JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HYDERABADB.TECH. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (R09)III Year Semester I COURSE STRUCTURECODE SUBJECT L T/P/D C

testybelchMechanics

Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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J
A
W
A
H
A
R
L
A
L

NE
H
RU TE
C
HN
O
L
OG
I
C
A
L

UNIVERSITY
H
YDE
R
A
B
A
D

B.TECH.

M
ECH
A
NI
C
A
L

EN
G
INEERING (R
09
)

III

Y
ea
r


S
emes
t
e
r

I
C
O
URSE STRUCTURE

C
O
DE

SUB
J
ECT

L

T/P/D

C

M
anage
r
ia
l

E
con
o
m
i
c
s

an
d

F
i
nan
c
ia
l

A
nal
ys
i
s

4

0

4

M
e
tr
olog
y

& S
u
rf
ac
e

E
n
g
inee
ri
n
g

3

1

3

D
y
nami
c
s

o
f

M
achine
ry

4

1

4

M
achin
e

T
ool
s

3

1

3

D
esi
g
n

o
f

M
achi
n
e

M
embe
rs



I

4

1

4

A
ppli
e
d

T
he
r
m
od
y
na
m
i
c
s



I
I

3

1

3

M
achin
e

T
ool
s

&

M
e
tr
olog
y

L
a
b

-

3

2

T
he
r
ma
l

E
n
gi
n
ee
r
i
n
g

L
a
b

-

3

2

T
O
T
A
L

2
1

1
1

2
5





Not
e
:

A
l
l

E
n
d

E
x
amina
t
io
n
s

(
T
heo
ry

an
d

Pr
ac
t
i
c
al
)

a
r
e

o
f

t
h
r
e
e

h
o
u
rs

du
r
a
t
ion
.


T

-

Tuto
r
i
a
l

L

-

Th
e
o
r
y

P


P
r
ac
ti
c
a
l/D
r
a
w
ing

C


C
r
e
dits











J
A
W
A
H
A
R
L
A
L

NE
H
RU TE
C
HN
O
L
OG
I
C
A
L

UNIVERSITY
H
YDE
R
A
B
A
D

III

Y
ea
r

B.
T
ec
h.

M
.E.I
-
S
em
es
t
e
r (R
09
)

M
A
N
A
G
E
R
I
A
L

EC
O
N
O
M
ICS

A
N
D FIN
A
N
C
I
A
L

A
N
A
LYSIS
Unit

I

Int
r
od
u
c
tion

t
o

M
a
n
a
g
e
r
i
a
l

E
c
o
n
o
m
i
c
s
:

D
e
f
ini
t
ion
,

N
a
t
u
re

an
d

S
c
o
p
e

o
f

M
anage
r
i
a
l

E
c
o
no
m
i
c
s

D
eman
d

A
n
al
y
s
i
s
:

D
e
m
an
d

D
e
t
e
r
m
i
nan
t
s
,

La
w

o
f

D
eman
d

a
n
d

i
t
s

e
x
cep
t
i
o
ns
.


Unit

II

El
a
s
ti
c
ity

of

D
e
m
a
nd
:

D
e
f
ini
t
ion
,

T
y
pes
,

M
easu
r
e
m
en
t

an
d

S
i
gni
f
ic
a
nc
e

o
f

E
l
a
s
t
i
c
i
ty

o
f

D
ema
n
d
.

D
e
m
an
d F
o
r
ec
a
s
t
i
ng
,

F
a
c
t
o
r
s
go
v
e
r
ni
n
g

d
e
ma
n
d

f
o
r
ec
a
s
t
in
g
,

m
e
t
ho
d
s

o
f

d
e
ma
n
d

f
o
r
e
c
as
t
i
n
g

(
su
r
v
e
y

me
t
ho
d
s
,
s
t
a
t
i
s
t
i
c
a
l
me
t
ho
d
s
,

e
x
pe
rt
opi
n
io
n

me
t
hod
,

t
e
s
t

ma
r
ke
t
i
n
g
,

c
o
n
tr
o
l
le
d

e
x
pe
r
ime
n
t
s
,

ju
dg
men
t
a
l

a
pp
r
o
a
c
h

to

d
em
a
n
d

fo
r
ec
a
s
t
i
n
g
)


