Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication Toolkit for Wildfires

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Dec 10, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Revised and updated on
July
31
, 2013


PUBLIC HEALTH DIVISION

Health Security,
Pre
paredness and Response







Crisis and Emergency
Risk Communication
Tool
k
it for

Wildfires





Developed for Oregon Local Health Departments

by the
Oregon Health A
uthority
,

Public Health Division

Health Security, Preparedness
,

and Response

Program



CERC Toolkit for
Wildfires

Revised and updated on
July
31
, 2013

Page
2

of
72

TABLE OF CONTENT
S

INTRODUCTION


Introduction: Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication

3

Accessing the Most Up
-
To
-
Date Information

5

Crisis and Emergency Risk
Communication Lifecycle

6

PRE
-
CRISIS PHASE


Overview

7

Organizational
Objective
s

8

Tools for Monitoring and Recognizing
Emerging Risks

9

Serving the State’s Most Vulnerable Populations

13

Serving

Limited English Proficiency and
Culturally Diverse
Populations

16

Developing Consensus Recommendations

22

Testing
Messages for the Crisis Phases

28

Identifying Local and Seasonal Events for
Outreach and Education

30

Pre
-
Crisis Phase C
ommunication
Tools

31

Sample Preparedness Web Content

32

Key Preparedness

Messages

33

Sample Ou
treach
and

Educational Materials

3
4

CRISIS PHASE


Overview

3
5

C
risis
Phase
C
ommunication Tools

36

Lead Public Information Officer Sample Position Description

38

Accessing the Health Alert Network

40

Sample Web Content

41

Asthma and Wildfires

42

Reducing Smoke Exposure during Wildfires

43

Should I wear a dust mask or N95 respirator?


44

Press Release Templates

45

Sample Press Releas
e

49

Sample

Social Media

Messages

50

Sample Frequently Asked
Questions for Wildfires

52

List of Wildfire R
esourc
es

55

RECOVERY PHASE


Overview

56

Recovery
Phase
C
ommunication Tools

57

Sample Web Content

58

Sample Fact Sheet
s for Wildfire Recovery

59

“After a Home Fire” Checklist

61

Sample Press Releas
es

62

Sample Social Media Messages

64

Sam
ple Frequently Asked Question
s for Wildfire Recovery

66

After Action
Report

68

EVALUATION PHASE


Overview

69

Evaluation Tools

70


CERC Toolkit for
Wildfires

Revised and updated on
July
31
, 2013

Page
3

of
72

I
NTRODUCTION


This Crisis and Eme
rgency Risk Communication
(CERC)
Toolk
it has been developed to
provide
Oregon counties and tribes

with

a complete and ready
-
to
-
use communication
manual
for

wildfires
. It
is specifically designed to support writing and implementing
crisis communication messages during a hazard event

and

provides
most of

the
materials
,
templates, and sample messaging needed to
effectively
communicate

during
a wildfire

emergency
.


The

Toolkit has been designed to cover all phases of an emergency event
, collectively
known as the CERC Lifecycle
.
Because
c
ommunication
intentions

vary
for each phase,

the

detail
ed goals and objectives

are outlined in each section

along with materials

needed
to meet those goals
. The
CERC Lifecycle
Chart

in the next section

provides a summary
of the
se

contents
.


In order to effectively and efficiently utilize the communication
materials

included in this
T
oolk
it, the following items from your
county’s or tribe’s
communication plan are
necessary
:



Media Contact List



Local Part
ners Contact List



Special Populations List



Policies for information and message c
learance



Policies for
message dissemination


Oregon Wildfire Response Protocol

Prior to planning any wildfire communication,
please review the Oregon Wildfire
Response Protocol with
your preparedness coordinator and health

administrator.



This protocol provides guidance for local, tribal, state and federal agencies that will be
involved in a wildfire response. The protocol is
focused specifically on smoke/air quality
impacts and threats to the public’s health.


Oregon Wildfire Response Protocol is available online:
http://www.deq.state.or.us/aq/burning/docs/WFresponse.pdf
.




CERC Toolkit for
Wildfires

Revised and updated on
July
31
, 2013

Page
4

of
72












N
OTICE

If
you are currently experiencing
wildfire and air quality issues
, turn to
the Crisis Phase section of this toolkit,
which is marked by
red bands

on the
right margins of the pa
ges

N
OTICE


CERC Toolkit for
Wildfires

Revised and updated on
July
31
, 2013

Page
5

of
72

A
CCESSING THE
M
OST
U
P
-
TO
-
D
ATE
I
NFORMATION

This Toolkit draws most of its communication tools from a
handful

of websites
, and

the
state will
annually
revise the contents of
this toolkit
to ensure
that accurate and useful
information is provided
throughout this document.


To guarantee

the most up
-
to
-
date information and resources,
however,
you may wish to
access th
e
se

websites directly.



Oregon’s
Wildfire

Preparedness page:
http://public.health.oregon.gov/preparedness/prepare/pages/prepareforwildfire.asp
x



Oregon’s Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) Air Quality page:
http://www.oregon.gov/DEQ/AQ/Pages/index.aspx



CDC’s
Wildfire

Preparedness page:
http://emergency.cdc.gov/disasters/wildfires/



American Red Cross
Wildfire

Preparedness page:

http://www.redcross.org/prepare/disaster/wildfire



U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) wildfires page:
www.ready.gov/wildfires


Content Syndication from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Content syndication gives you the ability to add CDC content to your websites. When content is updated at
the source, those updates immedi
ately appear on your site, saving valuable time and ensuring that CDC
content on your website is as up
-
to
-
date as possible.


The process is as easy as
identifying the content you want
and then pasting a small section of
code from the CDC website to
yours.


For more information visit the
CDC’s Content Syndication
webpage here:
https://tools.cdc.gov/syndication/L
earnMore.aspx
.


An instructional video is available
on YouTube at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=
UsjdMcRTa_A#!


The Content Syndication
Frequently Asked Questions page
is here:
https://tools.cdc.gov/syndication/fa
qs.aspx


The complete Content Syndication User Guide is here:
https://tools.cdc.gov/syndication/App_Themes/CDC/pdf/CS_User_Guide_v2.pdf


Content syndication support
staff can also be contacted at
IMTTeck@cdc.gov
.

