSE CONCEPTS


I n general, t
he course
of st udy present s

inst ruct ion
associat ed wit h

t he
following concept s
:




S
t ruct ure of mat t er (at omic t heory and at omic st ruct ure,
chemical bonding)



S
t at es of mat t er (gases, liquids and solids, solut ions)



R
eact ions (react ion t ypes, st oichiomet ry,
chemical
equilibrium

and

kinet ics,
chemical
t hermodynamic
s)



D
escriptive chemistry (periodic table

and relationships
).



S
tudents are expected to
possess

prior
k
nowledge
relating to

the
following topics
:




I ntroductory laboratory techniques and processes



A
t
omic theory




A
tomic structure



P
eriodicity



Types of
B
onding



S
toichiometry



Kinetic
-
Molecular Theory



G
as
L
aws



S
olutions



A
cid and
B
ase
R
eactions



Properties of Liquids and Solids


The

above

topics are investigated mo
r
e extensively
in AP Chemistry

including
units devoted to
electrochemistry, nuclear chemistry,
bo
nding theory,
colligative properties of solutions,
organic chemistry,

k
inetics,
equilibrium, and
thermo chemistry

(
thermodynamics
)
.

Organic chemistry is
introduced

early in the course because college
texts utilize organic compound formulas and reactions in chapter
questions and problems; hence, the student needs exposure to this
class of compounds and their nomenclature.

Also, nuclear chemistry is
studied early in
the course since students rarely receive instruction
associated with this critical topic.






3

MATHEMATICAL COMPUTATIONS


Nested within
the course

are various classes of chemical
computations
. Examples of the types of calculations are as follows

and the list is by no means exhaustive:





P
ercent composition



E
mpirical
/
molecular formulas



M
olar mass from gas density



F
reezing

point

depression



B
oiling

point
elevation



G
as laws



M
ole

concept

(mole
-
mole, mass
-
mass, particle
-
particle
sto
i
chiometric
relationships)



T
itration
s



M
ole fraction



Solution

c
once
n
trations (molarity, molality, normality
,
%volume/volume, %weight/weight, ppm
)



E
quilibrium constants
with
applications



E
lectr
o
lytic

potentials



Diffusion/Effusion



Osmo
tic Pressure



Thermodynamic/
thermo ch
emical

computations



Kinetics


The study of the

course

topics accompanied with the mathematical
computations and laboratory activities assist the student in developing
an understanding of the

chemical principles

presented in the course.







LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS


Laborat ory act ivit ies assist in
develop
ing

cont ent
by

affording
processes that link components
of the course
collectively

for students.
Utilizing qualitative and quantitative techniques, students
are required
to collect, process,
and manipulate data

obtained

from physical
,
chemical, and measured

observations.

I t is essential that students

communicate
their
observations, results and conclusions effectively in
a
formal

lab report.
Lab reports will exemplify the concepts related to
e
xperimental design such as
inquiry, research,
hypothesis, procedure,

4

observations/data, calculations, and

conclusion
s
.
As part of their lab
experiences in AP Chemistry, s
tudents are
expected
to
retain

lab
reports in a notebook
that serves
as a record of
their
lab
activities
.
Because of time constraints, difficulties arise in managing time for
the

lab
portion of the course.

Activities might require time outside of class
or after school hours. Since several labs possess multiple parts, group
assignments
will be designated in such a manner that the entire class
will work together to
collect

results and derive consensus conclusions.

Although t
his approach
conserves
time
,

each group
must be able to
employ proper

lab technique
s in order

to
positively
contrib
ute to the
final
class
product
.





GRADING POLICIES


Grades for AP
Chemist ry

are det ermined by t he school dist rict ’s rule of
t est s (AP
Chemist ry

st yle t est s and project s) account ing for 60% of t he
grade and
class work
, labs, and quizzes are 40% of t he grade.






