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Dec 10, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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CSC Office of Innovation

Technology Program

Fall 2013




App rEvolution





Contents


Apps Take the Lead


Reshaping the User Experience


Apps Everywhere


DNA of Apps


Platforms Unify and Simplify


New App Economy

(
to be

written
)










App rEvolution

11 April 2013

CSC
Office of Innovation Technology Program


Erika Olimpiew,
eolimpiew@csc.com



©

2013

Computer Sciences Corporation. All Rights

Reserved.

2

App

rEvolution

Amplifying the Opportunities of Mobility


Applications are the lifeblood of the organization.
Technology
infrastructure
is important, but
applications define what work gets done.



Apps Take the Lead


Over

the past 10 years the application headwinds have changed. As mobility and cloud have
converged, there has been a pole shift in how applications are designed and delivered and how
work gets done. Previously, advances in network technology drove the creati
on of new
applications and services, but now applications are in the driver’s seat. The 2008 vision of
Internet pioneer Len Kleinrock is in full swing: “Now we have reached a tipping point where the
applications are taking the lead. It is the application
s (and services) that are pushing and driving
the technology, which is trying to catch up with the ever
-
increasing demands they present.”
1

There is a shift from a network
-
centric view of applications and services to a user
-
centric view of
dynamic applicati
ons and services that adapt to a person’s context. Applications are expected to
serve people whenever and wherever they are, on whatever device they happen to interact with.
“Apps” is the term used to describe this new breed of flexible, context
-
aware, ub
iquitous
applications.


In 2011

the IT industry reached a significant milestone
as

the number of smartphones sold
exceeded the number of PCs sold.
2

Add tablets into the mix, and we are rapidly moving toward
s
a new era of “mobile first.” Analysts say by
2014 more people will access the Internet via mobile
than desktop.
3

This “
mobile first” mantra is driving a massive shift in how applications are
designed and developed, and many companies are offering new tools and capabilities to help
accelerate this tr
ansition.


With today’s apps we are witnessing the breakup of monolithic applications and the desktops
that supported them. The distinction between client and server is blurring as service roles and
devices become decoupled. Apps on personal devices can in
teract with apps in an organization’s
infrastructure as needed, even migrating between different devices as the person moves through
different environments. As apps become increasingly pervasive, bulky manual infrastructure like
toll stations, fare card ga
tes, traffic lights and checkout counters will become relics of the past.
Apps in a flexible, responsive infrastructure will automatically interact with apps in personal
devices to allow a person to navigate traffic and pay for tolls in a driverless car, t
o present a train
ticket by simply getting on board, and to pay for goods by walking out of a store.


Apps everywhere will change the way data is created, shared and used by people and enterprises.
A self
-
healing, dynamic infrastructure will be able to d
ynamically analyze data on individual app
user behaviors, predict future group behaviors and respond to emergencies. For example, nearby
billboard ads will adapt to an app user’s context based on the person’s characteristics, interact
with the person, and

guide the person to particular stores and products.


App rEvolution

11 April 2013

CSC
Office of Innovation Technology Program


Erika Olimpiew,
eolimpiew@csc.com



©

2013

Computer Sciences Corporation. All Rights

Reserved.

3


How Did We Get Here?


The dominant force in IT has evolved from mainframe to minicomputer to PC to, most recently,
the mob
ile device. Why? The networks, unified by the Internet,
and the necessary har
dware
innovation are now in place, coupled with changes in how people interact with information

and
each other
.


As a result, a
pps

on mobile devices are coming into their own. Instead of merely porting
existing content to the mobile device, companies ar
e creating novel transactions and actions on
the mobile device that cannot exist in a desktop world. Consider finder apps that locate goods
and services based on where you are as you move around, check
-
in apps, tap
-
and
-
pay apps,
banking apps with mobile ch
eck deposit, insurance apps with mobile claims submission, and
“mobile first” businesses like Uber with its on
-
demand driver service summoned via an app.
Even in TV ads, major brands are not talking about their products but rather their mobile apps.


Orga
nizations must remember that mobile is about the business, not the technology. Mobile
apps and mobile web sites must be in sync with the desktop web site, and all must be in sync
with the business.


And business is about reaching people the way they wan
t to interact. As outgoing VMware CEO
Paul Maritz remarked at VMworld 2012,
4

organizations need to deliver “fundamentally new
experiences” to customers and employees as they reach the mature stages of a 50
-
year journey to
automate processes. Organization
s need new ways to provide access to information in
real time

and in the
context

of what people are doing. These forces will have a big impact on the IT
industry. Maritz envisions a
top
-
to
-
bottom transformat
ion in IT over the next four years as
infrastru
cture shifts from physical to virtual to cloud, apps and data are transformed, and access
shifts from a fixed PC world to a mobile multidevice world.


A New Way of Thinking (Again)


The last time the information technology industry went through a transform
ation such as this was
in the client
-
server
-
web era, which ushered in not only a new way of thinking but a new way of
designing applications using new platforms, architectures and development tools. A similar
transformation is happening today but on a new
playing field.


The App rEvolution is upending the client
-
server and browser
-
centric web model as consumer
demand drives app innovation at the (device) edge and suppliers rush to fill this demand.
Ecosystems such as Apple, Android and Windows nurture con
sumers and developers. But the
effect, like the consumerization of IT in general, is far
-
reaching. Employee demand for in
-
house
business productivity and customer service apps has grown, followed closely by demand for
enterprise app stores and app manageme
nt tools in enterprises and government agencies. Apps
will impact the enterprise everywhere but will be most striking in
areas that are purposely
designed to engage and empower
.

As Forrester notes, “
We’re entering a new age of application
development that

creates modern, compelling systems of engagement and links them with
systems of record and systems of operation
.”
5

(S
ee Figure
X.)

App rEvolution

11 April 2013

CSC
Office of Innovation Technology Program


Erika Olimpiew,
eolimpiew@csc.com



©

2013

Computer Sciences Corporation. All Rights

Reserved.

4



However, not
everything in the App
rEvolution is a bed of roses. With pervasive
and personalized apps, the app user is no
longer anonymous. Data about one’s
shopping, social and driving habits can be
used by financial, government and
commercial institutions to rate,
judge and
even prosecute app users. Data protection
concerns, such as legal and ethical issues
about who owns this data and who can use
this data, are already being debated and will
become increasingly important. Security
threats are no longer confined to
applications
on desktop computers but will extend to apps
in personal devices and the supporting
infrastructure.


While these and other issues need to be
addressed, the App rEvolution is marching ahead: an evolution in apps and supporting
technology that i
s creating revolutionary business and personal change. It is early days, with
much change and opportunity ahead. The App rEvolution gets at the heart of the enterprise: how
it conducts business, makes sales, delivers products, services clients, and interac
ts with
customers and suppliers. Changes to the business of applications


how they are created,
distributed and consumed


are fundamentally affecting organizations, customers and consumers.
This report explores these changes by examining five areas: user

experience, apps everywhere;
DNA of apps (stacks and architectures), new platforms and the emerging app economy.






Figure X.
Modern Applications are Systems of
Systems


Source: Forrester Research [
needs permission
]

App rEvolution

11 April 2013

CSC
Office of Innovation Technology Program


Erika Olimpiew,
eolimpiew@csc.com



©

2013

Computer Sciences Corporation. All Rights

Reserved.

5

Reshaping the User Experience

Context matt
ers and needs are finally met.


With the onslaught of smartphones and
tablets, today’s digital environment is
all about the user experience. Whereas
in the early days of mobile, devices and
networks drove applications (which
were not that friendly), today the user
ex
perience is driving application
development. (See Figure X.)


Client
-
server may have been about user
experience to an extent, but it focused
on the desktop. Today mobile has
brought us to “the last foot,” making
the promise of “anytime anywhere”
computin
g come true. The drive to
launch new experiences with these
incredibly capable mobile devices is
on.


That experience needs to be easy,
intuitive and efficient. In many cases,
given a
small screen size, the
experience will be in conflict with the
data
because an easy experience

may
mean you can’t have all the data all at
once. The challenge for developers is
to decide what data to leave out or
reserve for the laptop or desktop, and to
set user expectations accordingly.


Successful apps must provide a r
obust, compelling, “to the point” experience. To do this, apps
are reshaping the user experience through engagement, context and new modalities.


Systems of Engagement


People often equate the user experience with the user interface, but the user experien
ce is a much
broader concept centered around
engagement
. Systems of engagement (Forrester)
help people
make decisions

and act immediately

based on their current situation. Systems of engagement
encompass elements like location, identity, social connections, payments, real
-
time business
intelligence, data
-
driven offering
s and smart products
.
6

In contrast to systems of record, which
are about

processes and data, systems of engagement are about people. The MyGov

initiative to
create a mobile app that
personalizes information and services from the U.S. government for
Figure X.

Towards t
he Ultimate User Experience



Key
trends towards the ultimate user experience are
the evolution of smaller portable devices with greater
storage, memory and processing power; new
modalities enabled by commoditized sensors on these
devices; and richer apps made possible by these new
capabil
ities.


Source: CSC

App rEvolution

11 April 2013

CSC
Office of Innovation Technology Program


Erika Olimpiew,
eolimpiew@csc.com



©

2013

Computer Sciences Corporation. All Rights

Reserved.

6

individual citizens is an example, designed to “reimagine the relationship betw
een the federal
government and its citizens.”
7



CSC’s
prototype
Honda app reimagines the relationship between car buyers and car dealers. No
longer
do

buyers need to go to a dealership to pick out a car; instead, they
can

use their mobile
device to view
current data showing in
-
stock vehicles they can purchase. They can select and
configure the car, schedule an appointment for a test drive, and arrange financing. Once the car is
purchased, a “customer for life” aspect comes into play. The car
issues

live
status reports to the
buyer on its health (e.g., oil and tire pressure), service reminders, and the latest deals near the
buyer.
The app provides an end
-
to
-
end customer experience, from sales to service to
personalized promotions, that enables Honda deale
rs to maximize their relationship with the
customer rather than having it end when the car is purchased. It also fosters relationships
between car buyers through links to social networks. (See Connected Car in the Apps
Everywhere chapter.) [
review with
S
imon/
MCAP group


Other systems of engagement leverage the importance of capturing data “in situ” for faster
results, such as mobile apps for on
-
site
data capture for water quality testing, food and drug
safety
testing

(FDA) or

identity verification (
US Cit
izen and Immigration Services)
. Field
workers can use tablets to capture data on the spot and send it right away to back
-
end database
and collaboration systems. The U.S. Forest Service has piloted using an iPad app to capture
terrain data about wildfires
with videos and pictures, tag it with location information, and share
this information with colleagues.
Data is captured by people on the ground and put into a map,
which is then

analyzed to show the extent of the

fire.
T
he map is used to dete
rmine where

to
send air patrols

and the size of the air drops.
A

version of the map
can also be accessed by the

public

to understand the fire’s movement, level of destruction and evacuation plans.
8

The app is
about immediacy and providing information from (and to)
harsh environments in order to keep
people safe and respond quickly to a rapidly unfolding incident.


Mobile apps are appearing in the heart of the enterprise. What began as mobile enablement of
horizontal processes such as e
-
mail and collaboration has e
volved to mobile systems of
engagement for core business
processes. Long term, the App
rE
volution
will bring

us closer to
the central nervous system of the
organization,

with even tighter integration with business
process
es and user context.


Context


Context is key for systems of engagement.
Context
-
aware apps enable a tighter, more
personalized integration between the user and the
business process.


Co
ntext is information that answers the who,
what, when, where and why of a situation. An
app that is context
-
aware adapts its presentation
and content depending on its location, people and
objects nearby, accessible devices, and changes

Figure X. Context
gives

meaning to events
,
yielding an individual experience
.


Source: CSC

App rEvolution

11 April 2013

CSC
Office of Innovation Technology Program


Erika Olimpiew,
eolimpiew@csc.com



©

2013

Computer Sciences Corporation. All Rights

Reserved.

7

to all these things
over time.
9

Context
-
aware apps are being embedded in appliances, vehicles,
homes,

handheld devices, and even the human body, gathering, processing and acting on
information in context. Important examples of enhancing engagement through context revolve
arou
nd identity, place, belonging, having fun and “keeping it real.”


A Sense of Identity
. Windows 8 employs context to make information more useful. Instead of
showing a contact list, Windows 8 uses a “People” tile to display a variety of information about
a
person such as contact information, Facebook and Twitter feeds and photos. The user is not
thinking about “using the Facebook app” or “using the Twitter app” but rather contacting
someone. The data is presented in the context of the person being contacte
d. The user can
further personalize this information by choosing which feeds to enable, and which ringtones and
additional information to associate with the contact. [
Win8 People tile pic
]


A
example of a context
-
aware app that adapts based on a person’s

identity and activity is CSC’s
ConfidentID Mobile security solution. Built on Daon’s Identity X platform, ConfidentID Mobile
uses multi
-
factor biometric authentication that can be adjusted based on transaction risk (e.g.,
withdrawing $5 requires a PIN but

withdrawing $5,000 requires facial verification).
ConfidentID Mobile combines PIN/password; face, voic
e and palm recognition; and
location to
provide stronger security for riskier transactions. It
leverages context


who is using the device,
where, for w
hat kind of transaction


and
takes advantage of the built
-
in capabilities of smart
devices
so that

costly biometric equipment
is not needed
.


A Sense of Place
.
Where you are and what is near you are critical pieces of context.
NewAer

provides a
“proximity platform” for smartphones and

table
ts that
senses nearby devices and takes
specific actions. Through
the company’s

ToothTag app, users configure their mobile device to
do a specific activity when a certain
“tagged”
device or person is in range.

This activity could be
dropping a pin on a virtual map,
sending

an alert or checking in
to

a social network.
For
example, u
sers

can

have

the app
automatically drop a pin on a map once the
ir

car is parked, so
they always know where their car is. Or,
the

app could
alert you when a friend is nearby or
check you in to a favorite location upon arrival. The idea is to trigger activities just by walking
around.