Unit

III

T
h
e
o
r
y

of

P
r
odu
c
tion

a
nd

Co
s
t

A
n
a
l
y
s
is
:

Pr
odu
c
t
io
n

F
u
nc
t
io
n




I
so
qu
an
ts

an
d

I
s
o
co
s
t
s
,

M
R
T
S,

Lea
s
t

C
o
s
t

C
o
mb
i
na
t
i
o
n

o
f

I
npu
t
s
,

C
o
b
b
-
D
ou
g
l
a
s

Pr
odu
c
t
io
n

f
u
n
c
t
i
on
,

L
a
w
s

o
f

R
e
t
u
r
n
s
,

I
n
t
e
r
n
a
l

a
n
d

E
x
t
e
r
na
l

E
con
o
mi
e
s

o
f

S
c
ale
.

Co
s
t

A
n
a
l
y
s
i
s
:

C
os
t

co
n
cep
t
s
,

O
ppo
rt
u
n
i
ty

cos
t
,

F
i
x
e
d

v
s
.

V
a
r
ia
b
l
e

c
o
s
t
s
,

E
x
plici
t

c
o
s
t
s

V
s
.

I
mp
l
ic
i
t

c
o
s
t
s
,

O
u
t

o
f

po
c
ke
t

c
o
s
ts

vs
.

I
m
pu
t
e
d

c
os
t
s
.

Br
e
a
k
-
e
v
e
n

A
nal
ys
i
s

(
BEA)
-
D
e
t
e
r
m
i
na
t
i
o
n

o
f

Br
ea
k
-
E
v
e
n

P
o
i
n
t

(
si
m
pl
e
p
r
obl
e
m
s
)
-

M
anage
r
i
a
l

S
i
g
ni
f
i
c
anc
e

an
d

l
i
mi
t
a
t
i
o
n
s
o
f

BEA.


Unit

IV

Int
r
od
u
c
tion

t
o

M
a
r
k
e
ts

& P
r
i
c
i
n
g

Poli
c
i
es
:

Ma
r
ke
t

s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
es
:

T
y
pe
s

o
f

c
o
m
pe
t
i
t
io
n
,

F
ea
t
u
r
e
s

o
f

P
e
rf
ec
t

c
o
mpe
t
i
t
i
on
,

M
onopol
y

an
d

M
onopoli
s
t
i
c

C
ompe
t
i
t
i
o
n
.

Pr
i
ce
-
O
u
t
pu
t

D
et
e
r
mi
n
a
t
i
o
n

i
n

c
as
e

o
f

P
e
r
f
ec
t

C
ompe
t
i
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

M
onopol
y
.

O
bj
ec
ti
v
e
s

a
nd

Poli
c
i
e
s

of

P
r
i
c
ing
-

Me
tho
d
s

of

P
r
i
c
ing:

C
os
t

P
l
u
s

P
r
ic
i
ng
,

M
a
r
gin
a
l

C
os
t

Pr
i
c
i
ng
,

S
e
al
e
d

B
i
d

Pr
ici
n
g
,

G
oi
n
g

R
a
te

Pr
i
ci
n
g
,

L
i
mi
t

Pr
i
ci
n
g
,

M
a
r
ke
t

S
k
i
mm
i
n
g

Pr
ici
n
g
,

P
e
n
e
tr
a
t
io
n

Pr
i
ci
n
g
,

T
w
o
-
P
a
rt

Pr
icing
,

B
lo
c
k

Pr
ici
n
g
,

B
u
nd
l
in
g

P
r
ic
i
ng
,

P
e
a
k

L
o
a
d

Pr
i
ci
n
g
,

Cr
o
s
s

S
ub
s
idi
z
a
t
io
n
.