PRIMARY
TEXTBOOK

AND RESOURCES


Chemical Principles: The Quest For I nsight

(Pet er At kins and Loret t a
Jones; W. H. Freeman and Company: New York; 4
th

edition, 2008)


Chemical Principles: The Quest For I nsight

Resource CD


Chemical Principles: The Quest For I nsight

Resource
Website

http://www.whfreeman.com/chemicalprinciples4e



AP Chem Solutions Resource C
D

www.apchemsolutions.com


Laboratory Experiments for Advanced Placement Chemistry

(Sally Ann
Vonderbrink;
Flinn Scientific, I nc.: Batavia, I L;


2
nd

Edition, 2006
)


The Ultimate Chemical Equations Handbook

(George R. Hague, Jr. and

Jane D. Smith; Flinn Scientific, I nc.: Batavia, I L; 2006)


Laboratory Resource Kits

Flinn Scientific I nc.,

Batavia, I L


5





SUPPLEMENTARY
TEXTBOOK AND RESOURCES


General Chemist ry

(Kennet h W. Whit t en, Raymond E. Davi
s, and M.
Larry Peck; Thomason Learning, I nc: USA; 6
th

edition, 2000)


AP Chemistry Lab Sheets

http://it.pinellas.k12.fl.us/teachers/colkmires/APChemistry_Labs.html


AP Chemistry Labs, Brockport High School NY USA

http://www.frontiernet.net/~jlkeefer/apchemlabs.htm


Small Scale Chemistry Laboratory Workshop Part I and Part I I





COURSE SYL
LABUS



UNIT I
--

Introduction: Matter and Measurement




(4 days)

[Sections A, G]



C
ourse
introduction,

requirements
,

expectations



Safety rules, measurem
ent, units, significant figures



P
hysical and chemical properties



S
tates of matter



S
ubstances and
mixtures



UNIT II
--

Atoms, Molecules and Ions








(
5

days)

[Sections B, C,
D
]



Atomic theory

(
atomic masses,

atomic number, isotopes, average atomic
mass
)



I norganic compound nomenclature



N
ames and formulas
of

compounds



Compound types



Cation/anion
determination



M
olar mass

calculations



E
mpirical and molecular formula

calculations



UNIT II
I
--

Stoichiometr
y











(8 days)

[Sections E, F, H, L, M]



Types of reactions

(
combination, decomposition, combustion
, single
-
double replacement)



Write
/
balance equ
ations given the word equations


6



S
toichiom
etric ratios, limiting reactants
, percent yield, combustion
analysis, empirical and molecular formula

computations


UNIT IV
--

Nuclear Chemistry










(

6

days)

[Chapter 17]



Nuclear equations









Radioactivity



W
riting
/co
mpleting nuclear

equations



Types of particle emission



E
ffect
s

of

types of decay on the proton
-
neutron ratio



T
ype of decay
/
relative to the belt of stability

prediction



F
usion and

fission


UNIT
V



Organic Chemistry











(
5

days)

[Chapter
18]



Organic chemistry nomenclature



Functional groups



Simple reactions



Polymers

and biopolymers

(optional)


UNIT V
I

--

Aqueous Reactions and Solution Chemistry


(10 days)

[Sections G, I, K]



Types of reactions

(
single replacement, double replacement
in relation to
precipitation, acid
-
base and oxidation
-
reduction reactions, net ionic

equations
)



N
onelectrolytes, strong elec
trolytes, and weak electrolytes



M
etathesis reactio
ns (neutralization and
precipitation)



S
pect
ator ions



N
et ionic equations



Activity Series

utilization



Calculations of m
ass
/
volume
relationship

in reactions



D
ilution calc
ulations



M
olarity
and normality
of solu
tions



UNIT VI
I

--

Thermo
dynamics (1
st

Law)








(12 days)

[Chapter 6]



S
tate
functions



C
hange in enthalpy



H
eat of formation




S
tandard heats of formation



H
eat of reaction



C
alorimetry



H
eat capacity of a calorimeter



Reaction
heat

evolved
/
absorbed



Hess’s law


7


UNIT
VIII

--

Chemical Thermodynamics

(2
nd
/
3
rd

Laws)


(7 days)

[Chapter 7]



Entropy and ΔS
o
rx n

using standard molar entropy values



Free energy of formation



Free energy of reaction



ΔG
o
rx n

using the free energy of formation



Change in free energy on enthalpy and entropy changes



Spontaneity of a reaction and standard free
-
energy
correlation



Free energy/equilibrium constant relationships



Free energy change relating to nonstandard conditions


UNIT
IX

--

Gases















(20 days)

