Virtual Lab: Classifying Using Biotechnology - NGHS-Science

thelemicbathBiotechnology

Feb 20, 2013 (4 years and 3 months ago)

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AP Biology: Unit 5
: Evolution:
Virtual Lab

#10
: Classifying Using Biotechnology

Instructions


1.

Open the Virtual Lab:
Classifying

Using Biotechnology


2.

The virtual lab simulation will be on the right side of the screen, and the “Question” column will be on
the left side of the screen.


3.

Read the background information in the Question Column under “How can Bacteria be identified?


4.

Read

the background information provided in the Microbiology Handbook in the virtual lab.


5.

Follow the instructions in the “Question” column

and on the Classifying Using Biotechnology Worksheet

to complete

the virtual lab. Record your data in
a Data Table in y
our notebook
.

Shape

Arrangement

Gram + or
Gram
-

GC Content

Species









































a.

Apply the stain to your first unknown slide and examine it

under the microscope.

b.

Record the shape of the bacteria, the arrangement of the bacteria, and the
gram staining
characteristics.

c.

Analyze and record the G+C content of the sample by dragging the DNA tube that
corresponds to the bacterial sample to the GC Content Measuring Appara
tus.


(Note:


the
identification of the DNA tubes may be confusing; the red tube belongs to sample #1, the
blue tube belongs to sample #2, and the gr
een tube belongs to sample #3)

d.

Compare the slide to the pictures in the Microbiology Handbook, and record

the name of the

species you believe it to be.

e.

Repeat these step
s for sample #2 and sample #3.

f.

Click reset to obtain 3 new bacterial samples to test, and repeat steps 1
-
5.


g.

Continue to reset the slides and continue testing until you have identified each
bacterial
species described in the Microbiology handbook, as well as one unknown species.

6.

Answer
the
questions
below in your notebook
.


Questions:

1.

Which of the species you identified will have DNA with the lowest melting temperature?





2.

You test a new unknown bacterial sample and find it gram + and has a G+C content of 55%.


Which of
the following statements is accurate regarding this sample:



a.


It is a different species than any of the other species you have identified



b.


it
is most closely related to Staphylococcus aureus



c.


the bacterial cells will probably be rod
-
shaped



d.


the bacterial cells are prokaryotic



e.


c and d



f.


a and d

3.

You test another new unknown bacterial sample, and find the G+C conten
t is identical to one of the
samples you have already identified, but the rRNA gene sequence contains one base that is
different.


What can you conclude:



a.


the two samples are from unrelated species



b.


the two samples are from closely related,

but not identical, species



c.


the two samples are probably from the same species



d.


there is not enough data to form a conclusion


4.

According to your data, which two species that you identified diverged the longest time ago?


5.

Your lab partner

hands you a slide with a new sample of a bacterium called Staphylococcus
mutans.


What can you deduce about this bacterium?



a.


it is closely related to streptococcus mutans



b.


it is closely related to staphylococcus aureus



c.


it is close
ly related to both streptococcus mutans and staphylococcus aureus



d.


it is closely related to either streptococcus mutan or staphylococcus aureus



e.


there is not enough information to establish an evolutionary relationship


6.

List one of your id
entified bacterium that has a thick cell wall:




7.

You view an unknown bacterial sample that has a spherical shape, requires oxygen for metabolism, and
stains purple with gram staining. Which of the following correctly describes the species you are viewin
g?

a.

gram positive, spirilli, aerobic

b.

gram negative, bacilli, facultatively anaerobic

c.

gram negative, cocci, anaerobic

d.

gram positive, cocci, aerobic


8.

30s and 16s ribosomal RNA molecules are components of:

a.

transfer RNA

b.

the nucleolus

c.

a ribosome

d.

RNA polymerase


9.

G+C nucleotide base pairs are held together by three hydrogen bonds, while A+T base pairs are held
together by two hydrogen bonds. Which of the following characteristics are found in a molecule with a
high GC content as compared to a molecule with a highe
r AT content?

a.

increased UV absorption

b.

increased melting temperature

c.

higher rate of mutation

d.

a and b

e.

b and c



10.

Describe the characteristics of the organism and the process you used to determine the identity of one of
the organisms in this Exploration.


11.

Is i
t possible that two prokaryotic organisms show phenotypic similarities, but do not share close
evolutionary relatedness? Explain your answer.


12.

Various Streptococci and Lactobacilli were traditionally grouped together as lactic acid bacteria because
of thei
r characteristic fermentation. Most of them were found to have a DNA guanine plus cystosine (G +
C) content of approximately 40%, but one of them had a G + C content of 58%. Should this organism
remain in the same genus as the rest of the bacterial specie
s? Explain your answer.


13.

What is the definition of the concept of a species in Bacteria based on? Explain your answer, taking into
consideration that these organisms do not reproduce sexually.