Unit

V

Bu
s
in
e
s
s

& N
e
w

E
co
no
m
ic

En
v
i
r
on
m
e
nt
:

C
ha
r
ac
t
e
r
i
s
t
i
c

f
e
a
t
u
r
e
s

o
f

B
u
sin
e
s
s
,

F
e
a
t
u
r
e
s

a
n
d

e
v
a
l
ua
t
i
o
n

o
f

S
ol
e

P
r
op
r
i
e
t
o
r
shi
p
,

P
a
rt
ne
r
s
hip
,

J
o
in
t

S
t
o
c
k

C
ompan
y
,

P
ub
l
i
c

E
n
t
e
r
p
r
is
e
s

an
d

t
h
ei
r

t
y
p
e
s
,

C
h
an
g
in
g

B
us
i
ne
s
s

E
n
v
i
r
o
n
me
n
t

i
n

P
o
s
t
-
li
b
e
r
ali
z
a
t
i
o
n

s
c
e
na
r
i
o
.


Unit

VI

C
a
pit
a
l

a
nd

C
a
pit
a
l

Budg
e
tin
g
:

C
api
t
a
l

an
d

i
ts

si
g
ni
f
ic
a
nc
e
,

T
y
pe
s

o
f

C
a
p
i
t
a
l
,

E
s
t
im
a
t
io
n

o
f

F
i
x
e
d

an
d

W
o
r
k
in
g

ca
p
i
t
a
l

re
qui
r
e
men
t
s
,

M
e
t
hod
s
an
d

sou
r
ce
s

o
f

r
a
i
s
in
g

f
in
a
nc
e
.

N
a
t
u
re

an
d

s
co
p
e

o
f

ca
p
i
t
a
l

b
udge
t
ing
,

f
e
a
t
u
r
e
s

o
f

ca
p
i
t
a
l

budge
t
in
g

p
r
o
po
s
a
l
s
,

M
e
t
hod
s

o
f

C
api
t
a
l

B
u
dge
t
in
g
:
P
a
y
bac
k

M
e
t
hod
,

A
c
cou
n
t
i
n
g

R
a
te

o
f

R
e
t
u
rn

(ARR)

a
n
d

N
e
t

Pr
ese
n
t

V
a
l
u
e

M
e
t
ho
d

(
s
i
m
pl
e

p
r
ob
l
e
m
s
)


Unit

VII

Int
r
o
d
u
c
tion

to

Fi
na
n
c
i
a
l

A
cc
ount
i
ng:

D
ouble
-
E
n
try

B
oo
k

K
e
e
pi
n
g
,

Jou
r
n
al
,

L
edge
r
,

T
r
ia
l

B
al
a
n
c
e
-

F
in
a
l

A
c
c
oun
t
s

(
T
r
adin
g

A
cc
o
un
t,

Pr
o
f
i
t

a
n
d

Lo
s
s

A
cc
o
un
t

a
n
d

B
a
la
n
c
e

S
hee
t

w
i
th

s
i
m
p
l
e

a
dj
u
s
t
m
en
t
s
).


Unit

VIII

F
i
n
a
n
c
i
a
l

A
n
a
l
y
s
is

th
r
ough

r
a
ti
o
s
:

C
ompu
t
a
t
i
o
n
,

A
nal
ys
i
s

a
n
d

I
n
t
e
r
p
r
e
t
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

Li
q
ui
d
i
ty R
a
t
io
s

(C
u
rr
en
t

R
a
t
i
o

an
d

q
u
i
c
k r
a
t
io
),

A
c
t
i
v
i
ty R
a
t
i
o
s
(I
n
v
en
t
o
ry

t
u
r
no
v
e
r

r
a
t
i
o

an
d

D
eb
t
o
r
T
u
r
no
v
e
r

r
a
t
io
),

C
a
pi
t
a
l

s
t
r
uc
t
u
re

R
a
t
i
o
s

(D
e
b
t
-

E
qui
ty

r
a
t
i
o
,

I
n
t
e
r
e
s
t
C
o
v
e
r
ag
e

r
a
t
io
),

an
d

P
r
o
f
i
t
ab
i
l
i
ty

r
a
t
io
s

(
G
r
o
s
s

Pr
o
f
i
t

R
a
t
i
o
,

N
e
t

Pr
o
f
i
t

r
a
t
io
,

O
pe
r
a
t
i
n
g

R
a
t
i
o
,

P/E R
a
t
i
o

an
d

EPS).


TEXT

B
OO
K
S
:


1
.

Ar
y
as
r
i
:

M
anage
r
ia
l

E
c
o
n
o
mi
c
s

a
n
d

F
ina
n
c
i
a
l

A
n
al
y
s
i
s
,

2
/
e
,

T
M
H,

2005
.