(
The app works over WiFi, Bluetooth and NFC.
)

NewAer’s vision is that when you
walk into a venu
e, your phone
shows you all your friends nearby and even people you should
meet based on social network recommendations, dating profiles and other data about you.
10

[
more on place
]


A Sense of Belonging
.
Another way to put information in context is to sha
re it with others


hence the proliferation of buttons today for linking digital content to Facebook, Twitter,
LinkedIn and other social media. That proliferation extends to the TV, where viewers can
connect with others through social apps right from the T
V. Or, they can do so from their
smartphone or tablet


the “second screen”


while watching TV. These
second screen
s

can be

used for interactive ads,
voting

and other engagement. For example, the Shazam app
has
evolved from
a music tagging service
to a T
V ad and video tagging service
on the second screen
for high
-
profile events. D
uring the
2012 U.S. Super Bowl,

viewers used
Shazam to tag TV ads
and events to unlock extra content, get additional statistics about the game, and enter contests,
among other t
hings
.
11

A marketing study found that the Shazam app boosted TV ad recall and
user engagement with the advertiser via Twitter and Facebook
.
12

App rEvolution

11 April 2013

CSC
Office of Innovation Technology Program


Erika Olimpiew,
eolimpiew@csc.com



©

2013

Computer Sciences Corporation. All Rights

Reserved.

8


Crowd
-
sourcing apps are also about belonging and engagement. Waze is a crowd
-
sourcing
traffic app that lets you s
ee where the traffic jams are based data collected from other Waze users
about their location and traffic hazards they encounter as they drive. Waze reroutes you when
there is a traffic jam, and makes it fun to use (despite the traffic) with its points an
d badges.
[
check
]


A Sense of Fun
.
If you can turn work (including checking traffic) into fun, you’ve got a recipe
for success. Business applications presented in the context of a game can

increase user
engagement. This is the essence of gamification: using game elements like points, badges and
rewards in a non
-
game environment to boost productivity and participation. Earning rewards by
checking into places with Foursquare is one example.

Another example, in the enterprise, is
CSC’s C3 collaboration environment, where users earn points and badges by creating content,
answering questions, and interacting with content posted by others. Because C3 is designed to
facilitate knowledge
-
sharing

across a large, globally distributed company, employee
participation is key to its success; making it fun to participate helps make C3 more effective. [
get
screen shot
]

[Sidebar] Context
-
Aware App Design


Context
-
aware apps require flexible development processes that focus on context,
in contrast to rigid processes that focus on data. Context is always changing, and
it is impossible to predict all

contexts in which an app will be used. In order to
execute “anywhere, anytime, on any device,” context
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Context
-
Aware Apps

Traditional Applications

Dynamic user context

Static user context

Variety of inputs (touch, voice, camera,
location) and outputs (screen display,
vibration, sound)

Limited input
(keyboard and mouse) and
output (monitor display)

Distributed, partial view of data integrated
with user context

Consolidated, comprehensive view of data
independent of user context

Multiple communication interfaces,
sporadic connectivity, always with
the user

Regular, fixed communication interface;
constant connectivity; not with the user
(user goes to it)

Resource constrained

Not resource constrained

Greater variety of device types and
platforms

Limited variety of device types and
platforms

More cu
stomization of user

preferences

Less customization of user preferences

Source: CSC

App rEvolution

11 April 2013

CSC
Office of Innovation Technology Program


Erika Olimpiew,
eolimpiew@csc.com



©

2013

Computer Sciences Corporation. All Rights

Reserved.

9



A Sense of Reality
.
If information is presented in context, people are much more en
gaged
because the information makes more sense than if presented in a vacuum. Augmented reality
(AR) presents digital information in the context of a real
-
world setting, overlaying the digital
world onto images or views of the physical world. For example
, AR mobile apps can overlay
store specials on top of supermarket buildings, navigation markers on roadways or housing
prices on homes for sale.


AR information can be personalized based on the user’s characteristics and preferences. For
example, the Wikitude AR mobile browser overlays information about businesses
and other
Wikitude users on the user’s camera view. Users can create their own AR wo
rld in Wikitude by
selecting favorite businesses, such as restaurants, and then share this world with others via
Facebook.


AR apps, still emerging, can be used on construction sites (see what a finished building or part
will look like as shown in Figure X
), in disaster assessments (see what the original setting looked
like), for inventory management (view information about an object or a crate of goods)

and in
healthcare (superimpose an MRI image that shows cancer on a live image to guide a biopsy)
.
CSC ha
s developed a prototype Asset Manger AR app that scans real world objects and
barcodes, looks up the scanned item in a database, and displays information about the item, such
as description, owner and status. [
get screen shot
] Another CSC AR app prototyp
e, MyFlights,
scans a 2D barcode on a boarding pass and displays flight number, status and departing gate
overlaid on a live camera view. Industries including defense and mining have been exploring
AR for some time, for use in
xxx
. [
ask Richard Brown for
an example of a defense application
--
richard.b.brown@nasa.gov
]



Figure X.
A construction crew member uses a tablet equipped with AR software to visualize
how

a
complex
set of stairs will
fit
.
Source
XXX

[Richard Brown ppt]


On the horizon for AR are improving

the accuracy of augmentations (particularly important for
construction and engineering
apps) and donning a new form
factor, glasses. AR glasses are in
the works at Google, Apple and
Figure X.
Googl
e’s project
Glass
, in
development, merges computing activities and data with the
real world in a hands
-
free way.

[
https://plus.google.com/+projectglass/posts

]

App rEvolution

11 April 2013

CSC
Office of Innovation Technology Program


Erika Olimpiew,
eolimpiew@csc.com



©

2013

Computer Sciences Corporation. All Rights

Reserved.

10

Microsoft. Although they may take time to get used to, they could move A
R into the mainstream
with their hands
-
free convenience. (See Figure X.)


New Modalities


AR glasses, a form of wearable computer, emphasize the importance of convenience and
ubiquity


a transparent, “always with you” user interface. Microsoft Research
calls it “always
available” interfaces, which enable you to shift between mobile device (computer) and real
-
world activity as easily as you shift your visual attention.
13


The user interface


how people interact with computers


continues to evolve and sha
pe the user
experience. The mainstay mouse and keyboard have expanded to include touch, popularized by
mobile devices, and voice, still emerging but also brought to the mainstream through mobile
devices. Today, new modes of interaction focus on natural use
r interfaces such as gesture, tactile
feedback, and human physiology. IBM predicts that by 2018, computers will be able to see,
tough, hear, taste and smell.
14

In addition, “natural” extends to displays that are more natural
,
such as wrist watches, tables a
nd walls



i.e.
,
surfaces in ordinary things
.
As these new modes
mature and push the boundaries of how people interact with apps, apps are becoming more
useful and versatile. The user experience is changing profoundly. (See Figure X.)





Figure X.
Evol
ution of Modalities

[
remove Google Glass and Mixed Reality since positioned under Context? add Ringbow picture, shown
at top
?]

[needs permission
]


Natural user interfaces (NUIs) are interactions that are effortless, transparent and contextual. A
NUI is perceived to be invisible and uses input that is natural or from nature


for example, voice
or gesture instead of a typed command.
Smartphones are b
rining voice into the mainstream,
such as with Apple’s Siri and Google Voice.
Samsung’s top
-
of
-
the
-
line smart TV incorporates
voice and gesture, showing them breaking into the market. Intelligent online assistants, described
in the LEF’s
Digital Disruption
s

report back in 2008, are also making progress.


Indisys
(Intelligent Dialogue Systems) creates
natural language and intelligent conversation
technology fo
r automated assistants and more
.

The technology uses

voice or

typed
chat
as input
App rEvolution

11 April 2013

CSC
Office of Innovation Technology Program


Erika Olimpiew,
eolimpiew@csc.com



©

2013

Computer Sciences Corporation. All Rights

Reserved.

11

and is b
ased on
advanced AI and cognitive science strategies.

The virtual assistants look almost
real (near
-
photographic quality) and have a range of facial
expressions so the
y can empathize with the user and offer a lifelike

conversational experience
.

(See Figure X.)


While gesture has been around for some time in video games (e.g
.,
Nintendo Wii and Microsoft Xbox Kinect), it is early days for non
-
game environments. The Kinect Accelerator program, for one,
aims to change that by seeding entrepreneurial development of
Kinect applications for Windows PCs. Examples include facilitati
ng
physical therapy, monitoring retail behavior and navigating MRI
and CT scans in the operating room.
15

Other burgeoning examples
are Samsung’s Smart Interaction TV interface, which is like Kinect
for TV;
16

the Leap Motion controller, a breakthrough device
that
enables people to use hand and finger gestures to interact with a
laptop (see Figure X); and specialized gloves, called Enable Talk,
that enable sign language gestures
to be translated into speech via a
smartphone app.
17

Further along is
gesture in car
s, to manipulate apps
and controls on the dashboard
with hand motions or even open
the trunk with a foot motion, for
example when carrying
groceries.
18

Then there is Myo, an
armband that leverages the
electrical energy in your muscles to control the digital

world
through gesture.
19


In addition to using motion as input from the user, motion can
be used as output by the computer. Such tactile feedback, or
haptics, includes vibrations and forces. Tactile feedback has
existed in video game controllers, joystic
ks and steering wheels
for some time
20

and is at work when you set your smartphone
to “vibrate” or receive touch confirmation from pressing a
keypad or button. Haptics can aid robotic surgery, providing tactile and resistance feedback to
surgeons as they o
perate.


Haptics makes a virtual experience seem more physical and real, enhancing context,
engagement, understanding


and thus execution


of a task.
21

Drivers receiving tactile feedback
from a car infotainment system can keep their ey
es on the road.
Smartphone users may be less
likely to make errors using a haptic keyboard and may be more engaged with a game or other
app that has haptic features. When haptics is added to mobile video, an area of research, video
content is rated 10 percent higher (on a
verage) and is associated with a higher emotional
response to the content, which may be linked to better recall rates and persuasiveness of the
content.
22



Figure X. With the Leap
Motion controller (pictured in
front of the monitor’s base),
people can use hand and
finger
gestures, such as
pinch and xxx, to interact with
their computer.


Source: Leap Motion

[needs
permission]
https://www.leapmotion.com/product



Virtual assistant
s use
natural language as input
(typed or spoken).


Source: Indisys [
needs
permission and high
-
quality
image
]

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©

2013

Computer Sciences Corporation. All Rights

Reserved.

12


A study by Immersive found that people
want haptics on their smartphones, and
haptics such
as typing sensations can be
a key selling feature.
23

The study
reported that having customizable
haptics (e.g., soft, hard, electric) for the
keyboard is a useful feature.
24

Another
useful feature is “expressive alerts”


using haptics to personalize alert
s,
particularly helpful when you can’t use
the volume and you want to know if an
alert is business or personal.
25

Other
applications of haptics are as a
communication aid to deaf or visually
impaired individuals, or in situations
when the sense of vision c
annot be fully
utilized, as when driving a car, for
example. Automotive companies like
Cadillac, Hyundai, Lexus and Visteon
have incorporated haptics feedback into
in
-
vehicle infotainment systems and
steering wheels. (See Figure X.)


O
ne company provid
ing
advanced

technology

in this arena

is Tactus

Technology
. Its technology

can
raise areas on a glass screen

dynamically
, be they

bumps on an in
-
vehicle touch

screen or
keys on a tablet keyboard.
It is more than a feedback technology, as the bumps are ph
ysical and
can be pressed to enter data. The bumps revert to a flat screen when the user is finished.


For the ultimate in invisible interactions,
new
modalities are directly tapping human
physiology. Consider smart contact lenses
that monitor internal eyeball pressure to
help diagnose glaucoma (limited
availability from Sensimed) or that
monitor blood glucose levels for diabetics
(in development at Mic
rosoft Research
Connections and the University of
Washington, and at Rutgers University).
26

The continuous monitoring from the lens
is more thorough and less invasive than
traditional procedures, improving health and quality of
life.


Other areas of research include harnessing emotions
(affective com
puting), brain waves, eye movement and

Smart contact lenses
monitor
glucose levels
(
left
) and

eye pressure
(right) as non
-
invasive healthcare
devices.


Source:
http://www.ece.rutgers.edu/node/665

(left),
http://www.st.com/internet/com/press_releases/t2485.jsp

(right)


This headset read
s brain waves for

controlling a computer display, so you
can think about moving the cursor and
it happens on screen.


Source: Emotiv
Life Sciences

[need
original
source; this from
http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/national/new
-
headset
-
that
-
can
-
hack
-
into
-
human
-
brains
-
cost
-
184/story
-
fndo48ca
-
1226457435660

]

Figure X.


The

Cadillac User Experience (CUE) infotainment
system uses haptics to aid drivers.

For example, buttons
pulse when pressed to confirm that a command is being
carried out, so drivers can keep their eyes on the road.
CUE also senses motion, lighting up icons as your hand
approaches the screen.


Source: Immersion Corporation [
get
image
from Cadillac?]

[

http://www.immersion.com/markets/automotive/products/index.html

]

App rEvolution

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©

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Computer Sciences Corporation. All Rights

Reserved.

13

even skin to interact with computers.
M
a
chine Perception Technologies
applies machine learning
to

facial expression to
better understand

human emotions and behavior.

(One if its first
applications was smile detection technology for Sony cameras.)
The idea is to have machines
learn to understand us rather than us commanding them. [
review w/MPT
]
Emotiv Life Sciences

has created a headset that reads brainwaves, so when yo
u think something (e.g., lift), it happens
on the screen (e.g., an object elevates). The company is c
rowd
-
sourcing brain research
. People
could use brain waves
to

search, for example, or to rate a song they are listening to. A brain
-
controlled helicopter

by Puzzlebox aims to improve concentration and ultimately extend to
controlling other things, like the volume on a TV remote.
27



Or, imagine controlling something
through sight; researchers at Imperial
College London and at the University of
Copenhagen h
ave created technology that
lets you control a cursor with eye
movement.
28

Even human skin will be
able to interact with electronic devices;
for example, the palm of your hand could
be used to send commands.
29



Besides being able to infer emotional
states by sensing physiological traits,
apps are also able to express and
influence human emotions. Apps can
express emotion based on context using
sound tonality, v
isual effects, ambient
lighting

and haptics. In

the auto industry,
prototype vehicles have already been developed to express emotions using some of these
techniques. For example, Nissan’s prototype vehicle shows emotions using animatronics and a
flexible material that changes shape to emulate a smile o
r frown
;
30

other vehicle manufacturers
use ambient lighting to influence
the driver
’s mood, express the state of the vehicle (e.g.
unlocked, starting, ready to go, malfunction)
, define the brand

or
make a fashion statement
.
31


Some challenge the notion of NU
Is, saying that an interface that is too simple potentially stunts
learning, and that a complex world demands tools that we invest some effort in learning to use,
just as we had to learn to read.
32

However, as devices shrink and apps are embedded in all
ma
nner of things, from smartphones to sedans to store shelves, natural interfaces will be
imperative. Samsung’s Galaxy S 4 smartphone, released in March 2013 with gesture, eye gaze
and motion input, is a harbinger of things to come.