CERC Toolkit for
Wildfires

Revised and updated on
Ju
ly

31
, 2013

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of
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Pre
-
Crisis

Crisis

Recovery

Evaluation

C
RISIS AND
E
MERGENCY
R
ISK
C
OMMUNICATION
L
IFECYCLE

Goal:
Increase
p
reparedness




Deliver

risk m
essages



Describe warning
signs



Provide examples of
p
reparatory
a
ctions








Materials



Website materials



Outreach and
educational materials

Goal: Provide up
-
to
-
date and
accurate informa
tion to empower
decision
-
making and prompt action




Express
empathy



Provide available information on
current event



Explain the risks of this hazard



Provide self
-
efficacy messages
about safety and how and where to
get more information



Explain the process of what your
local health department is doing


Materials



Fact
sheets



Press releases



Web content



Talking points



Social media messages



Frequently Asked Questions



Resource list

Goal: Provide information
about ongoing cleanup,
mitigation
, recovery,
and
rebuilding
efforts




Increase public understanding
of new and emerging risks



Provide information and
actions for risk avoidance
behaviors and response
behaviors



Use the event as a “teachable
moment” to highlight future
灲p灡re摮d獳e獳s来s


Materials



Fact sheets



Press release



Web content



Talking points



Social media messages



Frequently
A
sked
Q
uestions

Goal: Discuss adequacy of
response
and l
essons learned




Determine communication
effectiveness



Document lessons learned



Improve communication
plan



Create linkages
to pre
-
crisis activities and
messages



Develop

and i
mprove
messages based on
evaluation findings


Materials



After action reports



Communication
Surveillance Reports

CERC Toolkit for
Wildfires

Revised and updated on
July
31
, 2013


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7

of
72

P
RE
-
C
RISIS
P
HASE



The Pre
-
Crisis phase is where all the planning and preparedness communication
is

done.
Both the general public and the response communities are included in planning during
this phase.
Communication and education campaigns to facilitate preparedness and fos
ter
community resilience

also

occur at this stage.







Organizational Objectives

High priority



Monitor and recognize emerging
health
risks



Foster alliances and cooperation with local agencies, organizations, and groups



Review and develop consensus on recommendations with subject matter experts
and partner agencies



Create or translate messages for limited English proficiency populations
1



Develop and test messages
2


Lower priority



Identify local and seasonal events for outreach and education


Communication Objectives



Influence risk perception by describing the hazard, potential damage, and personal
safety concerns



Provide specific actions
people can take to prepare for the hazard



Provide reminders and reinforcement of preparedness actions



Provide specific warning messages regarding some eminent threat such as
evacuation notices, take shelter warnings, etc.



State the progress that local
health agencies are making in coordination with other
agencies to prepare for the event






1

Contact the state’s Emergency Risk Communication Officer for translation support.

2

Contact the state’s

Emergency Risk Communication Officer for support in message testing.

Pre
-
Crisis

Goal:
Increase p
reparedness




Deliver risk m
essages



Describe w
arning

signs



Provide examples of p
reparatory
a
ctions

CERC Toolkit for
Wildfires

Revised and updated on
July
31
, 2013


Page
8

of
72

P
RE
-
C
RISIS
O
RGANIZATIONAL
O
BJECTIVE
S


Tools for Monitoring and Recognizing Emerging Risks

For at
-
a
-
glance resources
for

recognizing an event, this section provides quick references

to aid in identifying a

hazard. Whether in the form of graphs, charts, or tables, these
materials will be useful in
to fully understand the nuances and dynamics of t
he event.


Serving the State’s Most Vulnerable Populations

Counties and tribes already have
a range of strategies on place for serving the state’s
most vulnerable populations, and most of this work involves
dynamic and productive
relationships with

community partners. This section is designed to
help agencies

meet
collaborative and
strategic public health communication
goals

for this particular hazard
.


Serving

Limited English

Proficiency and
Culturally Diverse
Populations

With over 50 languages spoken in Oregon, each
region’s

translation needs are unique.
This document provide
s

suggestions for

the development

and translation of

materials

so
that
non
-
English
-
speaking
residents
have

equal

access to critical
information.



Developing Consensus

Recommendations

Every

program manager, director, and stakeholder

at the table brings a different and
unique perspective,
and this collaboration

can sometimes result in disagreement over how
to deliver key messages. This section offers strategies
for developing

content

that will
inspire

consensus among the various voices that make up your agency.

Complete with
examples for how to deliver on each recommendation, as well as tips to bring about rapid
information clearance, these
suggestions from the CDC’s
Crisis and Emergency Risk
Communication, 2012 Edition

(
http://emergency.cdc.gov/cerc/pdf/CERC_2012edition.pdf
)
provide useful advice for
how to minimize delays during
activations.


Testing Messages

Experience and training are key to ga
ining the know
-
how for
developing messages

during
events. Equally necessary, though, is

the testing and evaluation of emergency risk
communications to more accurately
assess

whether and how important messages are
received. Because the reception of

information can vary between communities, it’s
critical to study and understand the outcomes

of message delivery. In support of this
objective, this section provides resources and recommendations
that will allow your
agency to test and evaluate how your m
essages are being received.


Identifying Local and Seasonal Events for Outreach and Education

Seasonal events are a perfect opportunity

to deliver messages about

risk
-
reduction and
safety during

seasonal emergencie
s. Whether it’s at County Fairs, Street Art Events, or
Music Festivals
, your agency can share preparedness and safety tips
with thousands

of
residents in your community.



CERC Toolkit for
Wildfires

Revised and updated on
July
31
, 2013


Page
9

of
72

T
OOLS FOR
M
ONITORING AND
R
ECOGNIZING
E
MERGING
R
ISKS


The following resources will
provide information about emerging risks associated with
wildfires and poor air quality.


Oregon
ESSENCE



Oregon’s

Preparedness Surveillance Epidemiology Team (PSET)
has implemented the
Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of
Communit
y
-
based Epidemics (ESSENCE) program,

which provides real
-
time data for
public health and hospitals to monitor emergency department

activity

across the state
before, during, and after a public health emergency.

For more information, email

Oregon.Essence@state.or.us
.


Local Emergency Planning Committees (
LEPC
)



Local
Emergency Planning
Committee
s are part of the Right
-
to
-
Know Act. The emergency planning requirements
are designed to help communities prepare for and respond to emergencies involving
hazards and hazardous substances
, and every community in the United States must be a
part of a compre
hensive plan.
3

V
isit
http://www.oregon.gov/OSP/SFM/pages/local_emergency_planning_committees.aspx


Healthcare Coalition



Participating in your local Healthcare Co
alition will help keep
your region informed of the events

and risks in your area. For details on how to get
involved, contact
your region’s Healthcare Preparedness Liaison
.


Oregon’s Preparedness Website



Oregon’s Preparedness webpages are regularly
updat
ed with the most recent public health information as soon as it becomes available.
The
Wildfire Preparedness webpage can be found here:
http://public.health.
oregon.gov/preparedness/prepare/pages/prepareforwildfire.aspx


Health Alert Network (HAN)



Oregon's Health Alert Network / HOSCAP (Hospital
Capacity) System connects public health, hospitals, clinics, laboratories, public safety,
and EMS. The systems feature a variety of secure web applications accessed by partners
throughout Oregon and SW Wa
shington. The system is funded by the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention and managed by the Public Health Division of the Oregon Health
Authority.


Northwest Coordination Center (NWCC)



T
he NWCC serves as the focal point for
interagency resource c
oordination, logistics support, aviation support
,

and predictive
services for all state and federal agencies involved in wildland fire management and
suppression in the region.
Visit
http://www.nwccweb.us

for more inf
ormation.


InciWeb



An

interagency all
-
risk incident information management system. The system
was developed with two primary missions:

1.

Provide the public a single source of incident related information




3

“Emergency Planning and Community Right
-
to
-
Know Act (EPCRA) Local Emerge
ncy Planning
Requirements,” Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Emergency Management website at
www.epa.gov/osweroe1/content/epcra/epcra_plan.htm


CERC Toolkit for
Wildfires

Revised and updated on
July
31
, 2013


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2.