2
.

V
a
r
s
hne
y

&
M
ahes
w
a
r
i
:

M
anage
r
i
a
l

E
co
n
om
i
c
s
,

S
u
l
ta
n

C
hand
,

20
0
3
.


REFERENCE
S
:


1
.

A
mb
r
i
s
h

G
up
t
a
,

F
i
n
a
n
ci
a
l

A
cc
o
un
t
i
n
g

f
o
r

M
anagem
e
n
t,

P
e
a
r
so
n

E
d
u
ca
t
i
on
,

N
e
w

D
elh
i
.

2
.

H.

Cr
a
i
g

P
e
t
e
r
so
n

&

W
.

Cr
i
s

Le
w
is
,

M
anage
r
i
a
l

E
c
on
o
mi
cs
,

PHI,

4
th

E
d
.

3
.

S
u
m
a

D
a
m
oda
r
an
,

M
anag
e
r
ia
l

E
con
o
m
i
cs
,

O
x
f
o
rd

U
ni
v
e
r
si
ty

Pr
e
s
s
.

4
.

L
i
pse
y

& C
h
r
y
s
t
el
,

E
co
n
o
m
i
cs
,

O
x
f
o
rd

U
ni
v
e
r
s
i
ty

Pr
e
s
s
.

5
.

S.

A
.

S
i
ddi
q
u
i

&

A.

S.

S
i
d
diq
u
i
,

M
anage
r
i
a
l

E
co
n
o
m
i
c
s

&

F
in
a
n
c
ia
l

A
nal
ys
is
,

N
e
w

a
g
e

I
n
t
e
r
na
t
io
n
a
l

S
pa
c
e

P
ubl
i
ca
t
i
o
n
s
.

6
.

D
o
m
ni
c
k

S
a
l
v
a
t
o
r
e
:

M
ana
g
e
r
ia
l

E
co
n
o
m
i
c
s

In

a

G
lo
b
a
l

E
c
onom
y
,

4
th

E
d
i
t
i
o
n
,

T
ho
m
so
n
.

7
.

N
a
r
a
y
an
a
s
w
am
y
:

F
in
a
n
c
ia
l

A
cc
o
un
t
i
ng

A

M
anage
r
i
a
l

P
e
r
sp
e
c
t
i
v
e
,

PHI.

8
.

R
ag
h
una
t
h
a

R
e
d
d
y

& N
a
r
a
s
imh
a
ch
a
r
y
:

M
anage
r
ia
l

E
c
o
no
mi
c
s
&
F
ina
n
ci
a
l

A
n
al
y
s
i
s
,

S
c
i
t
ech
.

9
.

S.N.
M
ahes
w
a
ri

& S.K.

M
ahes
w
a
r
i
,

F
i
n
an
c
ia
l

A
c
cou
n
t
in
g
,

V
ik
a
s
.

10
.

T
r
ue
t

a
n
d

T
r
ue
t:

M
anage
ri
a
l

E
c
on
o
mi
c
s
:A
n
al
y
s
i
s
,

Pr
o
bl
e
m
s

a
n
d

C
a
s
e
s
,

W
il
e
y
.

11
.

D
w
i
v
edi
:
M
anage
r
ia
l

E
c
o
n
o
mi
c
s
,

6
th

E
d
.
,

V
i
ka
s
.












P
r
e
r
e
qui
s
it
e
s
:

N
i
l


O
bj
ec
ti
v
e
:

T
o

e
x
plai
n

t
h
e

bas
i
c

p
r
in
c
ip
l
e
s

o
f

m
an
a
ge
r
ia
l

e
co
n
o
m
i
c
s
,

a
cc
o
un
t
i
n
g

a
n
d

cu
r
r
en
t

bu
s
in
e
s
s
en
v
i
r
o
n
men
t

un
d
e
r
l
y
in
g

b
u
sin
e
s
s

d
e
c
is
i
o
n

ma
k
ing
.


Cod
es
/T
a
bl
es
:

Pr
e
s
en
t

V
a
lu
e

T
able
s

n
ee
d

to

b
e

pe
r
mi
t
t
e
d

i
n
to

t
h
e

e
x
amina
t
io
n
s

H
a
l
l
.