[Chapter 4]



Kinetic molecular theory of gases



E
quation
s

of

state for

ideal gas



L
aw of partial

pres
sures



Avogadro’s
principle/
mole concept



M
olar mass

of

gas
/
gas density



T
emperature and pressure



D
ependence of kinetic

energy on temperature



G
as law simulation
s

(CAI )



van der Waal’s equation


UNIT
X

--

Intermolecular Forces, Liquids and Solids



(6 days)

[Chapter 5]



Kinetic
-
molecular theory
of
liquids and solids



P
hase diagrams
(
changes of state, critical points, triple

p
oints
)



Effects of
vapor pressure
relating to
intermolecular forces and
temperature



H
eat capacities and enthalpies
of
phase changes.



I ntermolecular attractions

(
hydroge
n bonding, dipole
-
dipole, and L
ondon
dispersion forces
)



I
ntermolecular attraction
s

predictions



Structure of solids

(
lattice energies
)



T
ype
s

of solid
s

(molecular,

covalent network, ionic, or metallic)

UNIT X
I

--

Properties of Solutions










(7 days)

[Chapter 8]



Types of solutions



F
actors affecting solubility



Colligative properties (
freezing point

depression
, boiling point

elevation
,
vapor pressure

lowering
, and osmotic pressure
)



Raoult’s law





E
ffect
s

of

electrolytes

compared to non

electrolytes



Non
-
ideal behavior



8

UNIT X
II

--

Chemical Kinetics











(16 days)

[Chapter
13]



R
ate of reaction



F
actors affecting rate of reaction



I
nitial rates
,

rate law of a reaction
, r
ate constant

calculations



R
eactant
order
/
rate constants
/
reaction rate laws



Arrhenius equation



A
ctivation energ
ies/temperature dependence



R
ole of catalysts



R
ate
-
determining step within a mechanism and the rate law


UNIT X
II
I
--

Chemical Equilibrium










(11 days)

[Chapter 9]



D
ynamic
equilibrium



E
quilibrium constants



Le Chatelier’s principle



C
alculation
s

relating to

K
(
equilibrium

concentrations
/
initial
concentrations
)



R
eaction quotient
s



S
hift of a system
with changing condition
s


UNIT X
IV

--

Acid
-
Base Equilibria

I









(10 days)

[Chapter 10]



Acid
-
Base reactions



Arrhenius, Bronsted
-
Lowry, Lewis

acids/bases



A
mphote
rism



C
onstants for acids and bases



pH
calculations (
strong acid
/
strong base
/
weak acid
/
weak base solutions
)



I
dentification of salt solution as acid or base
using
the
formula of the salt



Percent ionization



K
a

and K
b

for a conjugate acid
-
base pair



O
rganic acids and bases


UNIT X
V

--

Acid
-
Base Equilibria

II









(18 days)

[Chapter 11]



B
uffer solution



pH of buffer solution
s



Common
-
ion effect on pH



pH
changes of
buffer
solution
s upon

addition
of a strong acid or strong
base



T
itration calculations



D
issolution of slightly soluble compounds



S
olubility product constants and precipitation

relationship



K
sp

from solubility data



K
sp

values

and equilibrium

concentrations



F
ormation of complex ions



pH changes

effecting solubility changes



9


UNIT XV
I

--

Electrochemistry










(12 days)

[Chapter 12]



Balance oxidation
-
reduction reactions



S
tandard half
-
cell potentials



Redox reaction predictions



E
lectrolytic and galvanic cells



S
tandard cell potentials



Nernst equation



C
ell potential under nonstandard
conditions



R
elationship of change in free energy to equilibrium constants and
electrode potentials



M
etal form
ation as related to time and current


UNIT XVI
I

--

Electronic Structure of Atoms







(6 days)

[Chapter 1]



Waves
,
wavelength
,
electromagnetic wave
s, wave

frequency



Bohr model of a hydrogen atom



A
tomic spectra



E
nergy of electrons in the Bohr model of atom



W
avelength of light emitted by the Bohr model of
hydrogen



Bright line spectra



Heisenberg

uncertainty principle



Schroedinger Equation



Q
uantum numbers



A
tomic orbitals



E
lectron configuration
s



Orbital diagrams


UNIT XVI
I
I
--

Periodic Properties of the Elements




(3 days)