Provide a standardized reporting tool for the Public

Affairs community

Visit
http://www.inciweb.org/
.


HSPR’s Communication Surveillance Reports (CSR)



The Health Security,
Preparedness, and Response (HSPR) Team delivers daily, steady state media reports
regarding ongoing communication activities. To sign
-
up to receive these email updates,
contact the Emergency Risk Communication Officer.


During
activations, the HSPR Program also delivers CSRs for crisis events. As with the
steady state reports, contact the Emergency Risk Communication Officer to sign up for
daily CSR media monitoring regarding extreme heat.



R
EQUESTING
M
EDIA
M
ONITORING AND
C
OMMU
NICATION
S
URVEILLANCE
R
EPORTS
FOR
A
CTIVATIONS


In addition to the HSPR Program’s daily Communication Surveillance Reports (CSR),
CSRs are generated for activations of specific hazards. In order to request a daily CSR
specific to the extreme heat event in y
our community, contact the Emergency Risk
Communication Officer with the following information:






















NEWS MEDIA MONITORIN
G


Hazard or Event
: Extreme Heat

County or Region Affected
:


Contact Person
:

Email and Phone Number
:


Possible
Keywords

(include areas and regions, name of inc
ident, hashtags being used
for this event, other possibly useful keywords, etc.):



Projected timeline

or indications of events start and end points:


CERC Toolkit for
Wildfires

Revised and updated on
July
31
, 2013


Page
11

of
72

Traditional and social media can be monitored for each
individual hazard using keywords
and date ranges to get the latest and most relevant offerings.
4


Keywords vary according to incident, and it’s critical to search by a range of keywords to
ensure the inclusion of all applicable information. For example, in

conducting media
monitoring searches for the Hepatitis A outbreak in Spring 2013, one would search for all
of the following: Hepatitis A outbreak, Costco, frozen berries, vaccination, Fairview, OR,
Hep A, Townsend Farms, etc. Also, the keywords may evolve

over the course of an
incident as new locations and details about the incident emerge.


Narrowing searches by date range is also critical as it identifies the latest information,
trends, and rumors. It allows excludes the most recent postings from those t
hat have
already been read.


The following are search resources to access emerging news via traditional outlets and
social media.


Google News

(traditional news)


http://news.google.com/

Google’s news website
functions similarly to the company’s general search
engine: keywords and date ranges help users locate the precise information being
sought. Other features include exact terms searches, word exclusions, and
regional results.


Homeland Security Information
Network

(traditional news)


http://www.dhs.gov/homeland
-
security
-
information
-
network

The Homeland Security Information Network (HSIN) is a national secure and
trusted web
-
based
portal for information
-
sharing and collaboration between
federal, state, local, tribal, territorial, private sector, and international partners
engaged in the homeland security mission.


Special access is required.

To become a member of HSIN, visit the web
site
linked above, or email the HSIN program at
HSIN.Outreach@HQ.DHS.gov
.


HootSuite

(Twitter and other social media platforms)


http://hootsuite.com/

HootSuite is a soc
ial media management system for businesses and organizations
to collaboratively execute campaigns across multiple social networks from one
secure, web
-
based dashboard. Key social network integrations include Facebook,
Twitter, LinkedIn, and new Google+ Pag
es, plus a suite of social content apps for
YouTube, Flickr, and Tumblr among others.


Registration is free but required.


To create a “stream,”



Click the
House

icon on the left side tool bar.




4

For a more detailed outlin
e of standard operating procedures on media monitoring and Communication
Surveillance Reports, contact the state’s Emergency Risk Communication Officer.

CERC Toolkit for
Wildfires

Revised and updated on
July
31
, 2013


Page
12

of
72



Click “+ Add Stream” at the top left corner.







“Add Strea
m” box will pop up.



For the most recent tweets, click on
Twitter

icon on the left tool bar, then
on
Keyword

icon on the top toolbar.




Enter activation keywords. The Public Information Officer will provide
the most accurate keywords to use.



Once a
keyword is entered, a stream will be created. Multiple streams can
be created using a variety of keyword searches.


Topsy

(Twitter)


http://topsy.com/

Topsy provides deep, comprehensive analyses of hundreds of billions of

Tweets
and web pages gathered from millions of unique websites, blogs, and social media
services. Topsy’s platform leverages these social conversations to index, analyze,
and rank content and trends.


Searches can be conducted using hashtags or not (i.e.
#H7N9 or H7N9), and
different results will be yielded with each approach.


Oregonian

News Network

(blogs)


http://www.oregonlive.com/news
-
network/

Oregon Live,

The Oregonian
’s website, features the
Oregonian News Network,
which collates and promotes independent interactive journalism across Oregon
and the Northwest. To access the most recent blog posts, click on the Oregonian
News Network webpage, and scan through the Latest Stories.


Google Blog Sea
rch

(blogs)


http://www.google.com/blogsearch

Similar to others of Google’s search engines, Google’s Blog Search allows for
keywords and date ranges to help users locate the precise information being
sought
. Other features include exact terms searches, word exclusions, and
regional results.



CERC Toolkit for
Wildfires

Revised and updated on
July
31
, 2013


Page
13

of
72

S
ERVING THE
S
TATE

S
M
OST
V
ULNERABLE
P
OPULATIONS


Masks



To access particulate respirator masks for county or tribal employees working in
or near high exposure areas, c
ontact the state.


Supporting Vulnerable Populations



Create relationships with community based and
non
-
profit organizations in your area to generate preparedness plans to support the
homeless, older adults, and other groups most vulnerable under conditio
ns of poor air
quality.


American Red Cross, Local Chapters



Collaborate with your local American Red
Cross chapter for planning and preparedness for your region. There are five Red Cross
chapters located throughout the state:


The American Red Cross,
Oregon Mountain River

Location: Bend, Oregon

Phone: 541
-
382
-
2142

Serving Deschutes, Grant, Jefferson, Crook, Wheeler, and Harney
Counties and the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs and Burns
Paiute Tribe


The American Red Cross, Oregon Trail

Location: Por
tland, Oregon

Phone: 503
-
284
-
1234

Serving
Baker, Clackamas, Clatsop, Columbia, Hood River, Gilliam,
Morrow, Multnomah, Sherman, Tillamook, Umatilla, Union,
Wallowa, Wasco, Washington, and Yamhill Counties and the
Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian
Reservation



The American Red Cross, Oregon Pacific

Location: Eugene, Oregon

Phone: 541
-
344
-
5244

Serving Benton, Coos, Douglas, Lane, and Linn Counties and the
Confederated Tribes of the Coos, Lower Umpqua, and Siuslaw, the
Coquille Indian Tribe, and the
Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe
of Indians


The American Red Cross, Southern Oregon

Location: Medford, Oregon

Phone: 541
-
779
-
3773

Serving Curry, Jackson, Josephine, Klamath, and Lake Counties and the
Klamath Tribes


The American Red Cross, Willamette

Locati
on: Salem, Oregon

Phone: 503
-
585
-
5414

CERC Toolkit for
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Revised and updated on
July
31
, 2013


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Serving Lincoln, Marion, and Polk Counties and the Confederated Tribes
of the Grand Ronde Community of Oregon and the Confederated
Tribes of Siletz Indians