Together, multi modal NU
Is, context
-
aware apps, and systems of engagement are able to deliver
a unique, personalized user experience for each person at any moment in time. Perhaps one day,
these apps will truly become part of us.
A
s Microsoft researchers write, “...
always
-
availab
le
interfaces have the potential to blur the line between an

application


and a

sense

, yielding what
we might refer to as a “super
-
human” experience. In the future, carefully
-
designed, always
-

Figure X. Eye
gaze
as UI to control
the cursor


Source:
Gaze Group

at the IT University of Copenhagen
[needs
permission]

http://www.npr.org/blogs/alltechconsidered/2012/12/03/166244876/in
-
eye
-
control
-
a
-
promise
-
to
-
let
-
your
-
tablet
-
go
-
hands
-
fre
e


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Reserved.

14

available technologies might give us access to 100 kHz hearin
g, infrared to ultraviolet vision,
and magnetic and electric field perception.”
33


Somewhere I
nsert
:

--
CSC
-
EMC examples of UX (CSC is customer). (CSC manages several hundred applications
for them out of India.) [PG]





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15

Apps Everywhere

Computers

are everywhere and apps run everything.


Look around: apps are everywhere. The Internet of Things, long imagined, is taking shape as
computers and apps populate cars, TVs, refrigerators, ovens, thermostats, luggage, signs,
vending machines and other eve
ryday things. (See Figure X.) As the physical world “wakes up”
and gets online, to paraphrase the Cisco ad: the next big thing isn’t a thing at all but the
connection of things, yielding a smarter world. GE calls it the Industrial Internet, born of the
Ind
ustrial Revolution and the Internet Revolution and ushering in huge potential gains in
productivity as machines, computing, connectivity and analytics converge.
34



Figure X.
Apps in

Everyday Thing
s

[need picture sources]


Whether you call it the Industrial Internet, Internet of Things, Machine
-
to
-
Machine (M2M),
cyber
-
physical systems or Web 3.0, apps everywhere is not only about productivity but about
entertainment, efficiency, convenience, peace of mind and well being. It
is about changing how
businesses operate and how people run their lives. Apps everywhere is about changing
everything.


A world of apps everywhere assumes an underlying network unifying everything



a network of
things
. (
See Figure X.)
In 2013 over
five billion standards
-
based wireless connectivity chips will
be shipped, connecting all manner of things to other things and to the Internet; there will be over
10 billion Bluetooth
-
enabled devices in 2013 and over 10 billion Wi
-
Fi
-
enabled devices in
2015
.
35

Chips and apps in objects and things enable
interoperability
with
formerly closed
systems
, such as in
-
vehicle information systems in the connected car, entertainment systems and
appliances in the connected home, wearable sensors in the connected person,

and parts and heavy
machinery in the connected industry. These interconnected things, either person
-
to
-
thing or
thing
-
to
-
thing (machine
-
to
-
machine), will become part of a connected, smart infrastructure that
broadens and deepens as standards take hold an
d more things are connected in more ways.


Connected Car

[need picture]


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16

A prime example of the richness and potential of things connecting to both people and other
things is the car. The connected car has implications for in
-
vehicle entertainment and
in
formation, safety, diagnostics, marketing and sales. Not only does the consumer benefit, but so
does the car manufacturer, dealer, financer and insurer.


Today people want personalized access to apps, music, books, news and video from any device
at any ti
me. The car is just one more device


some call it “the ultimate mobile device”
36



and
the in
-
vehicle infotainment (IVI) system serves the content to a captive audience, which is why
the dashboard has become such a hot property. While dashboard apps for mu
sic, navigation,
news and nearby restaurants provide enjoyment and convenience for drivers, ads for nearby
promotions provide new business opportunities for marketers. Given the increasingly connected
consumer, digital services that were once confined to h
igh
-
end models only will gradually
become commonplace in most if not all cars.


Several auto manufacturers including Audi, Ford (Sync), Toyota (Entune) and Daimler
(COMAND Online) are
adopting

open standards such as
HTML 5

to facilitate interoperability

between IVIs, the Web, mobile devices and app stores. In a move reminiscent of Apple, Ford
(Sync AppLink) and General Motors are reaching out to third
-
party developers to write apps for
their vehicles


an automotive first. Apps must be certified, as car
apps face stringent safety
requirements, but tapping a broad developer community should lead to innovation and underlies
the importance of apps in this new mobile market. QNX, a platform provider, has seized on the
opportunity of developing an open platfor
m for the connected car. QNX platform 2.0 will
feature interfaces for smartphone integration, 3D navigation, voice, physical and touch control,
cloud connectivity and even video conferencing.
37

(BlackBerry 10 is based on QNX and being
positioned for M2M a
pps such as automotive, home and healthcare, in an effort to expand
beyond the consumer smartphone market.
38
)


In addition to connecting to people, cars are connecting to cars and other things on the road.
This is the essence of the self
-
driving car, which

senses distance between cars and objects in its
path and can operate itself without human intervention. Google, Toyota, Volvo, General Motors
and others have been working on self
-
driving cars in the name of safety and efficiency. Google’s
car has been a w
orking prototype for a few years, and now three states (Nevada, California and
Florida) allow self
-
driving cars on the road. A step towards self
-
driving cars are cars that park
themselves, which Audi debuted at the 2013 Consumer Electronics Show.
39

(Audi’s
technology
can find the empty parking spot also.) The vision behind the self
-
driving car is fewer accidents,
higher
-
capacity use of roads, fuel efficiency and convenience. Many complicated legal and
business issues must be settled, however, before driver
assistance technology is
commercialized.
40

Who is liable in an accident? Should software updates be automatically
pushed by the car maker or left to the driver? Can the car legally drive itself without anyone in
it?


Whether or not the self
-
driving car e
ver moves from prototype to production, the connected car
is alive and well (and growing) in sales and service. CSC created a prototype iPad app for
Honda that lets people buy a Honda online and specify features, receive notifications about the
car’s heal
th (e.g., low tire pressure or fluids), get reminders about scheduled maintenance (e.g.,
in 4,000 miles or 90 days) and book service appointments online. Behind the scenes, the app
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17

connects with Salesforce and ties to the car’s “black box” ECU unit for th
e car health data,
location data and Honda promotions.
The app also
integrates with

social media (Facebook,
Twitter, LinkedIn) so the buyer can connect with others who have purchased similar cars
.
[
review w/
Simon
/MCAP

& get picture
] In the future, it is not hard to imagine uniting online car
-
buying
with 3D printing to produce customized cars at the point of purchase, the 3D printer
being just another connected thing on the network.



SIDEBAR:
Connected Parking Lot


A twist on a car
finding an empty parking spot is the empty parking spot finding you. That is
what ReelyActive is essentially enabling but putting its cheap RFID tags and readers in San
Francisco parking lots. ReelyActive’s innovation is making the readers, typically too e
xpensive
for small businesses, as cheap as the tags. As ReelyActive told VentureBeat, “Schools and
churches in San Francisco would like to monetize their empty parking lots, but it’s not worth
bringing in a parking management company.”
41

Similarly, shops a
nd restaurants could provide
current status on available parking spaces in an effort to attract more customers.


The ReelyActive solution puts tags and readers on the ground and intelligence in the cloud,
enabling cheap apps that harness the data and brin
g an empty spot to you. [
how/clarify
]



Connected Home


The home is chock
-
full of things being
connected to the network. From the
lowly thermostat, made into a rock
star b
y Nest (See Figure X), to TVs,
refrigerators, washing machines,
ovens, doors, windows, mirrors, lights
and even luggage, dormant everyday
things are being infused with digital
life. There will be more device
diversity in the home than the office,
and pote
ntially many Internets of
Things as devices connect locally to
perform a specific set of tasks that
deliver convenience, efficiency and
peace of mind. These things may learn
our behaviors and make adjustments
over time, a hallmark of the Nest
thermostat. A

key question at this
intersection of machine learning and
human learning, says Yuky
Matsuoka
,
vice president of technology at Nest,
is deciding how much the technology




Figure X. The Nest smart thermostat lets you control your
thermostat from a smartphone app, which reports settings
(top) and
usage

(bottom).

The Nest system learns your
behavior, such as when you get up each morning or when
you are away, and adjusts the temperature accordingly.

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18

should do versus the person since “we have to get along with the technology” but we kno
w that
technology is capable of doing a lot for us.
42

[
review w/ Matsuoka
]


Interactive Couch Potato.

Certainly the connected TV is the hallmark of convenience. TVs are
morphing into multipurpose devices as content is delivered over the Internet along with a
plethora of apps and access to social media. (See Figure X.) The result is a customized media
e
xperience that looks very different from the one
-
size
-
fits
-
all broadcast experience of yore.


While the quest for better resolution carries on
(do we really need 4K or
four
-
times
-
better
resolution than 1080p full HD?), the real action
is in integrated online content. From your TV
access content such as movies, photos and music
from your personal devices or the Internet (e.g.,
WD TV media player, Roku, Apple TV, Google
TV
, smart TVs from Samsung and LG). Stream
movies from Netflix or Vudu and comment
about them on Facebook or Twitter right from
the TV. HuffPost Live, an iPad app, lets
viewers watch Huffington Post video content
and post comments live


even from the TV
s
creen if you have Apple TV.


These boxes and apps give
consumer
s

a way to create their own
entertainment

experience
,
breaking out of the narrower confines of cable and satellite TV to enable a customized, social,
all
-
in
-
one media experience.


Food Frenzy
. Offering both convenience and efficiency is the smart fridge that stocks not just
food but apps. Samsung’s smart refrigera
tor sports an 8
-
inch LCD screen with apps including a
notepad for shopping lists, Google Calendar, Pandora,
Twitter, Weather Bug, Epicurious recipes, Associated
Press news, Picasa photos and an app for controlling
fridge temperature, ice dispensing and mor
e.
43

LG’s
refrigerators with Smart ThinQ technology also have
an 8
-
inch LCD screen that can tell you what food is
inside, what food is about to expire, and even what
food you need to buy for a certain recipe.
44

All this
(and more) can be access from a smart
phone app (LG
Smart Refrigerator) so you can check the refrigerator
from the grocery store.


Refrigerators join a parade of home appliances that can
be managed with apps, including ovens, washers and
dryers. (See Figure X.) While still somewhat a
novelty,
these smart appliances with apps can enable
self
-
diagnostics without requiring a service call (e.g.,

Figure X.
LG’s smart refrigerator let
s

consumers select a recipe and send
cooki
ng settings to LG’s smart
oven.

[
check
]

http://www.smh.com.au/digital
-
life/hometech/lg
-
smart
-
fridge
-
tells
-
you
-
what
-
to
-
buy
-
cook
-
and
-
eat
-
20120110
-
1ps9z.html

]





Figure X.
TVs and computers merge at
Internet
-
connected apps and digital content.

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19

LG Smart Range
45
) and peace of mind from being able to check, from the office, that the oven is
turned off.


Find

Things.

Other apps that offer peace of mind are apps that find missing things. With
sensors and chips inside them, things can
report on their whereabouts and status to an
app, much like the “find my phone” feature
on a smartphone. One example is Trakdot,
a lugga
ge finder app. Air travelers put a
device in their checked bag that reports
back to them via e
-
mail, text message or
the Trakdot app with the luggage’s
location. If a bag gets lost, the traveler at
least knows what city it is in. Trakdot will
also tell t
he traveler where the bag is as it
approaches the baggage claim carousel.
(See Figure X.)


Trakdot uses the cellular network plus a
special GSM chip and triangulation
(instead of GPS) to conserve battery power, important for luggage on a long trip.
46

Whe
reas
early “finder” applications were for children and pets, the fact that we can now find our luggage
for about $50 and an annual fee is one more sign that apps are going everywhere.



SIDEBAR: Connecting Everything to Each Other


The total is greater tha
n the sum of the parts, and nowhere is this more true than in the connected
home. The power of the connected home comes from connecting everything to each other using
open standards, cheap sensors, pervasive home Wi
-
Fi and ubiquitous smartphone apps. Home
automation systems that were expensive, proprietary, closed and for the affluent are giving way
to inexpensive, standards
-
based, open systems that target everyday consumers. Companies such
as SmartThings, Ube and Microsoft are showing the way.


SmartThings and Ube provide open wireless platforms for connecting things to the Internet and
controlling them via a smartphone app. Both companies are charter members of the Internet of
Things Consortium, which is pushing for open standards and methods s
o that things can easily
communicate with each other.
47


SmartThings’ system, expected to launch in 2013, connects things
such as doors (open or close),
power outlets (on or off), motion sensors and presence detectors.

SmartThings uses a wireless
hub that l
inks to sensors strewn around the home, and the entire system can be controlled
through an Apple or Android smartphone app.
48

Because the platform is open to developers, the
possibilities for connecting things to it are endless.



Figure X.
The Trakdot tracking device goe
s inside
airport luggage and reports the luggage’s location
via e
-
mail, text message or app, so travelers know if
their bag has missed the flight or when their bag is
approaching the baggage claim carousel.