Q
u
es
tion

P
a
p
e
r P
a
tt
e
r
n:

5

Q
ues
t
io
n
s

to

b
e

a
ns
w
e
r
e
d

o
u
t

o
f

8

qu
e
s
t
i
o
n
s
.

E
a
c
h

qu
e
s
t
i
o
n

s
ho
u
l
d

n
o
t

ha
v
e

mo
r
e

t
h
a
n

3

bi
t
s
.











J
A
W
A
H
A
R
L
A
L

NE
H
RU TE
C
HN
O
L
OG
I
C
A
L

UNIVERSITY
H
YDE
R
A
B
A
D

III

Y
ea
r B.
T
ec
h.

M
.E.

I
-
S
em
es
t
e
r (R
09
)



UNIT



I

M
ETR
O
L
OG
Y

AND SUR
F
A
C
E EN
G
INEERING

S
y
s
t
em
s

of

li
m
its

a
nd

fi
t
s
:

I
n
tr
od
u
c
t
i
o
n
,

n
o
r
m
a
l

s
i
z
e
,

t
o
le
r
a
nc
e

li
m
i
t
s
,

de
v
i
a
tio
n
s
,

al
l
o
w
ance
,

f
i
ts

an
d
t
hei
r

t
y
p
e
s



un
i
la
t
e
r
a
l

an
d

bi
la
t
e
r
a
l

t
ole
r
an
c
e

s
ys
t
em
,

h
o
l
e

an
d

s
h
a
ft

b
as
i
s

s
y
s
t
e
m
s



in
t
e
r
c
hang
e
ab
i
li
ty
an
d

sel
e
c
t
i
v
e

a
s
se
m
bl
y
.

I
n
di
a
n

s
t
a
n
da
rd

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
io
n

s
y
s
t
e
m



Br
i
t
i
s
h

s
t
an
d
a
rd

s
y
s
t
e
m
,

I
n
t
e
r
n
a
t
io
n
a
l
St
anda
r
d

s
y
s
t
e
m

f
o
r

p
la
i
n

a
d

s
c
r
e
w
e
d

w
o
r
k
.


UNIT



II

LINE
A
R
M
E
A
SURE
M
ENT

:

L
eng
th

s
t
a
nda
r
d
,

l
in
e

an
d

en
d

s
t
anda
r
d
,

s
li
p

ga
u
ge
s


ca
l
ib
r
a
ti
o
n

o
f

t
h
e

sl
i
p

gaug
e
s
,

D
i
a
l

ind
i
ca
t
o
r,

mic
r
o
m
e
t
e
r
s
.

M
E
A
SURE
M
ENT

O
F

A
N
G
L
E
S
A
ND
T
A
PERS

:

D
i
ff
e
r
en
t

m
e
t
ho
d
s



B
e
v
e
l

p
r
o
tr
a
c
t
o
r



a
n
gl
e

sl
i
p

gaug
e
s



s
p
i
r
i
t

le
v
e
l
s



si
n
e

b
a
r



S
i
n
e

p
la
t
e
,

r
o
l
le
rs

an
d

s
ph
e
r
e
s

us
e
d

to

de
t
e
r
m
i
n
e

t
h
e

t
ap
e
r
s
.

LI
M
IT

G
A
U
G
ES

:

T
a
y
lo
rs

p
r
i
n
cip
l
e



D
e
s
i
g
n

o
f

g
o

an
d

N
o

g
o

ga
u
ge
s
,

p
l
u
g

r
i
ng
,

sn
a
p
,

g
a
p
,

t
ape
r
,

p
r
o
f
il
e

an
d

p
os
i
t
io
n

g
a
ug
e
s
.


UNIT



III

O
PTIC
A
L

M
E
A
SURING INS
T
RU
M
ENTS :

T
oo
l

make
r

s

m
i
c
r
os
c
op
e

an
d

i
ts

u
s
e
s



c
o
ll
i
m
a
t
o
r
s
,

op
t
i
ca
l

p
r
oj
e
c
t
o
r



o
p
t
i
c
a
l

f
la
t
s

a
n
d

t
h
e
i
r

u
s
es
,

in
t
e
r
f
e
r
o
me
t
e
r.