Schools



Contact the local public and private schools in your region to ensure that each
has a protocol for what to do in the event of a Smoke Day. The State of Oregon
Department of Environmental Quality recommends the following guidelines:
5



Recommended Public

Health Actions

Based on smoke duration (rolling 24
-
hr average)

AQI Category

(24
-
hr average
PM
2.5
in μg/m
3
)


24 Hours


24
-
72 Hours


More than 72 Hours

Good

(0
-
12

μg/m
3
)

If smoke event is
forecasted, implement
communication plan



Moderate

(13
-
35 μg/m
3
)

Respond to media as
needed


Distribute information
about exposure avoidance

same as 24
-
hr

same as 24
-
hr

Unhealthy for
Sensitive
Groups

(36
-
65 μg/m
3
)

Issue press/website
releases identifying
sensitive groups, potential
health effects and
symptoms, and
ways to
reduce exposure

Issue press/website releases
identifying sensitive groups,
potential health effects +
symptoms and ways to reduce
exposure (shelter
-
in
-
place,
move to cleaner air setting in
community, or consider leaving
area until air quality impro
ves)

Issue press/website releases
identifying sensitive groups,
potential health effects +
symptoms and ways to reduce
exposure (shelter
-
in
-
place,
move to cleaner air setting in
community, or consider leaving
area until air quality improves)


Consider open
ing and
publicizing clean air shelter for
sensitive groups

Unhealthy

(66
-
150 μg/m
3
)

Consider “Smoke Days”
for schools (a no school
day, and canceling
outdoor school events)


Consider cancelling
outdoor public events


Recommend that
sensitive groups
shelter
-
in
-
place

Recommend Smoke Days for
schools (assess if indoor AQ is
better than outdoors)


Recommend public limit
strenuous outdoor activities


Recommend cancelling outdoor
public events.


Recommend that sensitive
groups shelter
-
in
-
place or
consider
leaving area until AQ
improves

Recommend Smoke Days for
schools (check if school indoor
AQ is safer and more protective
of health)


Recommend public limit
strenuous outdoor activities


Recommend cancelling outdoor
public events


Open and publicize clean ai
r
shelters for sensitive groups




5

“Oregon Wildfire Response Protocol for Severe Smoke Episodes,” May 2013.
http://www.deq.state.or.us/aq/burning/docs/WFresponse.pdf

CERC Toolkit for
Wildfires

Revised and updated on
July
31
, 2013


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Very
Unhealthy

(151
-
250 μg/m
3
)

-

Recommend Smoke
Days for schools
(assess if indoor AQ
is better than
outdoors)

-

Recommend public
limit strenuous
outdoor activities

-

Recommend
cancelling outdoor
public events.

-

Consider public
announcement
recommending
shelter
-
in
-
place for
general population

-

Cancel outdoor public
events

-


Cancel school (unless AQ
better than outdoors).

-

Recommend shelter
-
in
-
place for general
population

-

Share info about periods of
improved AQ to guide
essential out
door activity
and ventilation of dwellings

-

Warn about medical risk
for sensitive groups and
encourage them to shelter
-
in
-
place or leave area until
AQ improves

-

Cancel outdoor public
events

-

Cancel school (unless AQ
better than outdoors).

-

Recommend shelter
-
i
n
-
place

-

Share info about periods of
improved AQ to guide
essential outdoor activity
and ventilation of dwellings

-

Warn about medical risk
for sensitive groups and
encourage them to use
clean air shelters or leave
area until AQ improves

-

Consider opening and

publicizing clean air
shelters for general
population


Hazardous

(>251
μg/m
3
)

-

Recommend shelter
-
in
-
place

-

Warn about medical
risk for sensitive
groups

-

Recommend voluntary
evacuation for sensitive
groups.

-

Consider opening and
publicizing clean air
shelters

for general
population

-

Recommend evacuation of
sensitive groups.

-

Open and publicize clean
air shelters for general
population



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S
ERVING
L
IMITED
E
NGLISH
P
ROFICIENCY AND
C
ULTURALLY
D
IVERSE
P
OPULATIONS


LIMITED ENGLISH PROF
ICIENCY

POPULATIONS


In Oregon, the size of the foreign
-
born limited English proficiency (LEP) population
grew 197.3 percent between 1990 and 2000 and another 28.5 percent between 2000 and
2011.
In 2011, 50.9 percent of Oregon's total foreign
-
born population belonged to LEP
gr
oups compared with 52.3 percent in 2000 and 36.7 percent in 1990.
6


One common characteristic of
LEP
populations is their low levels of health literacy due
to
language and cultural barriers.
7

Limited health literacy

is

defined as the degree to
which individuals can access and understand basic health information,
and the impacts of
these limitations
disproportionately
affect

racial a
nd ethnic minorities
.

In terms of
emergencies, limited health literacy negatively
determi
nes

the likelihood that LEP
populations will hear, understand, and act on important health messages, placing them
and their families at a higher risk for negative consequenc
es associated with emergencies
.


Common tips for communicating with non
-
English spe
akers include:



For preparedness and standard messaging, develop translations

in

advance
for fact
sheets, Q&A documents, and key messages

so they are
available
when an
emergency strikes
.



Have translation services identified in advance of an emergency so

new

information

can quickly be translated when an event occurs.



Identify spokespersons that can address non
-
English speakers.



Integrate responsibility for ensuring translation services into the role of a public
information officer or a community educator.



Include non
-
English messages on emergency hotline numbers.



Ensure that your media distribution lists represent radio, print, and television
outlets that are as diverse as your population.



LANGUAGES SPOKEN IN
OREGON
8


The following is a chart of languages

spoken throughout Oregon. For specific
breakdowns of languages spoken in each of the 32 counties, visit
http://www.mla.org/map_data&dcwindow=same
.





6

Migration Policy Institute, MPI Data Hub, “Oregon Fact Sheet.”
http://www
.migrationinformation.org/datahub/state2.cfm?ID=or

7

US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion,
“Quick Guide to Health Literacy: Fact Sheets, Strategies, and Resources,” p. 2.1,
http://www.health.gov/communication/literacy/quickguide/quickguide.pdf

8

Modern Language Association Language Map Data Center.
http://www
.mla.org/map_data&dcwindow=same
. Retrieved June 24, 2013.

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Languages spoken by fewer than 3,000 people (or less than .08% of the population) are
not included on this chart but can be found on the Modern Language Association website
http://www.mla.org/map_da
ta&dcwindow=same
.

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SPANISH LANGUAGE RES
OURCES ON WILDFIRES


As Spanish is the language spoken by 60% of limited English proficiency Oregonians,
the following are resources for Spanish language emergency public health messaging on
wildfires.


American Red Cross / Cruz Roja Americana



http://www.redcross.org/cruz
-
roja/preparate/incendios


The American Red Cross’s Spanish language wildfires website contains
information on Prep
aredness, What to Do during a Wildfire, Creating a Plan, and
More Information. Most useful about this website is that the content isn’t a
n on
-
demand translation from the English language information; rather, the webpages
contain tips and recommendations th
at are designed for a Spanish
-
speaking
population.


Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)



http://www.osha.gov/dts/wildfires/spanish/index_sp.html


A lengthy resource for every aspect of wildfire
public

health preparedness
including PDFs on carbon monoxide
poisoning, electrical

safety, and respirators
among several dozen other subjects.