Source: XXX [
needs permission
]
http://maxborgesagency.com/press/trakdottm
-
luggage
-
delivers
-
peace
-
of
-
mind
-
to
-
travelers
-
with
-
affordable
-
real
-
time
-
airp
ort
-
baggage
-
tracking

/

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20

Ube also turns an Apple or

Android smartphone into central command, linking any IP
-
enabled
devices in the home. In addition to connecting already
-
IP
-
enabled devices like TVs, Ube has
initially announced three IP
-
enabled devices: power outlets, light dimmers and plugs. Its app
inco
rporates gesture,
so you can swipe up or down to change a TV channel or use a dialing
motion to adjust volume. But the real power comes from eventually connecting multiple things,
so that when your smart scale says you’ve gained weight, it will see that yo
u’ve been watching
more TV and spending less time on the treadmill and
suggest that you get moving.
49


Microsoft, with its acquisition of id8 Group R2
Studios, is potentially taking a different approach.
Instead of creating a free
-
standing app, it can
integrate at the operating
system level


i.e.,
Windows as a platform


and make home
automation a core service like location or social,
drawing on all the contextual information in the
smartphone, for example, to detect patterns and
inform home automation activities.
50

Microsoft
could deploy this across phones, tablets, laptops and
Xbox. As TechCrunch noted, “Software that can control home automation and remote triggering
of in
-
home events, built into Windows on mobile, desktop and into Xbox, could go a long way
toward extending t
he paradigm of the constantly connected mobile consumer.”
51


With connectivity at the edge, central command that is mobile, and integration across things,
platforms for the connected home make us more efficient and let us


both experts and non
-
experts


ex
pand our home networks easily as needs and devices change.



Connected
(
Healthy
)

Person


Apps that monitor health have become popular as a way to promote wellness, de
tect problems
earlier, and take health management literally into our own hands. The LEF reported on this trend
in “The Future of Healthcare: It’s Health, Then Care”
52

in 2010; as populations age and people
seek ways to control healthcare costs and combat a

shortage of doctors and nurses, the trend
continues in full swing, backed by the proliferation of smartphones and cheap sensors.


Researchers are working on transforming the smartphone
into a mobile medical device that can take readings from
a patient and

diagnose a condition, akin to the medical
tricorder in the “Star Trek” TV series.
53

The best
example is Scanadu’s Scout, a device you hold up to
your temple that measures your heart rate, blood oxygen
level, pulse, electrical heart activity (ECG) and body
temperature and communicates this to a smartphone app.
(See Figure X.) The Scout, expected to be released in
2013, may one day be able to tell if you have the flu or

Figure X. Scanadu’s Scout
measures

vital signs and reports
them to a smartphone app.


Source: Scanadu [
needs permission
]

http://reviews.cnet.com/biometric
-
devices/scanadu
-
scout/4505
-
3506_7
-
35567911.html



This smart plug
, due out in 2013,

lets you
turn on and off

any appliance you plug
into it
, and monitor energy consumption,
from your smartphone.


Sour
ce: Ube [
needs permission
]

http://myube.co/


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21

strep, as researchers are working on tests that check upper
-
respiratory conditions (in ad
dition to
other tests).


The idea is not to replace doctors but augment them, shifting care to consumers as is practical.
Regulation will be an issue, but trends point towards more consumer
-
controlled care. Other new
apps
-
devices that attach to
smartphones include an ulstrasound device (MobiSante), a blood
glucose monitoring device (iBGStar), and an otoscope, the device that looks inside the ear
(CellScope). (See Figure X.) There are also apps that leverage the smartphone’s camera to
examine, tho
ugh not officially diagnose,
potentially cancerous moles.
54


And technology can go deeper than that.
The U.S. military is developing
implantable nanochips for troops that
would report their health status in real
time from the battlefield, potentially
decrea
sing preventable illnesses through
earlier detection, and one day even
treating them.
55
On the civilian side,
researchers have created

a sensor the size
of a

grain of sand that can be injected in
the blood and

send
alerts to a person’s

smartphone
when a warn
ing sign is
detected, such as being at risk for a heart
attack.


Describing this, c
ardiologist and medical visionary Dr. Eric Topol

told NBC
, “Having your body
under continuous surveillance, talking to your phone


that’s the future of medicine.”
56

In thi
s
vision of wireless medicine, doctors may prescribe more apps than medications (as Dr. Topol
attests). Patients take charge of their care, monitoring themselves and reporting conditions to
their doctors. Says Dr. Topol:
“The patient of tomorrow is the big
gest switch. People need to
take ownership. They need to seize the moment and seize the data. The new medicine is plugged
in to you. It’s understanding
you
, which we’ve never really done before. And you drive i
t.
You’ve got the data...

that you’ve never ha
d before.”
57


Connected Industry


Connected cars, homes and people all build towards a sweeping vision of connected industry.
As industrial things and traditional (closed) embedded systems connect into broader systems, the
payoff will be significant. GE fo
recasts that the Industrial Internet can cut $150 billion in waste
assuming just a one percent improvement in efficiency in major industries such as rail, aviation,
energy and healthcare.
58

With more things instrumented and their data analyzed, the result i
s
improved productivity, efficiency and work experience, magnified significantly across the global
economy. This is about replacing parts based on data from the part, not a schedule; about more
efficient routing of fleets; about smarter energy production a
nd consumption; about integrated,

Figure X. CellScope's otoscope clips to a smartphone
and helps save time by enabling doctors to diagnose
and treat ear infections remotely based on images
transmitted by the parent. Source: CellScope [
needs
permission
]

http://www.economist.com/news/technology
-
quarterly/21567208
-
medical
-
technology
-
hand
-
held
-
diagnostic
-
device
s
-
seen
-
star
-
trek
-
are
-
inspiring


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eolimpiew@csc.com



©

2013

Computer Sciences Corporation. All Rights

Reserved.

22

information
-
driven healthcare. Among other things, this translates into lower inventories, lower
fuel consumption, smarter allocation of resources, and better health outcomes at lower cost.


Networks and applications link
things at a system level and analyze multitudes of data for what
GE calls “intelligent decisioning.”
59

Infrastructure (data centers, networks, sensors), Internet
security (both networks and devices) and new talent (next
-
generation engineers such as “digital
-
mechanical engineers, data scientists and user interface experts) are key enablers.
60

And it is a
big, fast
-
moving market.
IDC predicts
that the market for intelligent s
ystems
(servers, PCs,
smartphones and embedded systems)
will double from more than 1.8
billion units and over $1
trillion in revenue
in 2011

to nearly 4 billion units and over $2 trillion in revenue in 2015.
61


One promising area is trains. As the GE report states, if instrumentation was applied to every
component in diesel
-
electric
locomotives globally, that would represent more than 2.2 million
rotating parts that could start reporting their status.
62

One potential benefit is energy savings from
more efficient utilization and maintenance of motors and rotating equipment.


P
eople on the trains can be “instrumented”
as well,
with apps
,

to enhance productivity.
A
t SNCF,
train drivers use a mobile app designed by CSC to
perform essential tasks such as checking
planned routes, driving trains and filing daily reports.

SNCF is als
o partnering with CSC for a
mobile enterprise social network (ESN) app so that drivers
in the field
can collaborate with
managers and staff

to solve problems quickly and effectively. In the past, problems were handled
via phone call and paper.

[
review w/C
hristophe
]


Amtrak has developed a suite of apps for passengers, conductors and maintenance workers. The
passenger app is for buying tickets, the conductor app is for scanning tickets and the maintenance
worker app is for scanning or photographing a probl
em and submitting a report. Through more
efficient data capture and real
-
time data reporting, one key benefit has been being able to realize
revenue faster since paper tickets no longer need to be mailed to a central office for processing.


Mining
is an
other promising area, where high degrees of automation and remote operations are
driving the industry’s focus on machine
-
to
-
machine (M2M) connectivity to improve
productivity, efficiency and safety. Rio Tinto’s “Mine of the Future” vision is a fully
auton
omous, remotely operated mine, leveraging sensing, robotics, machine learning, data fusion
and systems engineering.
63

Researchers are working on automation systems for drilling, loading
and haulage, which would be integrated into a broader mining automatio
n system. [
CSC work?
]
This notion of net
-
centric mining, with everything connected, has many similarities with net
-
centric warfare including interoperability of equipment and applications, mobility and remote
management.


In this world of M2M connectivit
y, Intel’s Intelligent Systems Framework offers an evolving set
of solutions that enable connectivity, manageability and security across devices. While the
benefits of M2M connectivity may seem obvious, doing it at scale is a challenge. A standard
framewo
rk helps address a fragmented market and helps companies leverage their machine
data.
64

Another player is Multi
-
Tech Systems, which provides solution
-
oriented M2M
connectivity (in contrast to device connectivity) in various vertical markets.


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23

Bosch is a maker of “things” and more recently a connector of them too. Bosch makes such
things as video cameras, coffee pots, solar cells, spark plugs and

navigation systems, and its
Bosch Software Innovations unit focuses on extending its product offerings with apps and
services, connecting things within and across industries. In its vision of the Internet of Things
and Services, new ecosystems
such as el
ectromobility

(energy
plus automotive) are possible.
Its Internet Application Platform
provides cloud services,
intelligent networking, data
management systems and
business process management for
linking and leveraging devices
via the Internet’s open
arch
itecture. In electromobility,
this platform is the basis of an
intelligent network of charging
stations, electric vehicles, fleet
operators, drivers and energy
providers.
65

(See Figure X.)


Smart cities and smart society is where it’s
all heading. (See Figure X.) This includes
everything from smart energy grids, smart
buildings a
nd smart infrastructure for street
lights, highways and signs to smart
supermarkets and smart vending machines.
China is investing heavily in the Internet of
Things and seeks to set, rather than follow,
standards.
66

It already has smart vending
machines that accept wireless payment from
a smartphone (NFC), and innovations in the
lab such as health capsules (booths) that link
patients to remote doctors and smart chairs
that sense and report your health data.
67


The
vision of Connected Industry is well
underway, though much work needs to be
done to realize the economic impact GE
predicts. M2M will power the 2016
Olympics in Brazil and was used in the 2012
Olympics in London to detect false starts, make payments (NFC)

and manage vehicle fleets,
among other things.
68

“Machine
-
to
-
Machine is the Internet of the future,” declares Siki Giunta,
vice president and general manager of cloud computing and software services at CSC.
69

“The
cloud is behind all these connected things
and their applications, which leverage big data at its
best. I’m really excited about the opportunities ahead.” [
needs approval
]


Figure X
. Electric cars are connected to charging stations and
back
-
end systems using Bosch’s Internet Application Platform.
Drivers register online, authenticate themselves via an RFID
card at the chart spot and start the charging process.
Interfaces with billin
g systems report the amount of energy
acquired. The charge spots can be remotely maintained.


Source: Bosch [
needs permission
]

http://www.bosch
-
si.com/media/en/bosch_software_innovations/documents/magazine/innovateit
.pdf
, p. 9


Figure X.
Apps will be in many new places
doing many new thin
gs as the Internet evolves
to connect not just people and things but
industry and society at large.


Source: CSC

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24


All About Apps


Apps everywhere is the other side of the coin of connected things. For consumers, many of the
new connected
things are pricey, though that should change over time. The bigger challenge to
adoption will likely be behavior change


using apps to perform a function in a new way. For
industry, the need for instrumentation, standards, business processes and innovati
ve products is
essential.


As headlines such as


Keep your gadgets, give me apps”
70

abound, it’s clear the Internet of

Things is
really
about apps


i
.
e
.
, what you can do with that connected thing.
People
crave tools
that provide greater efficiency and help

educate them to make a decision.

So p
eople will keep
pushing the envelope
on

what an app
, and a connected thing,

can do.




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25

DNA of Apps

Apps
diversify

the stack

and create new architectures
.


With the influx of devices and things being connected to the Internet,
tra
ditional application
development is changing. Mobile devices in the palm of our hands are as powerful as full
-
fledged computers, making this new breed of client


smartphones and tab
lets

a first class
citizen in the IT environment. Because these clients can take on the role of the server and more


a smartphone can function as an EKG machine, for example


many development platforms and
choices come into play. Add cloud services to
the mix and the result is a cornucopia of options
for how to put the IT stack to work for your particular need. Underlying this is the converged
network, which makes possible the transformation of the stack from well
-
structured and well
-
defined to somethi
ng more amorphous


and incredibly more useful.


“There are very strategic changes happening
to

the stack

that are driving profound change

in how
we architect, create and manage apps, and in what an app can ultimately do
,” says Paul
Gustafson, director of
the O
ffice of Innovation Technology P
rogram
.


These changes in stacks and architectures
parallel the evolution of web application development,
which began with custom, simple, document
-
centric architectures and transitioned into full
-
featured, modular, Web service
-
oriented architectures (See Figure X.)
Mobile apps are
expanding from simple We
b
-
centric apps to
more complex

apps that leverage device
features

such as

cameras as well as back
-
end
enterprise
systems for
rich
data.

Apps
will expand even further as they interact
with all manner of things connected to the
Internet.


Today, technology i
nnovation
is
driving a
host of best practices for development,
distribution and management of apps. New
tools and
techniques

are facilitating
integration with third
-
party apps and
services, distribution via app stores and, in
many cases, cross
-
device devel
opment.


IT leaders face many options and
challenges as the traditional IT stack, which
began breaking down with the advent of
virtualization and cloud, dissolves and diversifies further.
This chapter
explores

how the IT stack
is morphing into multiple
dimensions and the new architectures in play.


Multidimensional Stack


Figure 1.

Application

Architecture Evolution




Source: CSC

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26

To support an “any device, a
nytime,
anywhere” world, the traditional
app stack


the software
components, languages and tools
needed to deliver a functional
product or service


is morphing
from a one
-
dimensional desktop
-
centric stack into a
multidimensional cube that is a
mix
-
and
-
ma
tch of stacks along
three dimensions: device, cloud and
enterprise. (See Figure X.) This
multidimensional stack is being
built on the foundation of a
ubiquitous and more powerful
communication infrastructure,
efficient app and content delivery
models, and
open web standards.
Each
dimension is
also
influenced
by the particular stack
of the

vendors in that s
pace.


The result: context
-
aware, flexible
apps that can be dynamically reconfigured for multiple types of devices. Instead of being a fixed
part of a
single PC, today’s app can be device
-
agnostic and mutable, crossing traditional
boundaries between applications for web, mobile, PC and embedded devices. Figure X
highlights key features of this new world of app development.