FL
A
T

SUR
F
A
CE
M
E
A
SUR
E
M
ENT

:

M
easu
r
e
men
t

o
f

f
la
t

s
u
rf
a
c
e
s



i
n
s
tr
u
men
t
s

u
se
d



s
tr
aig
h
t

e
d
ge
s



su
r
f
ac
e

p
l
a
t
e
s



o
p
t
i
ca
l

f
la
t

a
n
d

au
t
o

c
ol
l
i
m
a
t
o
r.


UNIT



IV

SURFACE R
O
U
G
HNESS
M
E
A
S
U
RE
M
ENT

:

D
i
ff
e
r
enc
e
s

b
e
t
w
ee
n

su
r
f
ac
e

r
ou
g
hn
e
s
s

a
n
d

su
r
f
ac
e

w
a
v
iness
-
N
ume
r
i
c
a
l

a
s
s
e
s
s
m
en
t

o
f

su
r
f
a
c
e

f
i
n
i
s
h



C
L
A,R,

R.
M
.S V
alue
s



Rz

v
alu
e
s
,

Rz

v
alue
,

M
e
t
hod
s
o
f

m
e
as
u
r
e
m
en
t

o
f

s
u
rf
a
c
e

f
i
n
i
sh
-
p
r
o
f
i
l
og
r
a
p
h
.

T
al
y
su
rf,

ISI

sy
mbol
s

f
o
r

ind
i
ca
t
io
n

o
f

su
rf
a
c
e

f
i
n
is
h
.
M
E
A
SURE
M
ENT

THR
O
U
G
H C
O
M
P
A
R
A
T
O
RS

:

C
ompa
r
a
t
o
rs



M
ech
a
ni
c
al
,

E
le
c
tr
i
c
a
l

a
n
d

E
l
e
c
tr
o
n
i
c
C
ompa
r
a
t
o
r
s
,

p
n
eu
m
a
t
i
c

c
o
m
pa
r
a
t
o
r
s

a
n
d

t
h
ei
r

us
e
s

i
n

m
a
s
s

p
r
o
duc
t
io
n
.


UNIT
-
V

SCREW

THREAD
M
E
A
SUR
E
M
ENT

:

E
lem
e
n
t

o
f

m
e
asu
r
e
m
en
t



e
rr
o
rs

i
n

sc
r
e
w

t
h
r
ea
d
s



me
a
su
r
e
me
n
t

o
f

e
ff
e
c
t
i
v
e

di
a
me
t
e
r,

a
ngl
e

o
f

t
h
r
ea
d

an
d

t
h
r
e
a
d

p
i
t
c
h
,

p
r
o
f
i
l
e

t
h
r
ea
d

g
a
ug
e
s
.


UNIT

-
VI

M
A
CHINE T
OO
L

A
LI
G
N
M
E
N
T

TESTS :

R
equi
r
e
me
n
ts

o
f

M
ach
i
n
e

T
oo
l

A
li
g
nm
e
n
t

T
es
t
s
,

A
lig
n
men
t

t
es
t
s

o
n

la
t
he
,

mi
l
li
n
g
,

d
r
il
l
in
g

ma
c
hin
e

t
o
o
ls
.
.

Pr
e
p
a
r
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

ac
c
ep
t
a
nc
e

c
h
a
rt
s
.


UNIT
-

VII

G
E
A
R
M
E
A
S
U
RE
M
ENT:

G
e
a
r

me
a
su
r
i
n
g

i
ns
t
r
u
m
en
t
s
,

G
ea
r

t
oo
th

p
r
o
f
il
e

me
a
su
r
em
e
n
t.

M
easu
r
em
e
n
t

o
f

d
i
ame
t
e
r,

p
i
t
c
h

p
r
e
s
s
u
re

an
gl
e

a
n
d

t
oo
th

t
h
i
ck
n
e
s
s
.

Coo
r
din
a
te

Me
a
s
u
r
ing

Ma
ch
in
es
:

T
y
pe
s

o
f

C
M
M
,

R
ol
e

o
f

C
M
M
,

an
d

A
ppl
i
ca
t
io
n
s

o
f

C
M
M
.