U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency’s Ready.gov

/
Agencia F
ederal para
Manejo de Emergencias



http://www.ready.gov/translations/spanish/america/beinformed/fires.html


The Spanish language Wildfires webpage contains instruction
s that cover
Preparedness, Creating a Plan, and Staying Informed with links that take users to
a range of websites with valuable resources.



TRANSLATION SERVICES

AND RESOURCES


Local Health Department Communication Offices sometimes offer translation services,
but in the event that these services cannot be delivered, the
state is available to develop
any necessary materials. To access non
-
English language translations, contact th
e state’s
Emergency Risk Communication Officer.


For free online translation services, the following resources are often recommended.
As
with any automated translation resource, it’s critical that emergency information be
proofread, edited, and approved by

someone (human) who is linguistically and culturally
fluent in the non
-
English language.


Google Translate



translate.google.com

G
oogle Translate supports over 50 languages and another 20 with limited
vocabularies. Entire documents in a range of formats (.doc, .docx, .pdf,
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etc.) can be uploaded and translated. For more information about Google
Translate, visit
http://translate.google.com/about/intl/en_ALL/


Bing Translator

-

http://www.bing.com/translator

Bing Translator offers translations into over 40 languages. It can translate
in text or html formats. For more information about Bing Translator, visit
http://www.bing.com/translator/help/


These two res
ources are the free online services with the best reviews, although an online
search for “online translator” yields over 31 million results. For one
-
click access to those
Google search results, use this hyperlink:
http://lmgtfy.com/?q=online+translator
.



CULTURALLY DIVERSE P
OPULATIONS
9


Culture is a complex set of values, ideas, attitudes, and symbols that shape behavior. It
consists of the language, beliefs, behaviors, objects, and traditions that are

characteristic
of members who belong to a particular group. This may be a society, a nation, an
institution, a regional group, or an ethnic group. Bear in mind the following aspects of
culture:




People self
-
identify through their cultural affiliation and
take meaning from their
experiences.



Cultural norms are transmitted from one generation to the next and to new
members as they identify with that group.



People can belong to several cultural groups at the same time. Most people
identify to one degree or an
other with their primary culture. But people are also
members of smaller subgroups within this larger culture. This includes groups
based on community, region, religion, or ethnicity.



Culture is adaptive. As the needs of a society change, its values change

to meet
those needs. Because cultural norms influence how people live and behave,
culture has important implications for communication, including emergency
communication.


The United States is culturally diverse, and growing more so. According to the 2010

U.S.
Census Bureau report, minorities are about 35% of the U.S. population. In addition,
almost 20% speak a language other than English at home and 12% are foreign
-
born. It is
estimated that these minority populations will become the majority by 2042 with

one in
three U.S. residents being Hispanic. By 2023, more than half of all children will be of a
minority race.


Public health communicators need to be aware of the cultural diversity in the populations
they serve. They also need to be aware of how cultur
al factors affect communication
during a crisis:




9

Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication
, 2012 Edition
, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, pp
61
-
63.
http://emergency.cdc.gov/cerc/pdf/CERC_2012edition.pdf

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Language
: About 30 languages are commonly spoken in U.S. households.
English is the most common, spoken by about 82% of the population. Spanish is
the second most common, spoken by about 12%.




The perceptio
n of risk
: Different cultures have very different experiences with
risk and have often developed specific methods of risk management. For example,
African Americans in New Orleans saw how Hurricane Katrina affected their
community disproportionately.
Some
communities have cultural practices that
enhance their risk of illness such as eating potentially harmful foods.
Discussions
of risk should be sensitive to these cultural differences.




Beliefs about institutions, including government
: Cultural and ethnic
groups
often develop their own institutions, such as faith
-
based organizations, social
groups, nongovernmental organizations, and political organizations and identify
with those institutions. Some may have had different experiences with
government agencies

and may not trust that agencies are always helpful or care
about their values.




Credible sources of information
: Cultural groups often develop their own
networks of communication. Ethnic media outlets, such as newspapers, radio
stations, television statio
ns, and Internet
-
based media, are among the fastest
growing media in the country. They are particularly important sources of
information for new Americans.




Rituals for grieving and death
: Most cultures have specific, relatively unique
beliefs, rituals, an
d practices for death, dying, and grieving. These may be
impacted during a crisis. For example, some cultures believe that grieving should
be intensely private. They may feel that the presence of the media interferes with
this practice.




Beliefs about fami
ly relationship and roles
: Many cultures and ethnic groups
look to their family as the main point of cultural reference. Families can exert
strong influences on individual behavior. In fact, specific expectations and roles
can develop for various family me
mbers such as a father, mother, and first
-
born
son.




Beliefs about acceptable and appropriate forms of communication
: Cultures
may dictate communication protocols, including rules for who talks to whom and
who represents or speaks for the family or even a
community. Norms may exist
for how direct messages can be and which nonverbal messages, such as eye
contact or hand movement, are appropriate.




Emphasis on the individual versus the group
: Some cultures emphasize that the
rights and needs of the individual

are more important than those of the group or
community. Others believe that the needs of the group should take priority. These
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differences may influence the kinds of risk messages that are prepared and the
ways in which communities respond to a crisis. I
n one case, vaccinations may be
offered to individuals and promoted as a way to protect one’s self. In the other
case, families may be encourage
d to get vaccinated as a group.


Culture is among the most complex communication issues to manage during a crisi
s. The
more you know about a particular cultural group, the greater the chance your
c
ommunication will be effective.


There’s little time to acquire detailed cultural knowledge during a crisis. You may need
to turn to a cultural agent, a person from that c
ulture, perhaps a leader or respected elder,
who can help you understand how a particular culture will view an issue. Be aware that
cultures are not always unified. It may be challenging to find a cultural agent who is
accepted by all. It is important to b
uild ties to various ethnic and cultural communities
before a crisis occurs, as illustrated by the case presentation at the end of this chapter.



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D
EVELOPING
C
ONSENSUS
R
ECOMMENDATIONS
10


The pre
-
crisis phase is an important time when consensus can be
developed about
response strategies. Leaders should be pressured to finalize protocols for action. These
pre
-
crisis actions can save valuable time during an emergency. In addition, audiences can
be educated about risks and encouraged to prepare. It is also

a time when carefully
crafted messages can help build consensus around recommendations for action and
facilitate planning.


Messages built around the following strategies will help increase effective planning and
preparation:



Increase the expected gains
from planning and preparation and decrease the
expected costs.



Increase the social pressure for preparation and planning.



Improve the individual’s ability to act by educating and providing information.



Decrease the desirability of competitive alternative a
ctions that may be taken
instead of planning.


For example, if you want to encourage a community to prepare family emergency kits
,
consider doing the following:




Increase expected gains
: Share anecdotes about families who had kits and how
they benefited fr
om them in earlier disasters. Offer several possible cases where
the kit would be important.




Decrease the expected costs
: Decrease the expected cost for a kit and explain
what a family can receive for the price. Point out its longevity and value as a
safe
ty product for the home.