FIGURE X. THE NEW W
ORLD OF AP
P DEVELOPMENT


Traditional

New

Implications

Architecture

PC
-
centric

Increasingly
device
agnostic

and mobile

Facilitates mobility,
BYOD

Application
Delivery

Over the LAN or with
installation CDs

Over the
a
ir

or

via app
stores

Enables self
-
service

anywhere anytime;
supports sma
ll rapid
updates rather
than a
few major updates

Web Page
Presentation

HTML, Applets, Flash
plugins

HTML5, JavaScript

Provides cross
-
platform
compatibility and
standardized access
to device camera,
video playback,
geolocation and
other device
features

Figure X.

Multidimensional Stack



Today’s multidimensional stack spreads software
components across devices, cloud and enterprise systems.


Source: CSC

Device Stack
Presentation (UX)
Local App
Local Data and
Middleware Libraries
Local Operating System
Enterprise Stack
Business
Process
Presentation
Application
Middleware
Operating
System
Server
Resource
Pool
Traditional
Stack
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27

Code Structure

Server does most of the
logic and data processing

C
lient and s
erver share
presentation, logic

and data
p
rocessing

Supports distributed
processing

Content Delivery

HTTP, FTP


WebSocket, HTTP Live
Streaming

Enables smooth
video and music
streaming on any
kind of device;
reduced network
traffic and latency

Data Exchange

XML, SOAP

JSON + RESTful Web
Services, NFC Data
Exchange Format

Transmits small
amounts of data
using lightweight
standards,
conserving device
resources (e.g.,
battery life)

Data
Format

Structured


Large amounts of
unstructured data

Supports user
-
generated content,
data
-
driven
analytics, social

Data Sync

and
Caching

Client
-
initiated
syncing of
data
; data resides on the
server, with minimal
caching on the client

Automatic, real
-
time

syncing of data
; larger
local data stores and
caching.

Enables the illusion
of always being
conne
cted

Infrastructure

Static

Elastic and

geographically
dispersed

Handles dema
n
d
spikes (or troughs)
smoothly;

pay as
you go rather than a
large up
-
front
investment


The
device
is the most visible if not important catalyst to changes in app
architecture.
Smartphones and tablets, packed with more processing power than any previous client
computing device, are shifting the technology pendulum back to a thick client computing model.
(See Figure X.) More processing can occur
on the device itself
, and device features like
cameras and GPS can be leveraged in ways
not possible in traditional desktop
computing. The new devices include not
just smartphones and tablets but TVs, car
infotainment systems, machines, machine
parts and traditional desktops.


Although many mobile devices can do
substantial processing on their own, many if
not most rely on accessing applications and
data in the cloud. The
cloud
breaks apart
the once
-
monolithic stack, putting portions
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28

of, or even entire, applications in the network cloud, separate from the device. Software in the
cloud is available “as a service” to all manner of devices and apps and includes all layers of the
stack: infrastructure as a service, platform as a service, m
obile back
-
end as a service, software a
service and business process as a service. (See Figure X.) Today the entire stack (or portions of
it) can be provisioned from the Web.


Figure X.
Evolution of “As a Service”




Source: CSC


Platform as a Service (P
aaS) bears noting, for it is here that great innovation is taking place to
unify the stack with end
-
to
-
end development, management and service capabilities. PaaS couples
a desktop or cloud
-
based development environment with virtual servers, message queues
and
databases that are either in the cloud or the enterprise’s data center. Traditional PaaS players
include Salesforce’s Force.com, Microsoft’s Windows Azure and SAP’s NetWeaver Cloud.
Some of these, such as Force.com and SAP, are adding mobile app develo
pment and
management by including support for HTML5, alternative development languages, device
detection and adaptation, and user interface libraries for mobile devices. In addition to these
players, others focus exclusively on platforms for mobile (see Pl
atform Power).


Complementing this activity in the cloud is activity in the
enterprise
,
which is evolving

to keep
up with an employee workforce that is increasingly reliant on mobile apps. To do this it must
App rEvolution

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29

support a variety of devices and cloud services

without compromising security of the underlying
data. Thus it is at the intersection of device, cloud and enterprise that the most significant
changes in app development are happening.


New Architectures
: Native, Web or Hybrid?


The proliferation of
devices and operating systems has forced enterprises to either standardize on
a select few or embrace everything. The result is three primary choices in how to architect an
app: native, web or hybrid. These approaches leverage in varying degrees the capab
ilities of the
device as well as the expanded stack.


Although at first glance users often can’t tell the difference between a native app, a web app or a
hybrid app, it is a significant difference for both developers and users. How the app is
architected
(see Figure X) affects performance, functionality, distribution and ease of use.


Figure X.
Architectural View

of Native, Web and Hybrid


Source: CSC


A
native app is downloaded from an app store, stored in the file system of the mobile device, and
execu
ted by the device operating system. A native app invokes the operating system’s APIs
directly, which makes its performance faster in general than hybrid or web apps. Besides faster
performance, the look
-
and
-
feel of a native app is more consistent with the

apps of the device
operating system, making the user experience of a native app in general better than that of a
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30

hybrid or web app.

(Look and feel of hybrid and natives can be very similar thanks to out of the
box style sheets)


A mobile web app is
written using web technologies such as HTML, CSS and JavaScript. Unlike
a native app, the code of a mobile web app is executed by the browser, not the operating system.
In general, a mobile web app requires connectivity to the Internet, although HTML5 ena
bles
offline availability and other functionality that mirrors native app functionality, as noted earlier.


A hybrid app is a native app with embedded HTML code. Hybrid apps have some benefits of
native apps, such as access to
all

device features and app
store distribution. The Web portion of
a hybrid app executes in the browser, and communicates with the native portion using a library
such as PhoneGap
-
Cordova
. Although hybrid apps emulate features of native apps, the extra
communication overhead introduc
es some latency and a
few

less than optimal user experience

but is out
-
of
-
the
-
box cross
-
device compatible
. A comparison of key features of native, web and
hybrid is in Figure X.


NOTE: Several hybrid technologies are not embedding HTML code

(as Phonegap
-
Co
rdova)

in native app but well
directly
tran
s
lating the whole HTML code to native one
(like Titanium
appcelerator
or Rhomobile technology)


Figure X. Comparison of Native, Web, Hybrid


Native

Web

Hybrid

Description



App deployed on
specific device
(operating system)



Website optimized for
mobile devices




App deployed on any
device (operating
system agnostic)

Development
Language and
Libraries



Android Java, Objective
C, C#, C++



HTML5, CSS and
JavaScript



PhoneGap
-
Cordova

or
other code wrapper in
front of HTML
4/5
, CSS
and JavaScript

Pros



Runs on a single
operating system




Developed using
dedicaged languages
(android java, objective
C)




Rich user experience




Full access to device
platform and features




App store or
in
-
company distribution




Works offline




Runs on multiple
operating systems




Leverages existing
web development
language skills




Shorter delivery
lifecycle




No distribution
approval process
(faster go
-
to
-
market)




Cost:
--




Runs on multiple
operating systems




Leverages existing
web development
language skills




Richer user experience
than simple mobile
websites





Full access to device
platform and features




App store or in
-
company distribution




Works
offline




Cost:
--


App rEvolution

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31

Concerns



Some standards
ignored



Specific programming
language and skills
needed



Longer delivery
lifecycle



Distribution approval
process



Cost: ++



Less rich user
experience



Limited access to
device platform and
features



Requires
network
connection (though
some limited offline
capabilities)




More sensitive than
native apps to bad
design



More susceptible to
latency than native
apps

when bad
designed



Distribution approval
process


Examples



Amtrak, Instagram,
Yelp, contacts, camera



VisitTampaBay.com,
Marriott.com



Financial Times,
LinkedIn

Source: CSC
[from Mobile SW Technical Center ppt, with modifications;have team review
]



Deciding on which approach to use can be complex if not confusing.
Overall, there is no definite
recommendation.
The best choice depends on a number of factors, such as the app’s intended
features, the context,
the maintenance and budget
,
the target audie
nce, and the skills of the
development team. If the
app

is mainly used to display and interact with online content or
services,
and
does not require full access to device platform and features,
then
a web app is likely
the best choice. On the other hand,
if
the app is intended to be
mainly used offline,

and requires
full access to device platform and features,

then
a native app will offer a better user experience.
71


To address the growing challenges of app development in this new arena, new standards and
p
rotocols are emerging such as HTML5 for cross
-
device compatibility; lighter
-
weight data
exchange formats such as JSON and RESTful Web services to conserve device resources; and
streamlined communication protocols such as WebSockets to enhance rich media ap
ps such as
videoconferencing and games. These new building blocks underlie many of the development
platforms that will be discussed in the next chapter.


We take a closer look at HTML5 because it is so fundamental to the app design process and
challenges
the very basics of native app development.


Embracing Portability: HTML5


Cross
-
platform compatibility has always been an IT challenge, and nowhere is this more evident
than in mobile app development. Companies want to write an app once that will function
on all
devices, whether iOS, Android, Windows or another (“write once, run anywhere”). HTML5, the
newest version of HTML, is designed to do just that. As device apps (native apps) and mobile
web apps fork, HTML5 helps bring them together.


HTML5 enables a

touch interface and integration with some device features such as camera and
GPS. Typical mobile web apps (written in HTML4) do not support this. HTML5 enables
working offline, whereas a typical mobile web app requires connectivity to the Internet. HTML5
also enables the ability to store data locally on the device.


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32

Yet HTML5 has been criticized for performance, among other things (“write once, run awful”).
The debate goes deeper, because HTML5 sets up the battle between native apps and mobile web
apps.
HTML5 represents the Internet as the platform for all apps and services, versus proprietary
platforms like iOS, Android and Windows. It is likely the market will see the need for both. As
Telco 2.0 put it: “…HTML5 will ultimately raise the ‘lowest common

denominator’ bar very
high


but there will always be a need for proprietary ‘best of breed’ software running on
dedicated platforms.”
72

What is the influence of platform owners in such critics? I have delivered many hybrid apps and
even if it is true that

bad design

on hybrids

goes faster to slow apps a good
design

ensure a fast
responsive hybrid app


HTML5 has been emerging since the mid 2000s as a “quiet revolution” that is gradually exerting
its influence on app functionality and development.
Successive

waves of new devices a
nd form
factors are driving HTML
5

adoption. As discussed in Apps Everywhere, the automotive industry
has been an early adopter of HTML5 to facilitate interoperability between in
-
vehicle
infotainment systems, the Web, mobile devices a
nd app stores.


HTML5 frees organizations from the grip of
proprietary ecosystems, which is what
drove the Financial Times to use HTML5
for its mobile app and risk not being visible
in popular app stores. HTML5 shifts the
b
alance of power from device vendors to
content creators. It also supports the BYO
device mantra and taps the large pool of
Web developers rather than device
-
specific
developers.


As HTML
5 continues to emerge


it is not
expected to be complete until 2014


it will
keep stretching the fabric of HTML to
incorporate new functionality such as
interoperability with in
-
vehicle infotainment
systems and the Internet of Things
.
All

the
major browsers support HTML5 features
now and add new features as they become
a
vailable.


Today cross
-
platform is a common requirement. CSC created the Frontier Sentinel prototype for
the U.S. Navy, an app that runs on multiple smartphones, tablets and laptops. “Many different
groups needed to receive different data combinations for
different missions on different devices,”
notes Dan Munyan, director of CSC’s M2M Center of Excellence. “HTML5 was the way to
bridge the different platforms and provide flexible services.” [
review quote and
HTML5 paras

may be better example
]


Why HTML5?




Source: CSC

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33

CSC
also turned to HTML5 for a proof
-
of
-
concept for a mobile app for the water sector. Called
H2Oimpact,

the app
fills the

gap
left by existing desktop

applications
that were not designed to
be mobile
.

H2Oimpact can be

written once and compiled for various
mo
bile
platforms (iOS,
Android, BlackBerry, WebOS).



In the future, water utility
employees will be able to

assess
the economic impact of damaged
equipment such as a burst pipe
,
take a picture of the broken pipe,
process an impact

report and
search for ava
ilable funds



all
from
a variety of mobile devices
in
the field.

Using HTML5,
H2Oimpact takes the device type
out of the equation, provides
access to enterprise data in the
cloud, enables working offline
and takes advantage of the large pool of Web devel
opers.


To improve the richness of the user experience using HTML5,
CSC Portugal developed the
Canvas Framework, which provides a library of
diverse
user interface
components
.
The

framework was developed to address performance and usability
issues

with

th
e Canvas element
in HTML5
.
The Canvas element can be thought of as a blank canvas on which images and even
an entire app can be created; however, Canvas does not come with any pre
-
defined components
such as buttons, rotating lists or animations. The Canvas

Framework provides those components
and many other capabilities including drag and drop, swipe, page transformations and the ability
for apps to adapt to different screen sizes.


CSC created the
CA CliniCard

app for the CA Seguros health insurance compa
ny using the
Canvas Framework. A consumer can use this app to search for local doctors’ offices or medical
clinics in Portugal by location, and retrieve a map and directions to the clinic. The app, shown in
Figure X, was first written for smartphones and t
hen took just three days to write for tablets. The
tablet app takes advantage of the larger screen size with minimal coding. [
in review
w/Marcus
and get client permission
]


Figure X: CliniCard App on
Smartphone

and

Tablet



App rEvolution

11 April 2013

CSC
Office of Innovation Technology Program


Erika Olimpiew,
eolimpiew@csc.com



©

2013

Computer Sciences Corporation. All Rights

Reserved.

34







Because the CliniCard
app is written in HTML5

using the CSC Canvas Framework
, it is easy
to adapt the
app for different screen sizes (same content, different presentations). This often requires complex
development but the Canvas Framework minimizes the development effort. Bot
h screens show a list of
services; the tablet version also includes a list of clinics (search results) and a map of their location.


Source: CSC

[
need

high
-
res screen shots/LB has asked
]


Outlook


The proliferation of devices and operating systems has for
ced enterprises to either standardize on
a select few or embrace everything. The resulting choice of how to architect an app


native, web
and hybrid


depends on many factors, such as the app’s intended features, the context, the target
audience, and the
skills of the development team.
There is no definitive “best choice.”


HTML5 enables developers to write an app once that will function on all devices with a browser,
shifting the balance of power from device vendors to content creators. HTML5 positions
the
Internet as the primary platform for apps and services, in contrast to proprietary platforms like
iOS, Android and Windows.
It will be interesting to see how the web versus native debate plays
out.