UNIT



VIII

SURFACE EN
G
INEERING

:

S
u
rf
a
c
e

tr
e
a
t
m
e
n
t

p
r
oc
e
s
s
e
s

a
n
d

t
h
e
i
r

c
ha
r
a
c
t
e
r

t
i
c
s

a
n
d

a
p
p
lic
a
t
i
o
ns
.

(
a
)

Ov
e
r
la
y

coa
t
i
ng
s

(
b
)

D
i
f
f
u
s
io
n

coa
t
in
g
s

(
c
)

T
he
r
ma
l

o
r

me
c
h
a
nic
a
l

m
odi
f
i
c
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

S
u
rf
a
ce
s


TEXT

B
OO
KS :

1
.

E
ngin
e
e
r
i
n
g

M
e
tr
olog
y

/

I

C
G
up
t
a
./

D
anp
a
th

R
a
i

2
.

E
ngin
e
e
r
i
n
g

M
e
tr
olog
y

/

R.K.

J
ai
n

/

K
ha
n
n
a

P
u
b
l
i
she
r
s


REFERENCES :

1
.

BIS
s
t
a
n
da
r
d
s

o
n

L
i
mi
t
s

&
F
i
t
s
,

S
u
rf
a
c
e

F
in
i
sh
,

M
achi
n
e

T
oo
l

A
lig
n
me
n
t

e
t
c
.

2
.

F
und
a
me
n
t
a
l
s

o
f

D
im
e
n
s
ion
a
l

M
e
tr
olog
y

4
e

/

C
o
n
ni
e

D
o
t
s
o
n

/

T
homs
o
n

3
.

H
andb
o
o
k

o
f

T
r
ibo
l
og
y
:

M
a
t
e
r
ials
,

C
oa
t
i
ng
,

an
d

S
u
rf
a
c
e

T
r
e
a
t
men
t
s
/

B
h
a
r
a
t

B
h
u
sha
n

an
d

B.K.
G
up
t
a
.

4
.

S
u
rf
a
c
e

E
n
g
inee
r
in
g

w
i
th

La
s
e
r
s
/

D
e
h
o
s
so
n

J
.
T
.

5
.

S
u
rf
a
c
e

E
n
g
inee
r
in
g

f
o
r

co
rr
o
s
io
n

a
n
d

w
ea
r

r
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e

/

J
R
D
a
v
is
/

W
oo
d
h
ea
d

P
ub
l
is
h
e
r
s
.











J
A
W
A
H
A
R
L
A
L

NE
H
RU TE
C
HN
O
L
OG
I
C
A
L

UNIVERSITY
H
YDE
R
A
B
A
D

III

Y
ea
r B.
T
ec
h.

M
.E.I
-
S
em
es
t
e
r (R
09
)



UNIT



I

D
Y
N
A
M
ICS
O
F

M
A
CHINE
R
Y

PRECESSI
O
N

:

Gy
r
oscopes
,

e
ff
e
c
t

o
f

p
r
e
c
e
s
si
o
n

m
o
t
i
o
n

o
n

t
h
e

s
t
ab
i
li
ty

o
f

mo
v
i
n
g

v
eh
i
cl
e
s

su
c
h

a
s
mo
t
o
r

ca
r,

m
o
t
o
r

c
yc
le
,

ae
ro

p
l
ane
s

an
d

s
h
ip
s
.

St
a
t
i
c

an
d

d
y
nam
i
c

f
o
r
c
e

a
nal
ys
i
s

o
f

p
lana
r
me
c
han
i
s
ms
.


UNIT



II

FRICTI
O
N :

I
nclin
e
d

p
l
ane
,

fr
i
c
t
i
o
n

o
f

sc
r
e
w

an
d

nu
t
s
,

p
i
v
o
t

an
d

col
l
a
r,

u
ni
f
o
r
m

p
r
e
s
su
r
e
,

u
ni
f
o
r
m

w
ea
r,
fr
ic
t
io
n

ci
r
cl
e

an
d

fr
i
c
t
io
n

a
x
i
s

:

lub
r
i
ca
t
e
d

s
u
r
f
a
ce
s
,

b
o
un
d
a
ry

fr
ic
t
ion
,

f
i
l
m

l
ub
r
i
ca
t
i
on
.