Increase social pressure
: Involve the community neighborhood watch program
in promoting the development of kits. Ask community
-

and faith
-
based
organizations to also help promote emergency kits. Ask neighbors to help each
other de
velop kits specific to the community’s anticipated needs. Use all
communication channels to share information about civic groups involved in kit
projects.




Improve the individual’s ability to act
: Make the list of kit items easy to use
and widely available
. Encourage partner retailers to discount safety kit items
during key times of the year, such as during hurricane season in Florida.




Decrease competitive alternatives
: Explain how putting together kits need not
cost much, nor take much time. Explain that
expensive prepackaged kits are less
desirable, because they are not designed for each family’s individual needs.




10

Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication
, 2012 Edition
, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
pp 60
-
61.
http://emergency.cd
c.gov/cerc/pdf/CERC_2012edition.pdf

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Consider a second example. What if there’s a targeted population that remains indoors
during the course of an infectious disease outbreak? Thi
s group may not want to travel to
the emergency room or hospital during the outbreak, but you might consider the
following:




Increase the expected gains
: Self
-
imposed isolation will protect people from
unnecessary exposure. It is possible to avoid red tape

and emergency room
waiting time if they call a community nurse hotline. A trained nurse will assess
their risk by phone and empower them to make the best decision about additional
care.




Decrease the expected costs
: If the nurse agrees that a doctor or ho
spital visit is
needed, an e
-
mail of the hotline contact with the patient’s name will be placed on
a reservation list at the medical facility. This will give the patient priority in the
waiting room, meaning he or she will be placed ahead of those who have

not gone
through the screening process.




Increase present social pressure
: Engage community, civic leaders, and trusted
health
-
care professionals to present the benefits of using the hotline. Messages by
leaders can explain the reduction of confusion by
allowing dedicated health
-
care
workers to treat those in immediate need of care.




Improve the individual’s ability to act
: Widely publicize a toll
-
free number,
ensure that contact is made with little or no waiting, and ensure that a satisfaction
check is m
ade before the call ends.



I
NFORMATION
C
LEARANCE
11


One core function of crisis communication is information clearance. Does your plan
specify who absolutely must review a new piece of information before it’s released
from the organization or before it’s
incorporated into an overall release

from a
higher authority?


Crisis communication involves a fundamental tension between two elements:



The need to ensure that information is confirmed to be accurate through a
clearance process



The need to ensure that inf
ormation is communicated quickly


Important clearance
-
related guidelines include the following:



Release accurate information quickly. If you don’t, your organization may
publicly fall flat on its face. Use the following approaches:




11

Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication
, 2012 Edition
, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
pp 99
-
101.
http://emergency.cdc.gov/cerc/pdf/CER
C_2012edition.pdf

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o

Prioritize information
as “need to know” versus “want to know” and get
moving on what must be
answered first.

o

If an answer to a “need to know” question has not yet been formulated,
give the media and the public information about your process or system
for getting that answer.



Have three people clear a document before it’s released from the organization:

o

The communication director responsible for your organization’s reputation

o

The policy director who is responsible for ensuring that the information
does not counter organization
policy

o

A subject matter expert (SME) who is both fast and knowledgeable



Keep the legal department out of the clearance process unless the subject has
specific legal implications.



If appropriate, you may have others review and comment on the document, but
n
ot delay its release.



Follow your organization’s protocol to receive clearance from higher authorities.



Ensure that response partners know what new information you’re planning to
release as a courtesy to those partners.



Have the mechanism in place to give
a courtesy check to those response agencies
with a stake in your communication.



Focus on content and information rather than form. Limit excessive tinkering with
phrases. While the form of a message matters, form is not the function of the
clearance proces
s.



Clear all information simultaneously and in person, whenever possible. Unless it
is possible to get the primary clearance authorities in one room with the door
closed and no phones, do the following:

o

Make three copies.

o

Take one copy to each person. Wait

while he or she reviews and approves
the document.

o

Point out any part of the document that needs careful consideration.

o

Ask if he or she would be comfortable seeing this as a news headline.

o

Reinforce that the information you’ve compiled and are attempting

to get
cleared answers important questions from the public, the media, and
partners. It may also answer questions in response to troubling trends from
your own analysis of where the subject might be headed.


Work with personnel in your organization to kee
p the clearance process seamless:



It’s difficult to delegate clearance; be prepared to do it yourself.



Be realistic about the time clearance will take, and build it into your schedule.

o

The communication director will be busy and may delegate a surrogate t
o
handle his or her part of the clearance chain. Accept this delegation.

o

Educate everyone involved in the development and release of information
about clearance steps. Set an expectation for time from development to
release.

o

Help responsible authorities un
derstand that it is worse to release nothing
than to release inform
ation that is not yet complete.

o

Get “need to know”

information out the door fast.

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o

Get “want to know” information released as soon as possible without
straining relationships with authoritie
s
who must clear new information.



Have as much in
formation on a topic pre
-
cleared as possible. This is a key aspect
of emergency communication:

o

Make sure that pre
-
developed information is sensitive to the conditions of
the current crisis before it is relea
sed.

o

Choose words carefully from the start. People are far more sensitive in
crises.


The following is a flow chart developed by the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention for the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS
-
CoV) of
2013
12

and is
a useful resource for general information clearance.





S
AMPLE
P
RESS
R
ELEASE
G
UIDELINES AND
S
TANDARD
O
PERATING
P
ROCEDURES


The following are Deschutes County’s Standard Operating Procedures for Media / Press
Release Guidelines
13
. It is included in this
toolkit with permission.




12

“2013 MERS
-
CoV Scientific Clearance Flow Chart,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. June
20, 2013.

13

Updated on April 25, 2013.

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POLICY

It is the policy of Deschutes County Health Services to develop and disseminate media
releases that are consistent, appropriate, effective, and accurate.


PROCEDURES


Determine Type of Media Release


Seasonal Information (c
alendar of topics)



Send out the same time every year



Education and awareness focused


Education / Promotion Opportunity (lower priority)



New information / program to promote



Awards / recognition / achievements to share with public



Piggyback on an existing
event (example: BH or PH in another
community)



No or low risk to public


High Priority



Increase awareness about a specific topic



Potential risk to public



Updates on emerging issues



Send out within three working days or after enough information is
available


Alert / Advisory



Immediate action required by public (example: contact investigation)



Imminent risk to public (example: measles case suspected or confirmed
locally)



Time sensitive


send out immediately



Possible ICS activated and potential hotline activa
ted to respond to calls
from public



Possible media conference


Content Guidelines for Media Release




When developing a media release about a specific case associated with a disease,
confidentiality is crucial. Below are guidelines for what should and shoul
dn’t be
included in a media release

What to include

o

Male / female, life stage (infant, teen young adult, middle age,
older adult)

o

Confirmed case or non
-
confirmed case

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o

If highly communicable


the locations and times the case(s)
visited while contagious

o

Dea
th

What not to include

o

Name or date of birth

o

Hospitalization status

o

Exact age

o

Address / location



Don’t give opinions



Don’t speculate



Be professional appropriate


Questions to Determine Type of Media Release


1.

What is the risk level to the public?

a.

Imminent risk


Alert Media Release

b.

Potential risk


High Priority Media Release

c.

No / low risk


Educational, Seasonal, or no media Release


2.