App architectures will continue to evolve as Internet
-
enabled devices become more pervasive in
homes, vehicles and infrastructure. Tools like
the Canvas Framework are enabling developers to
keep up with the rapid pace of change and the

complexity of devel
oping apps for these devices.
The next chapter talks more about how new platforms are addressing these challenges.




App rEvolution

11 April 2013

CSC
Office of Innovation Technology Program


Erika Olimpiew,
eolimpiew@csc.com



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2013

Computer Sciences Corporation. All Rights

Reserved.

35

Platforms Unify and Simplify

App
platforms
unify and simplify

development and distribution
.


With a plethora of devices, cloud services
and enterprise systems in the mix, development
platforms are more important than ever

to tame the complexity
.
Mobile app development
p
latforms
help developers address device heterogeneity, integration with multiple interfaces,
security, performance, scala
bility and technology change.


With today’s plethora of devices, developers need help managing device heterogeneity across the
entire app lifecycle: app design, implementation, testing, and distribution. During app design, the
platform should provide a mec
hanism for prototyping multiple user interfaces for different
device sizes and operating systems. The app’s user interface needs to be able to dynamically
adapt to different device sizes. During implementation the platform should make it possible for
the
developer to reuse code in app builds for different device types and operating systems. App
testing tools must provide a means of building reusable test scripts that can be customized for
different device types, and a means of testing the app on these devi
ces. Further, the platform
should support app distribution for different device types and operating systems via consumer
and enterprise app stores.


Behind that shiny app icon in the app store is a complex network of interfaces to other apps and
back
-
end

systems such as social apps, databases and accounting systems. However, many of
these back
-
end systems were not designed to interface with modern app clients on mobile
devices. In order to handle integration with other apps and back
-
end systems, some plat
forms
include Mobile Backend as a Service (MBaaS) middleware with reusable connectors, and API
publishing tools to enable custom integrations.


Another important issue is how to
secure enterprise data on apps on
different devices. New
device capabilities,
such as the ability to process and store large amounts of data, bring new
security risks. Platforms need to provide mechanisms to secure not only data on the device but
also the communications between the app and enterprise servers. Secure application wrap
pers
enable the app’s data to be protected by providing strong encryption for data at rest and for data
in motion. Some platforms go even further, continuously assessing security risks during app
development, not just during app operations.


User experienc
e is paramount, demanding apps to perform well in a resource
-
constrained,
context
-
driven, on
-
demand and unstructured environment. To meet these demands, platforms
must offer developers a choice of implementing an app using light
-
weight interfaces such as
JSON with RESTful web services, integrating the app with unstructured (NoSQL) databases, and
scaling the app on cloud servers and content delivery networks. Further, platforms can assist the
developer with quality control by providing tools to monitor app

performance during testing and
production.


In order to m
anage the rapid pace of change in technology and consumer expectations
, platforms
can be deployed in “as a service” environments. Development tools and middleware can run in
the cloud. No configura
tion or installation is required, and services are rented (not bought) so
the environments can be readily changed.

App rEvolution

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CSC
Office of Innovation Technology Program


Erika Olimpiew,
eolimpiew@csc.com



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36


In this new app environment there are three camps of developers: enterprise

technical
developers, business analysts and consumers/DIY developers. (See Figure X). Platforms such
as IBM Worklight provide an integrated development environment (IDE) and are geared towards
enterprise developers, who are able to write apps using Java
Script code. Platforms such as
Catavolt and Verivo
are geared towards
business analysts and
IT administrators


those who are close to
the data but don’t
necessarily work
directly with code;
these platforms
provide tools to
facilitate complex
tasks like i
ntegration of
the app with enterprise
back
-
end systems. In
order to reach a greater
DIY mass of
developers, some
platforms are catering
to non
-
technical
developers. These
platforms provide self
-
authoring tools, visual
design techniques, online video trai
ning, and sample apps to enable anyone to quickly build an
app. For example, AppMakr is a consumer platform that enables non
-
technical DIY users to
quickly spin up an app from a browser by simply entering a set of keywords describing the app.
(More on DIY

later.)


Several key business trends illustrate the unique approaches

platform providers are taking to
support app development and distribution in the new app environment.


Captivating the Consumer
.
The connected mobile consumer is constantly juggling a
myriad of
tasks across diverse devices in dynamic environments. In order to meet consumer needs, as
discussed in the first chapter, apps need to take into account the user’s context with an easy
-
to
-
use, consistent interface that spans diverse devices and
situations.


This was the situation at NBC as it embarked on a mobile strategy. NBC wanted to reach “every
user on every device” with an engaging, highly personalized experience.
73

The company wanted
to integrate mobile with its broadcast and web strategy.
It needed a development platform that
enabled it to reuse code and leverage in
-
house (web) developers. It also needed to be able to
scale content and advertising to multiple devices across a growing portfolio of applications.


Figure X.
App Platform Landscape


A Sampling



Source: CSC

App rEvolution

11 April 2013

CSC
Office of Innovation Technology Program


Erika Olimpiew,
eolimpiew@csc.com



©

2013

Computer Sciences Corporation. All Rights

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37

NBC used Appcelerator’s Titan
ium platform for cross
-
device development. The company
initially used Titanium for its first two internally
-
built mobile apps (Jay Leno’s Garage for
iPhone, and Late Night with Jimmy Fallon for iPhone and Android). The apps had a similar look
and feel to
the shows’ websites, but were optimized for mobile. As NBC’s mobile strategy
expanded, it used Titanium to create the NBC Portal iPad app, which
ties together all of the
company’s TV shows and advertising with an engaging, highly personalized experience. “
The key to delivering on
this goal was focusing more on the end
-
customer experience than on all the backend connection points.”
74



Titanium makes this possible through a library of back
-
end services for such things as push
notifications,

location services,

check
-
ins, integration with social media apps (e.g., Facebook,
Twitter), integration with ratings and reviews, and data synchronization services. (See Figure X.)
These lightweight scalable services form Mobile Backend as a Service. Unlike the basic mobil
e
services provided in all
-
encompassing PaaS products like Salesforce and Azure, MBaaS provides
features specific to mobile app development. [
review NBC example w/Appcelerator
]



Modernizing the Enterprise.

Many enterprise systems are not designed for the Web (no APIs)
or for mobile, so bringing them into the mobile fold requires significant work.
Back
-
end system
integratio
n can be one of the most challenging and time
-
consuming aspects of enterprise app
development. To facilitate back
-
end integration, platforms like

IBM Worklight/Cast Iron,
Catavolt, Verivo

and SnapL
ogic provide a library of connectors that
can be “plugged
in” to an
app. The

connector implements a reusable mapping
that links

the back
-
end system interfaces to a
REST or SOAP API, which can be consumed by modern
mobile
apps.


IBM Worklight/
Cast Iron
provides
a library of back
-
end system connectors for SAP,
Salesforce
Microsoft Dynamics

and other applications
. In addition, Cast Iron provides a toolset to enable a
developer to publish and manage custom APIs. [
add more information and example

after IBM
call]


Figure X.
MBaaS



Backend Services So Developers Can Focus on the Front E
nd


Source: Appcelerator [
needs permission & high res
]

App rEvolution

11 April 2013

CSC
Office of Innovation Technology Program


Erika Olimpiew,
eolimpiew@csc.com



©

2013

Computer Sciences Corporation. All Rights

Reserved.

38


IBM
and AT&T have partnered to make AT&T APIs for

such things as advanced speech
recognition and mobile payments available on the IBM Worklight platform, enabling next
-
gen
mobile apps.
75

(See New App Economy chapter.)


Another platform for

back
-
end system integration is Catavolt Extender, a hybrid cloud p
latform
that connects to existing enterprise systems via native apps. Dynamic forms and reports are
automatically generated and adapted for display on smartphones, tablets and desktops.


Catavolt uses two layers of integration. A satellite server is depl
oyed in the enterprise’s data
center and is used to expose the data from legacy database systems to a second, middleware layer
in the Catavolt cloud. (See Figure X.) This hybrid approach optimizes for the underlying
database while requiring minimal trans
formation of the data for presentation on the end device.
This provides a flexible user interface that can be changed easily for those who need different
views of the data.



Data

stays where it is, and people connect to it via the Internet. There is no heavy IT investment
as there are no changes to existing systems. Once Extender is implemented, businesses point to
the data and define who can access it. Apps can be modified in
real time; users refresh their app
to see changes immediately, such as a new data field or a map that is added. Because it is cloud
-
based, IT does not have to touch any mobile devices; users download the Catavolt app to their
mobile device and access thei
r enterprise app through it.


“Apps often miss by an inch, not by a mile. With Extender you can make refinements in real
time until the app is exactly what the business needs,” says George Mashini, Catavolt founder

Figure X. Catavolt Extender (CX) uses two layers of integration: a satellite s
erver in the data
center and a middleware layer in the cloud. The approach optimizes for the underlying database
while requiring minimal transformation of the data for presentation
to the user
on the end device.


Source: Catavolt [
needs permission
]

App rEvolution

11 April 2013

CSC
Office of Innovation Technology Program


Erika Olimpiew,
eolimpiew@csc.com



©

2013

Computer Sciences Corporation. All Rights

Reserved.

39

and CEO. “Changes occur in the cloud,
so IT does not have to write code for specific devices or
manage devices.”


Catavolt modernized a 27
-
year
-
old government application


a “green screen” mainframe system


in less than a week, providing mobile device access. A machine manufacturer used Cat
avolt to
build a supply chain collaboration application for use with suppliers that streamlined ordering
and improved efficiency by sharing online parts drawings securely with suppliers. A truck
equipment company used Catavolt to link field sales reps to
current inventory and invoice data
through iPads, improving sales and order processing.


review next section w/Faisal
---

CSC began developing
its own

mobile app development framework
years ago
to simplify
integration between

enterprise systems and

mobile devices. The CSC Mobile Framework
implements well established enterprise integration patterns and provides a simplified but
extremely powerful REST API that is consumed by mobile devices running iOS, Android,
BlackBerry, Windows 8 and mobile Web (
see Figure X). The CSC Mobile Framework formed a
significant foundation for CSC’s work on Breezeway, a suite of cloud
-
based insurance solutions
built on Force.com that can be deployed to
mobile

devices such as tablets as well as traditional
desktops and la
ptops. The framework helped bridge mobile devices, Salesforce applications on
Force.com and CSC insurance applications.



Figure X.
CSC Mobile Framework


Source: CSC [
Faisal’s LEF Briefing Series ppt, sl 23
]


The Breezeway suite gives insurers an e
ntirely new way to connect with agents, brok
ers and
customers. It enables e
mail and chat between insurers and agents or agents and customers, for
example, using the Salesforce
Chatter
app. It provides access to a range of back
-
end systems
including ins
urance processing systems and third
-
party automatic signatures
,

and is being
expanded to include new business processing, agent management, customer service for
App rEvolution

11 April 2013

CSC
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Erika Olimpiew,
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40

electronic applications and claims, analytics for agents, calculations and quotes. Being able
to
offer insurance services in the cloud and on mobile devices is a powerful combination for more
flexible, responsive, cost
-
effective operations.


Figure X. With Breezeway apps for the insurance sector, insurance agents in the field can use a tablet to
look up customers and information, issue quotes and transactions, collaborate in real time

(chat)

with
co
-
workers

and receive realti
me notifications and alerts on their digital “wall.”


Source:
CSC [
Faisal’s LEF Briefing Series ppt, sl 12
]


The CSC Mobile

Framework has been used at Ohio Mutual to create an insurance card app. Ohio
Mutual wanted an app that would make it easy for a driver to present proof of car insurance, such
as at the scene of an accident. CSC created an app that lets a driver with a sm
artphone scan the
Vehicle Identification Number bar code on the car or car sheet and combine that with two pieces
of personal data (e.g., birthday and partial SSN) to access his or her insurance card. The entire
process takes about a minute, says Faisal S
iddiqi, enterprise architect at CSC.


The CSC Mobile Framework was used for the complex integration of three systems: the
insurance agent system (in Salesforce), a third
-
party agency management system, and Ohio
Mutual’s proprietary agency management and po
licy information system. On the client side, the
framework was used to integrate barcode scanning and offline data processing. CSC plans to
commercialize the app for the insurance sector. [
review w/Faisal and then client]



Securing Enterprise Data.

S
ecuring enterprise data from accidental or intentional leakage or
disclosure
has always been a major concern for businesses and federal agencies. With today’s
proliferation of smart devices and app integration with social media, there is a greater potentia
l
for data leakage to occur. Innovative techniques are being applied to mitigate these risks,
including securing app data on the device using an application wrapper, securing
communications between an app and enterprise servers, and scanning for security
vulnerabilities
during app development and testing.


Armor5 leverages the enterprise’s existing VPN with a middleware layer that manages the
connection of the device to the enterprise data and provides additional role
-
based access control
to that data. No

data is stored on the device, which prevents data leakage from occurring.

App rEvolution

11 April 2013

CSC
Office of Innovation Technology Program


Erika Olimpiew,
eolimpiew@csc.com



©

2013

Computer Sciences Corporation. All Rights

Reserved.

41

However, some enterprise apps need to store data on the device for offline access. App data on
the device needs to be secured from accidental or intentional disclosure. An applic
ation wrapper
provides a virtual “fence” around an app to protect the app’s data from unauthorized access.
An
application wrapper takes an app binary

file
, performs static security tests, and then repackages it
with a wrapper of code that changes how the a
pp behaves.
For example,
Mocana MAP is an
application wrapper that provides the ability to add a passcode screen to an app,
the ability to
prevent users from cutting and pasting text from an app, encryption of data at rest, and individual
app
-
specific IPse
c VPNs (micro VPN)
.
76

(See Figure X.)


Figure X. Protecting the Enterprise


Source: Mocana

[
needs permission
] [
https://mocana.com/mobile
-
app
-
protection.html
]



Another approach to prevent
enterprise data leakage is to use virtualized apps such as Citrix’s
XenApp and VMware ThinApp. A virtualized app is encapsulated

from the
device’s

operating
system
with an app virtualization layer. An app virtualization layer
replace
s

part of the runtime
environment normally provided by the
device’s
operating system

with the app’s operating
system.