[Chapter 1]



P
eriodic trends
(
atomic radii, ionization energies, electron affinities
)



T
rends
of
effective nuclear charge



I
on
ic

size
variation



I
onization energ
y variations


U
NIT X
IX

--

Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding



(4 days)

[Chapter 2]



I onic bonding



F
ormula
s

of ionic compounds



L
attice energy, metallic bonding, covalent bonding, polarity

of bonds,
electronegativity prediction using periodic table



B
ond order



Lewis structures



S
tates, structure, and properties of matter

relationships



10

UNIT XX
--

Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories



(4 days)

[Chapter 3]



E
lectron domains
relating
shape of
a
molecule



G
eometric structure of a molecule or ion
based
Lewis structure



H
ybridization of orbitals



R
esonance



S
igma and pi bonds



D
ipole moments


REVIEW
UNIT
















(
9

days)



Released AP questions

and teacher written questions




K
inetics and equilibrium



T
hermodynamics and electrochemistry



S
tates of matter

and
s
olutions



L
ab program



A.
P.


Exam


Laboratory Exercises


NOTE:

Due to limited, financial resources associated with this small
school district, laboratory
chemistry “kits” obtained from Flinn Scientific
Company will be utilized as
primary
laboratory
re
source
s
.

Where
applicable, lab activities will be aligned and coinc
ide with course
content topics currently being studied by the students. Time
permitting, additional activities will serve in a supplemental capacity to
reinforce the course content.




1.

Determination of the Empirical Formula of Silver Oxide

[AP #1:
Determination of the Empirical Formula of a Compound]


2.

Analysis of Aluminum Potassium Sulfate


[AP #2: Determination of the Percentage of Water in a Hydrate]


3.

Determination of the Molar Mass of Gases and Volatile Liquids

[AP #3: Determination of th
e Molar Mass by Vapor Density]


4.

Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression

[AP #4: Determination of the Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression]


5.

Determining the Molar Volume of a Gas


[AP #5: Determination of the Molar Volume of a Gas]


6.

Acid
-
Base
Titrations


[AP #6: Standardization of a Solution Using a
Primary Standard
]

[AP #7: Determination of Concentration by Acid
-
Base Titration, I ncluding
a Weak Acid or a Weak Base]


11


7.

Oxidation
-
Reduction Titrations

[AP #8: Determination of Concentration by

Oxidation
-
Reduction Titration]


8.

Determining the Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions


[AP #9: Determination of Mass and Mole Relationship in a Chemical
Reaction]


9.

Determination of K
a

of Weak Acids

[AP #10: Determination of the Equilibrium Constant

for a Chemical
Reaction]


10.

Selecting Indicators for Acid
-
Base Titrations

[AP #11: Determination of the Appropriate I ndicators for Various Acid
-
Base Titrations]


11.

Kinetics of a Reaction


[AP #12: Determination of the Rate of a Reaction and I ts
Order]


12.


Thermodynamics
-
Enthalpy of Reaction and Hess’s Law

[AP #13: Determination of Enthalpy Change Associated with a Reaction]


13.


Separation and Qualitative Determination of Cations and Anions

[AP #14: Separation and Qualitative Analysis of Ca
tions and Anions]


14.


Synthesis and Analysis of a Coordination Compound

[AP #15: Synthesis of a Coordination Compound and I ts Chemical
Analysis]


15.

Gravimetric Analysis of a Metal Carbonate


[AP #16: Analytical Gravimetric Determination]


16.

The D
etermination of K
eq

for FeSCN
2+



[AP #17: Colorimetric Spectrophotometric Analysis]


17.

Liquid Chromatography


[AP #18: Separation by Chromatography]


18.


pH Properties of Buffer Solutions


[AP #19: Preparation and Properties of Buffer Solutions]


19.


An Activity Series


[AP #20: Determination of an Electrochemical Series]


20.

Electrochemical Cells

[AP #21: Measurements Using Electrochemical Cells and Electroplating]


21.


Synthesis, Isolation, and Purification of an Ester


12

[AP #22: Synthesis,
Purification, and Analysis of an Organic Compound]