How soon does the public need to know?

a.

Immediately


Alert Press Release

b.

Within 3 days or when enough information i
s available


High Priority
Media Release

c.

Other


Seasonal or Educational Media Release


3.

Who needs to know the information?

a.

Clinicians only


Blast Fax only

b.

Public only


Media Release

c.

Clinicians and Public


Media Release and Blast Fax



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T
ESTING
M
ESSAGES

FOR THE
P
RE
-
C
RISIS
P
HASE


Pre
-
testing public health messages can be done by the state. For additional information
and to access this service, contact your local health department liaison or the Emergency
Risk Communication officer.


For in
-
house message t
esting, the following are useful resources.


Message Quality Framework (MQF)



https://phinmqf.cdc.gov/

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Public Health Information
Network (PHIN) has developed the

Message Quality Framework (MQF) for
message testing. The Message Quality Framework (MQF) is a flexible framework
of services and utilities designed to assist public health partners with preparing
and communicating quality, standard electronic messages as
defined by the
applicable messaging, vocabulary, and programmatic standards.


Pink Book



http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/cancerlibrary/pinkbook/page6

The National Cancer In
stitute’s
Making Health Communication Programs Work

is more commonly known as the
Pink Book
. It offers a vast range of strategies for
program effectiveness including planning, development, implementation, and
evaluation (the last of which is discussed in t
he
Evaluation Tools

section of this
document).


Evaluation resources in the
Pink Book

include:

Questions to Ask and Answer

Why Developing and Pretesting Messages and Materials Are Important

Steps in Developing and Pretes
ting Messages and Materials

Planning for Production, Distribution, Promotion, and Process Evaluation

Common Myths and Misconceptions about Materials Pretesting

Selected Readings


For more information, visit
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/cancerlibrary/pinkbook/page6
, and scroll
down to the bottom third of the page for the most relevant pre
-
testing information.



H
EALTH
L
ITERACY


Health Literacy

is defined by the CDC as

the capacity to obtain, process, and
understand basic health information and services to make appropriate health decisions.
For useful resources about health literacy information and tools, visit the following:


He
alth Literacy: Accurate, Accessible and Actionable Health Information for All
,
CDC


http://www.cdc.gov/healthliteracy/

This site provides information and tools to improve health literacy and public
health. These resources are for all organizations that interact and communicate
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with people about health, including public health departments, healthcare
providers and facilities, health plans, government agencies, non
-
profit/community
and advocacy organiz
ations, childcare and schools, the media, and health
-
related
industries.


Health Literacy
, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services


http://www.hrsa.gov/publichealth/healthliteracy/

HRSA offers on
-
line, go
-
at
-
your
-
own
-
pace training designed for health care
professionals and students seeking to improve patient
-
provider communication.


Health Literacy Studies
, Harvard School of Public Hea
lth


http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/healthliteracy/

The Health Literacy Studies group is engaged in a variety of research efforts
focused on communication and literacy skills. They are interested in

exploring the
pathways from education to health outcomes and examine literacy
-
related barriers
to a variety of health services and care. Their work is based in community, public
health, healthcare, and adult education settings, and their goal is to help r
educe
health disparities and eliminate literacy barriers.


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I
DENTIFYING
L
OCAL AND
S
EASONAL
E
VENTS FOR
O
UTREACH AND
E
DUCATION


Local and seasonal events are perfect opportunities
for delivering preparedness education
and information to residents in your comm
unity. Whether
it’s

tabl
ing

at

a food festival to
talk

about extreme heat

in the summer

or

meet
ing

with visitor bureau managers to
promote tire chains in the winter, these
opportunities can be
very useful occasion
s

for
educating the public on prevention tips.


Among t
he most reliable resources for identifying local and seasonal events are:


County

and tribal

webpage
s



Your own website
may be

one of the most informative

resources for outreach opportunities
. Many loc
al
government
agency

website
s

have
comprehensive lists of yearly and special events, and it’s a great starting point

for
identifying

where and when to

deliver prevention education and resources
.


Chamber
s

of Commerce



Another frequently updated resource, your local Chamber of
Commerce lists many events that
offer

opportune times to network with
members of

the
community.


Regional newspaper
s



The calendar section of daily newspapers
identifies
the most
popularly atte
nded seasonal attractions, and it can be a perfect resource
. And because

these papers have often been accruing this data for decades, it can often be the most
comprehensive list available.


Local weekly paper



For
a
more unique

list of events, alternative

and weekly papers
often promote happenings that are
lesser known

but still widely populated. In conjunction
with opportunities det
ailed in daily papers, weeklies are often referred to by individuals
and families looking for unique opportunities for fun.


Vi
sitors

Bureaus and/or Associations



Oregon t
ourists and travelers drop
-
in on
local
Visitors Bureaus by the

hundreds
, and the volunteers and managers
who
host

visitor

kiosks want nothing more than to deliver helpful information to passers
-
through.
Building relationships with
Visitor Bureau
staff

goes a long way to

promote tips and
resources

for

this
off
-
the
-
grid

population.



CERC Toolkit for
Wildfires

Revised and updated on
July
31
, 2013


Page
31

of
72

P
RE
-
C
RISIS
C
OMMUNICATION
T
OOLS


Preparedness Messages, Web Content, and
Outreach
and

Educational Materials

Informational

materials allow you to
educate residents about a current crisis, deliver

key
messages on safety, inform the public

about your agency,
or provide up
date
s concerning
a p
ublic health issue.


Materials regarding preparedness

activities are generally most effective when community
members are active participants in the learning and di
ssemination of the information.


Examples of outreach materials

may

include:



Electronic alert
s and updates



Newsletters (electronic or printed)



Fact sheets



F
requently Asked Questions



Posters and flyers



Community mailers



CERC Toolkit for
Wildfires

Revised and updated on
July
31
, 2013


Page
32

of
72

S
AMPLE
P
REPAREDNESS
W
EB
C
ONTENT FOR
W
ILDFIRES


For the most up
-
do date web content about preparedness, consider using the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) web content syndication service. More
information about this feature can be found on page 4 of this document, or Ctrl+Click
here:
CDC Content Syndication page
.


The following CDC webpages have preparedness information for
wildfires

that can
potentially be used for content syndication.



Wildfires Fact Sheet


http://emergency.cdc.gov/disasters/wildfires/facts.asp




Protect Your Pets in an Emergency


http://emergency.cdc.gov/disasters/petprotect.asp



You may also refer to Oregon’s Public Health webpages on wildfires, located at
http://public.health.orego
n.gov/preparedness/prepare/pages/prepareforwildfire.aspx
.


Wildfire
-
related webpages on Oregon’s website are:



Preparedness 101: Wildfires


http://public.hea
lth.oregon.gov/Preparedness/Prepare/Pages/PrepareForWildfire.a
spx



Asthma and Wildfires


http://public.health.oregon.gov/HealthyEnvironments/Documents/W
ildfiresAsthm
a_final.pdf



Make a Plan


http://public.health.oregon.gov/Preparedness/Prepare/Pages/MakeAPlan.aspx



Within the Pre
-
Crisis Phase pages of this toolkit
,
any of the following pages would
serve as informative and useful webpages for your community.