App streaming uses both connected and offline approaches, selectively installing and executing
only the essential portions of an application’s code while the

end user performs actions in the
app. Numecent’s next
-
generation app streaming technology, called “cloudpaging,” analyzes app
usage patterns, breaks down the app into pieces and sends the pieces most likely to be used over
the network to the end device,
to be executed on the device.


A more proactive approach to boosting app security is used by Veracode. A developer can
submit an app build to Veracode for semi
-
automated security vulnerability scanning. Veracode
scans the app binary for known security vu
lnerabilities. The developer sets a threshold for an
acceptable level of vulnerability risk (high, medium, low), and Veracode notifies the developer
when an app passes or fails the scan.


Providing
a
One
-
Stop Shop
.
The
notion of the managed desktop is coming to an end as
enterprises set up app stores that deliver apps that are on
-
demand and dynamic, rather than
locked down, to BYO devices outside of corporate control.

App rEvolution

11 April 2013

CSC
Office of Innovation Technology Program


Erika Olimpiew,
eolimpiew@csc.com



©

2013

Computer Sciences Corporation. All Rights

Reserved.

42


An enterprise app store is a privatized developmen
t and distribution platform. Unlike consumer
app stores, enterprise app stores enable administrators to assign user roles to apps (only certain
people can download certain apps), monitor app usage activity (popular as well as problematic
apps can be identi
fied), and apply enterprise security policies to apps
(authentication,
data
protection
). Companies including Apperian (EASE), AppCentral, Partnerpedia
,
Symantec/Nukona

and

Citrix provide enterprise app store solutions.


Citrix’s Unified StoreFront (part o
f the CloudGateway offering shown in Figure X) handles
virtual desktop apps, web apps and mobile apps. This comprehensive approach enables
organizations to provide one
-
stop shopping to employees for applications running on desktops
and mobile devices. Tw
o key features are the ability to set up accounts (a bundle of apps,
connectivity services and update services), giving users what they need depending on what
device they are connecting from, and follow
-
me data, giving users access to their documents and
a
pps from any device.
77

The U.S. Department of Homeland Security is using Unified StoreFront
for its internal app store, to manage the distribution of Windows
-
based virtual desktops, web
apps and mobile apps for iPhone, iPad and Android devices. [
review w/D
HS and get DHS

quote
]
[
review w/
Citrix
]



Source: Citrix [
needs permission] [LEF Briefing slide
]


Partnerpedia’s Enterprise AppZone solution enables enterprises to control the publishing,
distribution and management of approved applications to BYO employ
ee devices. Unlike
mobile device management (MDM) solutions that focus on device profiles and device
-
level
security, Enterprise AppZone manages apps through policies, user permissions and roles. This
way, corporate IT does not have to touch end devices.
Cloud
-
based, Enterprise AppZone is
designed for both mobile apps and other apps and content types across a variety of desktops,
laptops and mobile devices.
78

Enterprise AppZone also includes an apps marketplace of vetted
third party apps that IT can select
and approve for distribution. (For more on app marketplaces,
see the New App Economy.) Enterprise app stores solve the old problem of distribution in a new
way that combines the ease of use of consumer app stores with the security and reliability
required
by the enterprise.


App rEvolution

11 April 2013

CSC
Office of Innovation Technology Program


Erika Olimpiew,
eolimpiew@csc.com



©

2013

Computer Sciences Corporation. All Rights

Reserved.

43

Leveraging Open Source
. Just as open

source software has been leveraged for everything from
operating systems to web servers to browsers to applications, it is busy in mobile platforms as
well. CSC has created an end
-
to
-
end mobile app lifecycle management platform based on open
source compo
nents for the Brussels Regional Informatics Center (BRIC), the ITC agency for the
Brussels region. Called Mobile
Software Technical Center (
CSC
-
MSTC
), the cloud
-
based platform
supports
mobile and web

cross
-
platform development, version control,
mobil
e

SOA
,
integration with
databases, documentation systems,
device testing
,

app store distribution
,
clonable and elastic on demand, IaaS
platform independent (runs EC2, CSC
Cloud…)

and much more
. It reduces
development costs by up to 75 percent

delivering

65% faster
, is capable of
testing 1,500 different
real physical

device types, and supports Apple,
Google, BlackBerry RIM, Symbian,
Bada, WebOS and Windows Phone
environments. BRIC is using the
k
platform, which was initially created
for its FixMyStreet ap
p shown in Figure X, for all mobile development.
CSC
-
MSTC

was a
winner of

the 2013 CSC Award for Excellence.


Managing End to End.
To fully optimize a mobile strategy, however, enterprises need a
platform that manages the app’s lifecycle from start to finish. An end
-
to
-
end mobile app
lifecycle platform aligns mobility around the enterprise architecture and covers the entire app
lifec
ycle: requirements identification, design, development, distribution, testing and ongoing
management. An end
-
to
-
end approach also recognizes the value of being an “as a Service”
offering. Several platforms, including Breezeway and
CSC
-
MSTC
, are already mo
ving in that
direction.


To address the end
-
to
-
end need, CSC is designing a Mobile App Lifecycle Platform as a Service
offering, enabling CSC clients to implement their own apps quickly without sacrificing quality.
The Mobile App Lifecycle PaaS would work
like this: An enterprise app development team signs
up for the service and then enters information about their app requirements and preferences in
the app selection wizard. The wizard recommends a set of tools based on the requirements and
preferences. The

developers can customize the recommendations and then send a request to
provision the tools. If the request is approved, a virtual machine environment is created for the
development team with the requested toolset using Development/Test as a Service (DTaa
S). The
development team can then use the environment to design, implement, test, certify and deploy
their app to an app store. (See Figure X.) [
review with Prakash Yarlagadda
]


Figure X.
Mobile App Lifecycle Platform



Figure X.
The FixMyStreet app was created for the
Brussels Regional Informatics Center using CSC’s
䵯bil攠e潦瑷慲攠e散桮ic慬 䍥湴敲e灬慴a潲m.


Source: CSC [
use?
]

[need high
-
res screen shots
]

App rEvolution

11 April 2013

CSC
Office of Innovation Technology Program


Erika Olimpiew,
eolimpiew@csc.com



©

2013

Computer Sciences Corporation. All Rights

Reserved.

44



DTaaS = Development/Test as a Ser
vice, PM= Program Management


Source: CSC



The Ultimate: DIY Apps


Ultimately, mobile app platforms become so easy to use that anyone can create an app. DIY
apps, part of the DIY and BYO trends, signal that development is becoming more inclusive as
the to
ols are
“abstracted up” for a less
-
technical
audience
. People are using tablets and other
devices to build their own apps, leveraging data or services from corporate systems and mashing
in external Web and SaaS services.


Compared to traditional codi
ng, DIY platforms enable extraordinary ease of use through drag
and drop, touch, dashboards and the like. They focus on personal empowerment that bypasses IT
(“make an app like a pro” and “create your own app”). Many have free trials people can tinker
with

instantly to mock up an app. Low
-
cost, fast development is key.


At NetApp (a CSC partner,) employees are encouraged to make their own apps for work.
This
has yielded
20 apps,
including an employee directory,
an app related to customer support

and a
business intelligence app for analyzing data and making decisions
.
79

NetApp
’s

O
ffice of the
CIO
has established quality criteria and
vets each app
; a
bout 90 percent of apps require some
revision.
80

Even with revisions, the result is faster, cheaper ap
ps addressing a business need.
[
Review w/NetApp? What dev tool(s) do they use?
]


Simple, Fast
. While companies such as July Systems and Moovweb focus on enterprise
business users, companies such as Mobile Roadie, AppMakr and
MoFuse
target small
-
busines
ses
App rEvolution

11 April 2013

CSC
Office of Innovation Technology Program


Erika Olimpiew,
eolimpiew@csc.com



©

2013

Computer Sciences Corporation. All Rights

Reserved.

45

and consumers. [
check
] There are many players along this enterprise
-
consumer spectrum
including Taptera, Usablenet, Zoho Creator and TouchDevelop (
still in research
?).
(mention

others
?
81
)


July Systems calls itself “a carrier
-
grade platform with the sim
plicity of a DIY tool.” The
company provides a drag
-
and
-
drop development environment that includes interconnectivity
with back
-
end systems such as inventory, payments, personalization and loyalty systems. Its
focus is development speed and user engagement


drag, drop and create an experience.


July’s
approach is to
enhance native
mobile apps with
dynamic mobile web
pages. The pages can
change daily as
needed, such as for
marketing
campaigns, mobile
coupons, in
-
store
promotions or
communications to
field employees. This
is much faster than
re
-
coding an
d re
-
submitting the entire
app for re
-
certification, which
can take months. The
company’s customers
include several large cable TV companies, whose mobile sites must change rapidly to reflect the
news. For example, in its first three months of using the Ju
ly Systems platform, CNN created
hundreds of mobile experiences including coverage of the British Royal Wedding and the
“Aiming for Gold” Olympics 2012 series.


July’s cloud
-
based MX Platform provides “recipes,”
collections of code modules that can be tailored. One
example is a recipe for an ad campaign.
Modules can
be dragged in or out of the configuration canvas as
needed. (See Figure X.) The platform has over
75
modules that cover social media, QR codes, location,
personalization, product catalogs, search, payment,
contests, ads, analytics and more.


“T
his modular approach puts more direct control into
the client’s hands so they can make changes faster and
monetize faster,” says Michel Maeso, chief revenue

Figure X. The Toys R Us Toy Finder
app provides personalized wish lists,
different views f
or children and parents,
the latest promotions, and complex
back
-
end integration to product catalogs
and more.

Figure X.
Sample Dashboard for a DIY App



Source: July Systems [
needs permission


they
may have better picture
]

[
http://julysystems.com/july
-
mx/

]

App rEvolution

11 April 2013

CSC
Office of Innovation Technology Program


Erika Olimpiew,
eolimpiew@csc.com



©

2013

Computer Sciences Corporation. All Rights

Reserved.

46

officer of July Systems. “Give more control to the business unit or team that owns the app.” For
th
e cost of one developer, he continues, companies can hire several marketing interns to develop
apps using MX, as one customer did.


Toys “R” Us

used the platform to create its Toy Finder app. Capabilities include offline
browsing, personalized wish lists a
nd sync across mobile and web, distinct views and controls
for children and parents, UPC code scanning, prices and information in real time, and sharing via
Facebook, email and text SMS. The app includes complex integration, mapped information from
differe
nt sources, and consumer behavior analytics.
82

[
review all w/July Systems
]


Moovweb takes a different approach

to mobile app
development
, using a site virtualizaton and
transformation technique.

Developers make a virtual
copy of the existing desktop website, modify it for
mobile devices, and publish the modified website to
Moovweb’s cloud (create different sites f
or tablets and
smartphones). Changes to the desktop site are synced
with the mobile sites so all information is current. This
“One Web” approach streamlines development by
separating the front end from the back end, maintaining
a single code base for the b
ack end, and optimizing the
user experience for
different devices (tablet,
smartphone, desktop). Moovweb powers mobile sites
for
Cox Communications,
Macy’s

and 1
-
800
-
Flowers,
to name a few.

(See Figure X.)


IT as Springboard
.
Forward looking
CIOs

will

pr
ovide platforms
and services that rank
-
and
-
file
employees can leverage
.

(See Figure X.) Thinking of their IT capabilities as consumable
services, enterprises can be on a mission to create application programming interfaces (APIs) to
their most useful ser
vices. APIs drive adoption, grow revenue and build an ecosystem around a
service. Thus API design will be as important as the design of the user interface, if not more.


Figure X.




Figure X. [
Examples of Moovweb
mobile sites

keep? I like Cox b/c not
retail but I can’t show functionality
w/out an account
]

App rEvolution

11 April 2013

CSC
Office of Innovation Technology Program


Erika Olimpiew,
eolimpiew@csc.com



©

2013

Computer Sciences Corporation. All Rights

Reserved.

47


Source: CSC



IT is the springboard for innovation, not the
overlord. Apps created closer to business users will
deliver new levels of usefulness and currency as they reflect dynamic business needs. Will DIY
apps reach core business systems like accounting or payroll? Probably not, since those serve
more static nee
ds and do their job well today. But for highly dynamic situations like marketing
campaigns, activities that require a custom analysis and view of data, specific (if not quirky)
tasks, and small business and personal endeavors, DIY apps make sense.


Broadly

speaking, the enterprise has seen DIY IT evolve from the advent of the PC to cloud
infrastructure services, cloud development platforms, website builders and now app builders for
all. Information technology continues to “abstract up” so that more people
can do more
themselves. The result has been decades of innovation, with no end in sight. DIY apps are the
seeds of a new app economy, discussed next.



New App Economy

(to be written
)



App rEvolution

11 April 2013

CSC
Office of Innovation Technology Program


Erika Olimpiew,
eolimpiew@csc.com



©

2013

Computer Sciences Corporation. All Rights

Reserved.

48





1

Leonard Kleinrock, “History of the Internet and its Flexible Future,” IEEE Wireless Communications, February
2008, p. 17..
http://130.203.133.150/viewdoc/
summary?doi=10.1.1.144.5369


2

http://www.canalys.com/newsroom/smart
-
phones
-
overtake
-
client
-
pcs
-
2011


3

http://www.businessinsider.com/mobile
-
will
-
eclipse
-
desktop
-
by
-
2014
-
2012
-
6


4

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2
OwkwpapBQI

[3:13
-
7:33]

5

“The Future of Mobile Application Development,” Jeffrey S. Hammond and Julie A. Ask, Forrester Research, 17
January 2013, p. 2.

6

“Mobile is the New Face of Engagement,” presentation by John McCarthy, Forrester Research, at CSC
Tec
hnology and Business Solutions Conference, 13 June 2012. Full report is at:
http://www.forrester.com/Mobile+Is+The+New+Face+Of+Engagement
/fulltext/
-
/E
-
RES60544?objectid=RES60544


7

http://www.whitehouse.gov/innovationfellows/mygov


8

“Wildfire Fighters Using iPads to Battle Blazes | KPAX.com | Missou
la, Montana.”

http://www.kpax.com/news/wildfire
-
fighters
-
using
-
ipads
-
to
-
battle
-
blazes/


9

Schilit, Bill N., “A System Architecture for Context Aware Mobile Computing,”

p.3
http://systems.cs.colorado.edu/~grunwald/MobileComputing/Papers/system
-
arch
-
for
-
context
-
aware
-
mobile
-
apps.pdf

[
Can we r
emove
this
footnote? It’s dated


1995
.]