Key Preparedness Messages for Wildfires



Sample Outreach and

Educational Materials



CERC Toolkit for
Wildfires

Revised and updated on
July
31
, 2013


Page
33

of
72

K
EY
P
REPAREDNESS
M
ESSAGES FOR
W
ILDFIRES


Public health messages focus strictly on health concerns and deliver messages that have
a direct impact on individuals’ health and well
-
being. These include matters related to
food, water, v
ulnerable populations, and individuals with chronic health conditions, and
it should veer away from general messaging that does not have a direct impact on health
concerns.


Recommendations for everyone



Have a several
-
day supply of nonperishable grocerie
s that do not require
cooking; cooking (especially frying and broiling) can add to indoor pollutant
levels.



If you develop symptoms suggesting lung or heart problems, consult a health
care provider as soon as possible.



Be alert to public service
announcements about wildfires.



Be aware that outdoor events, such as athletic games or competitions, may be
postponed or cancelled if smoke levels become elevated.


Recommendations for people with chronic diseases



Have an adequate supply of medication (m
ore than five days).



If you have asthma, make sure you have a written asthma management plan.



If you have heart disease, check with your health care providers about precautions
to take during smoke events. Do this before the fire season if you live in

an area
where wildfires are possible.



If you plan to use a portable air cleaner, buy one prior to a smoke emergency that
matches the room size specified by the manufacturer.



Contact
your

health care provider if your condition worsens when you are
exposed to smoke.


CERC Toolkit for
Wildfires

Revised and updated on
July
31
, 2013


Page
34

of
72

S
AMPLE
O
UTREACH
AND

E
DUCATIONAL
M
ATERIALS


Outreach materials can be found across the
Internet from the CDC
’s

and American Red
Cross
’s websites

to individual county public heal
th
webpages
. The materials listed below
are just some of the preparedness materials available to educate the public about wildfire
risk mitigation.



Project Wildfire



http://www.projectwildfire.org/


Project Wildfire is the result of a Deschutes County effort to
create long
-
term wildfire mitigation strategies and provide for a
disaster
-
resistant community.
The

community organization
facilitates, educates, disseminates, and maximizes community
efforts t
oward effective fire planning and mitigation. Project
Wildfire also has a very active Facebook page at
https://www.facebook.com/pages/Project
-
Wildfire/167396376639445



Do 1 T
hing



http://do1thing.com/

Do 1 Thing is a non
-
profit organization that aims to help build stronger
communities by increasing preparedness. The mission of Do 1 Thing is
to move individuals, families, businesses, and co
mmunities to prepare
for all hazards and become disaster resilient.

A PDF with handouts
related to various aspects of disaster relief


including many tips central
to wildfire public health preparedness


can be found at
http://do1thing.com/userfiles/file/12_Things(1).pdf



Red Cross Wildfires Safety Checklist



http://www.redcross.org/images/MEDIA_CustomProductCatalog/m434
0149_Wildfire.pdf


Translated Checklists



http://www.redcross.org/prepare/disaster
-
safety
-
library


The American Red
Cross has created this Disaster and Safety Library
to assist in preparing home
s
,
schools,

and workplace
s

in the ev
ent of a
disaster or emergency.


The Red Cross also has two apps
.
For iPhone and
Android,

Wildfires by American Red Cross
” helps
users get no
tified

about active wildfires

and

fire weather warnings
,
and it provides a range of preparedness tips.

For iPhone, “
American
Red Cross: Shelter View
” lets users know where shelters have been
opened to provide assistance

during wildfires
. Both apps can be
f
ound by
entering the apps’ names in the Search fields of Android
and iPhone App programs.


CERC Toolkit for
Wildfires

Revised and updated on
July
31
, 2013


Page
35

of
72

C
RISIS
P
HASE



The Crisis Phase is characterized by
uncertainty, shortened response time,

and intense
media interest.
The public is seeking

timely and accurate facts about what happened
,

where it happened, and what is being done

to address the crisis
.
They will question the
magnitude of the crisis, the immediacy of the threat to them, the duration of the threat
,

and w
ho is going to fix
it
.


Communicators should be prepared to answer these questions as quickly, accurately, and
fully as possible. Simplicity, credibility, verifiability, consistency
,

and speed count when
communicating in the initial phases of an emergency.













Organizational Objectives



Establish I
ncident
C
ommand
S
ystem (ICS) structures to coordinate response



Alert

the state Public Health Liaisons and Healthcare Liaisons about the
emergency



Understand the background factors and issues associated with the hazard



Support and cooperate with response

and

recovery efforts in your community


Communication Objectives



Express empathy, reassurance, and reduction of emotional turmoil



Acknowledge uncertainty



Provide general, broad
-
based understanding of the circumstances, consequences,
and anticipated outcomes based on available information



Provide
self
-
efficacy messagin
g

including how and where to get more information


Crisis

Goal: Provide up
-
t
o
-
date and accurate
informa
tion to empower decision
-
making and
prompt action




Express empathy



Provide available information on current event



Explain the risks of this hazard



Provide self
-
efficacy messages about safety and
how and where to get more informat
ion



Explain the process of what your local health
department is doing

CERC Toolkit for
Wildfires

Revised and updated on
July
31
, 2013


Page
36

of
72

C
RISIS
C
OMMUNICATION
T
OOLS


Lead
Public Information Officer Sample Position Description

A sample position description for Lead Public Information Officer drawn from the state’s
Joint Information Center’s
Emergency Communication Plan. Not all roles and tasks
delineated in this sample document are appropriate or relevant at the local level, but this
sample position description can serve as a template for revised guidelines.


Talking Points

Talking points

are predesigned messages that provide relevant information to the public
regarding a specific hazard
. They

generally include specific actions
that
individuals can
take to protect t
hemselves and their loved ones.


The most useful

talking points

are:



Few in

number;

usually no more than two or three



Short and concise;

generally no more than a sentence or two each



Easily u
nderstandable
;
at a

6
th

grade level



Wr
itten in non
-
technical language


Press Release
s

A press release is designed to give all pertinent back
ground on a story. It includes facts
on the issue, quotes from appropriate people
, and

an overview of your organization. The
press release should answer

the


who, what, when, where, why
,

and how” of the ongoing
event.
Additional supporting information shou
ld go into an attached fact sheet or
backgrounder. An emergency press release should be limited to one or two pages.


During the early phases of an emergency, you’ll be wr
iting standard press releases.
As
the crisis evolves, you may follow up with feature
releases about individuals or

units
involved in the response,
outcomes and successes, or personal stories of those helped
during the crisis.


Web Content

Crisis sites, also commonly referred to as dark sites, take on the look and feel of your
current
web
site

but include special information needed to keep the public, media,
partners, and stakeholders informed and updated during an emergency situation. The site
is
typically built prior to an event, although it is only
activated when an emergency
occurs. Inf
ormation should be posted within one
to two hours of site activation

and
updated frequent
ly as information changes.

Information in this section includes accessing
the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Conte
nt Syndication

resource.


Information generally includes
:



Facts about the current situation



Information for local residents



Map of the affected area, if applicable



Resources



Links to
e
mergency
s
ervices

CERC Toolkit for
Wildfires

Revised and updated on
July
31
, 2013


Page
37

of
72


Social Media Messages