10

https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.neuaer.toothtag

(see video)

11

“Shazam: The Secret to Better TV Engagement?”.

http://mashable.com/2012/05/03/shazam
-
tv
-
engagement/


12

“Shazam Mobile App Boosting TV Ad Recall, Engagement Says Frank M. Magid
-

MarketingVOX.”

http://www.marketingvox.com/shazam
-
mobile
-
app
-
boosting
-
tv
-
ad
-
recall
-
engagement
-
says
-
frank
-
m
-
magid
-
051770/?utm_campaign=r
ssfeed&utm_source=mv&utm_medium=textlink


13

“Emerging Input Technologies for Always
-
Available Mobile Interaction,” p. 245.
http://research.microsoft.com/en
-
us/um/people/ssaponas/publications/FnT2011
-
AlwaysAvailable.pdf

14

http://money.cnn.com/gallery/technology/i
nnovation/2012/12/17/ibm
-
5
-
in
-
5
-
computers
-
senses/index.html


15

http://allthingsd.com/20120628/these
-
start
-
ups
-
arent
-
goofing
-
off
-
when
-
it
-
com
es
-
to
-
microsofts
-
kinect/
,
http://www.geekwire.com/2012/startups
-
building
-
businesses
-
microsoft
-
kinect/


16

http://www.cnet.com/8301
-
33379_1
-
57353006/samsung
-
brings
-
voice
-
gesture
-
control
-
to
-
tvs/


17

“Sign Language
-
to
-
speech Translating Gloves Take Out Microsoft Imagine Cup 201,”

http://www.gizmag.com/enabletalk
-
sign
-
language
-
gloves/23268/
, and
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HCAwPBbDkhk

(video)

18

http://m.youtu
be.com/#/watch?v=bH_GcUAsbag&feature=youtu.be&desktop_uri=%2Fwatch%3Fv%3DbH_GcUA
sbag%26feature%3Dyoutu.be

19

https://getmyo.com/

20

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haptic_technology


21

http://www.immersion.com/haptics
-
technology/what
-
is
-
haptics/index.html
; also see
http://www.immersion.com/resources/haptic
-
whitepapers/index.html


22

Reverb study, p. 3.
http://www.immersion.com/resources/haptic
-
whitepapers/index.html#tab=
reverb


23

Tactile Feedback in Mobile: Consumer Attitudes about High Definition Haptic Effects in Touch Screen Phones, p.
8.
http://www.immersion.com/docs/Mobile
-
Hap
tics
-
Consumer
-
Research
-
v1feb11.pdf


24

Tactile Feedback in Mobile: Consumer Attitudes about High Definition Haptic Effects in Touch Screen Phones, p.
12.
http://www.
immersion.com/docs/Mobile
-
Haptics
-
Consumer
-
Research
-
v1feb11.pdf

25

Tactile Feedback in Mobile: Consumer Attitudes about High Definition Haptic Effects in Touch Screen Phones, p.
14
-
15.
http://www.immersion.com/docs/Mobile
-
Haptics
-
Consumer
-
Research
-
v1feb11.pdf

26

http://research.microsoft.com/en
-
us/collaboration/stories/
functionalcontactlens.aspx
,
http://research.microsoft.com/apps/video/default.aspx?id=150832

,
http://www.ece.rutgers.edu/nod
e/665


27

http://www.cnn.com/2012/11/23/tech/orbit
-
brain
-
controlled
-
helicopter/index.html


28

http://www.cnn.com/2012/09/24/tech/mci
-
eye
-
tracking
-
gadget/index.html?hpt=hp_bn5

,
http://www.npr.org/blogs/alltechconsidered/2012/12/03/166244876/in
-
eye
-
control
-
a
-
promise
-
to
-
let
-
your
-
tablet
-
go
-
hands
-
free


29

“Human Skin Used as Computer Input Device, TechNewsDaily.com, ”

http://www.technewsdaily.com/3019
-
infrared
-
interface
-
device
-
hand
-
siggraph.html


30

“Nissan’s ‘Smiling Vehicle’ Shows Emotions (video) | TechCrunch.”

App rEvolution

11 April 2013

CSC
Office of Innovation Technology Program


Erika Olimpiew,
eolimpiew@csc.com



©

2013

Computer Sciences Corporation. All Rights

Reserved.

49






31

“Vehicle Connectivity Extending to Ambient Lighting | Suppliers Content from WardsAuto.”

32

Don Norman, “Living with Complexity,” May 2010.
http://www.jnd.
org/books.html


33

http://research.microsoft.com/en
-
us/um/people/ssaponas/publications/FnT2011
-
AlwaysAvailable.pdf
, p. 303.

34

Peter C. Evans and Marco Annunziata, “Industrial Internet: Pushing the Boundaries of Minds and Machines,”
General Electric, 26 November 2012.

http://www.gereports.com/new_industrial_internet_service_technologies_from_ge_could_eliminate_150_billion_i
n_waste/

35

http://www.abires
earch.com/press/over
-
5
-
billion
-
wireless
-
connectivity
-
chips
-
will
-
sh

The Bluetooth and WiFi
forecasts are cumulative shipments.

36
Ford CTO Masceraneas, in video:
http://www.theverge.com/2013/1/10/3861304/ford
-
cto
-
paul
-
mascarenas
-
talks
-
apps
-
and
-
self
-
driving
-
cars
-
ces
-
2013


37

“Q
NX Unveils Concept Bentley Continental GT Alongside Car Platform 2.0.”
, “
CES 2013: QNX Shows Off Car
Platform 2.0 with Concept Bentley Continental GT.”

38

http://www.fiercewireless.com/story/rims
-
heins
-
blackberry
-
10
-
soon
-
ready
-
license
-
could
-
be
-
used
-
m2m/2012
-
08
-
14


39

http://blogs.wsj.
com/drivers
-
seat/2013/01/08/at
-
ces
-
audu
-
rolls
-
out
-
self
-
parking
-
car/


40

http://www.theverge.com/2012/12/14/3766218/self
-
driving
-
cars
-
google
-
volvo
-
law


41

http://venturebeat.com/2012/11/08/reelyactive
-
wants
-
to
-
create
-
the
-
internet
-
of
-
things
-
for
-
the
-
little
-
guy/


42

Talk at TTI/Vanguard, Dec 6
-
7
, Seattle.

43

http://www.samsung.com/us/appliances/refrigerators/RF4289HARS/XAA?cid=ppc
-


44

http://www.wdcappliances.com/ProductsDetail.php?SKU=LFX31995ST&cse=4&gclid=COzPs5ic7bQCFYKK4Ao
d8SoAGg


45

https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.lge.android.oven_ces&feature=
more_from_developer#?t=W251b
GwsMSwxLDEwMiwiY29tLmxnZS5hbmRyb2lkLm92ZW5fY2VzIl0
.


46

http://www.digitaltrends.com/lifestyle/trakdot
-
luggage
-
tracker/

;
http://maxborgesagency.com/press/trakdottm
-
luggage
-
delivers
-
peace
-
of
-
mind
-
to
-
travelers
-
with
-
affordable
-
real
-
time
-
airport
-
baggage
-
tracking/


47

http://techcrunch.com/2013/01/07/internet
-
of
-
things
-
consortium/


48

http://money.cnn.com/2012/09/15/technology/startups/smartthings
-
kickstarter/index.html?iid=F_Jump

49

http://connectedworldmag.com/10_2_magazinea
rticle.aspx?id=MAZ0130102124044637


50

http://techcrunch.com/2012/12/21/mobiles
-
next
-
major
-
integrated
-
layer
-
os
-
level
-
home
-
automation/

,
http://techcrunch.com/2013/01/03/microsoft
-
wins
-
out
-
over
-
apple
-
and
-
google
-
acquires
-
home
-
entertainment
-
and
-
automat
ion
-
company
-
r2
-
studios/

Note: For several years Microsoft Research has been working on HomeOS, an
operating system for home automation based on .NET that treats devices in the home as peripherals that are
managed by a central logical PC.
http://research.microsoft.com/pubs/157701/homeos.pdf

(paper),
http://research.microsoft.com/en
-
us/projects/homeos/

(proj
ect site)

51

http://techcrunch.com/2013/01/03/microsoft
-
wins
-
out
-
over
-
apple
-
and
-
google
-
acquires
-
home
-
ent
ertainment
-
and
-
automation
-
company
-
r2
-
studios/


52

http://www.csc.com/lef/ds/70921
-
the_future_of_healthcare
,

pp. 9
-
10.

53

http://www.economist.com/news/technology
-
quarterly/21567208
-
medical
-
technology
-
hand
-
held
-
diagnostic
-
devices
-
seen
-
star
-
trek
-
are
-
inspiring


54

http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887323783704578245973988828066.html
; related video at
http://live.wsj.com/video/apps
-
aim
-
to
-
detect
-
skin
-
cancer
-
2013
-
01
-
17
-
9115577/D636231A
-
E977
-
412B
-
A207
-
D9B3980CB34E.html#!D636231A
-
E977
-
412B
-
A207
-
D9B3980CB34E


55

http://www.thenewamerican.com/tech/computers/item/11286
-
us
-
military
-
seeking
-
implantable
-
microchips
-
in
-
soldiers

56

http://www.tuaw.com/2013/01/25/rock
-
center
-
looks
-
at
-
iphone
-
as
-
the
-
future
-
of
-
medicine/

[video at 7:00]

57

http://www.tuaw.com/2013/01/25/rock
-
center
-
looks
-
at
-
iphone
-
as
-
the
-
future
-
of
-
medicine/

[video at 8:17]

58

http://www.gereports.com/new_industrial_internet_service_technologies_from_ge_could_eliminate_150_billion_in
_waste/


App rEvolution

11 April 2013

CSC
Office of Innovation Technology Program


Erika Olimpiew,
eolimpiew@csc.com



©

2013

Computer Sciences Corporation. All Rights

Reserved.

50






59

http://www.gereports.com/new_industrial_internet_service_technologies_from_ge_could_eliminate_150_billion_in
_waste/
, report p. 12

60

http://www.gereports.com/new_industrial_internet_service_technologies_from_ge_could_eliminate_150_billion_in
_waste/
, report p. 31
-
33

61

Note this is a Microsoft link:
http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=4&ved=0CFsQFjAD&url=http%3A%2F%2
Fdownload.microsoft.com%2Fdownload%2F9%2F8%2F7%2F987535CB
-
834C
-
4652
-
84ED
-
4D0A215E7007%2FIDC%2520
-
%2520Intellige
nt%2520Systems%2520
-
%2520Next%2520Big%2520Opportunity%2520
-
%2520Final.pdf&ei=GW79UKbRLYm0qgGHzIH4Cg&usg=AFQjCNFMiQWwqonmYH2kN6f7yri7yDgqmQ&bv
m=bv.41248874,d.aWM

abstract p. 1

62

http://www.gereports.com/new_industrial_internet_service_technologies_from_ge_could_eliminate_150_billion_in
_waste/
, report p.

18.

63

http://www.acfr.usyd.edu.au/rtcma/


64

http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/embedded/intelligent
-
systems.html


http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/embedded/intelligent
-
systems
-
framework
-
video.html

(video on intelligent
systems)


65

http://www.bosch
-
si.com/media/en/bosch_software_innovations/documents/magazine/innovateit.pdf

, p. 8
.

66

http://edition.cnn.com/2012/11/28/business/china
-
internet
-
of
-
things/index.html


67

http://edition.cnn.com/2012/11/28/business/china
-
internet
-
of
-
things/index.html


68

http://blog.m2mapps.com/2012/05/31/on
-
your
-
marks
-
m2m
-
and
-
the
-
olympics/

http://www.telenorconnexion.com
/news/m2m
-
champions
-
teamed
-
up
-
to
-
create
-
speedy
-
solution
-
during
-
the
-
2012
-
olympic
-
and
-
paralympic
-
games


69

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RO6K3LUNCXs&list=PLLv1
AoV4
-
4v5OLv1nGs
-
ifLwrlfmmqDz_

[2:10
-
3:10]; see also:
http://www.csc.com/cloud/publications/93597/93605
-
9_cloud_computing_predictions_for_2013#


70

http://www.forbes.com/sites/rajsabhlok/2013/01/10/ces
-
2013
-
cios
-
search
-
for
-
the
-
next
-
killer
-
app/


71

Making Apps Useable on Multiple Different Mobile
Platforms: On Interoperability for Business Application
Development on Smartphones by A. Holzinger, P. Treitler and W. Slany, LNCS 7465, pp. 176
-
189, 2012.

72

http://www.telco2research.com/articles/EB_HTML5
-
what
-
does
-
it
-
mean
-
for
-
telcos_Summary


73

Appcelerator NBC Cast study pdf, p. 2.
http://www.appcelerator.com.s3.amazonaws.c
om/pdf/casestudy_nbc.pdf

74

Appcelerator NBC Cast study pdf, p. 5.
http://www.appcelerator.com.s3.amazonaws.com/pdf/casestudy_nbc.pdf


75

http://www
-
03.ibm.com/press/us/en/pressrelease/40410.wss


76

http://www.brianmadden.com/b
logs/jackmadden/archive/2012/06/08/app
-
wrapping
-
with
-
mocana
-
mobile
-
app
-
protection.aspx


77

“Follow
-
me Apps


An Evolution | Citrix Blogs.”

http://blogs.citrix.com/2012/09/04/follow
-
me
-
apps
-
an
-
evolution/


78

http://www.partnerpedia.com/products/enterprise
-
appzone


79

http://www.businessweek.com/technology/n
etapp
-
staffers
-
build
-
their
-
own
-
apps
-
02062012.html


80

http://www.businessweek.com/technology/netapp
-
staffers
-
build
-
their
-
own
-
apps
-
02062012.html

81

See list:
http://www.zdnet.com/blog/small
-
business
-
matters/14
-
diy
-
mobile
-
app
-
development
-
resources
-
for
-
small
-
businesses/2288


82

http://julysystems.com/customers/