UNIT


III

Clut
c
h
es
:

Fr
i
c
t
i
o
n

c
lu
t
c
h
e
s
-

S
i
ngl
e

D
i
s
c

o
r

p
la
te

c
l
u
t
c
h
,

M
ul
t
i
pl
e

D
i
s
c

C
lu
t
ch
,

C
o
n
e

C
l
u
t
c
h
,

C
en
tr
i
f
u
ga
l

C
lu
t
c
h
.

B
R
A
KES

A
ND
D
Y
N
A
M
O
M
E
T
ERS :

S
impl
e

b
lo
c
k

b
r
ak
e
s
,

in
t
e
r
na
l

e
x
pandin
g

b
r
a
k
e
,

b
an
d

b
r
ak
e

o
f

v
ehic
l
e
.

D
y
na
m
om
e
t
e
rs



a
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

tr
a
n
s
mi
s
s
i
o
n

t
y
p
e
s
.

G
ene
r
a
l

d
e
sc
r
ip
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

me
t
hod
s

o
f
ope
r
a
t
io
n
s
.


UNIT



IV

TURNING
M
O
M
ENT

DI
A
G
RA
M

A
ND FLY

WHEELS :

T
u
r
n
i
n
g

m
om
e
n
t



I
ne
r
t
i
a

T
o
r
qu
e

c
onn
e
c
t
i
n
g

r
o
d

a
n
gu
l
a
r

v
el
o
ci
ty

a
n
d

a
cc
el
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
,

c
r
a
n
k

e
f
f
o
rt

a
n
d

t
o
r
q
u
e

di
a
g
r
a
m
s



F
l
u
c
t
u
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

e
n
e
r
g
y



F
l
y
w
heel
s
an
d

t
h
ei
r

de
s
ign
.


UNIT
-
V

GO
VERNERS

:

W
a
tt,

P
o
r
t
e
r

a
n
d

Pr
o
e
l
l

g
o
v
e
r
no
r
s
.

S
p
r
in
g

l
o
ade
d

go
v
e
r
no
r
s



H
a
rt
n
e
l
l

a
n
d

ha
rt
u
n
g

w
i
th
au
x
ilia
ry

sp
r
i
n
gs
.

S
e
n
si
t
i
v
e
ne
s
s
,

i
so
c
h
r
o
n
i
s
m

a
n
d

h
u
n
t
i
n
g
.


UNIT



VI

B
A
L
A
N
CING

:

B
alanc
i
n
g

o
f

r
o
t
a
t
i
n
g

m
a
s
s
e
s

S
in
g
l
e

a
n
d

mul
ti
pl
e



s
i
ng
l
e

a
n
d

di
f
f
e
r
e
n
t

p
l
an
e
s
.


UNIT


VII

B
a
l
a
n
c
i
n
g

of

R
e
c
ip
r
o
ca
t
ing

Mas
s
es
:

Pr
ima
r
y
,

S
e
co
n
da
r
y
,

an
d

h
igh
e
r

b
a
la
n
ci
n
g

o
f

r
ec
i
p
r
oca
t
in
g

m
a
ss
e
s
.

A
nal
y
t
i
c
a
l

a
n
d

g
r
ap
h
ic
a
l

m
e
t
h
o
ds
.

U
n
bal
a
nc
e
d

f
o
r
c
e
s

a
n
d

c
o
upl
e
s



e
x
amina
t
i
o
n

o
f

“V”

m
u
l
ti

c
y
l
i
nde
r

i
n
lin
e

an
d

r
ad
i
a
l

e
ng
i
ne
s

f
o
r

p
ri
ma
ry

an
d

s
e
co
n
da
ry

b
a
la
n
cin
g
,

lo
c
o
m
o
t
i
v
e

b
ala
n
c
i
n
g



H
a
m
me
r

b
lo
w
,
S
w
a
y
in
g

coup
l
e
,

v
a
r
i
a
t
io
n

o
f

t
r
ac
t
i
v
e

e
ff
o
r
t
s
.


UNIT



VIII

VIBR
A
TI
O
N :

Fr
e
e

V
ib
r
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

m
a
s
s

a
tt
a
ch
e
d

to

v
e
r
t
ic
a
l

s
p
r
i
n
g



o
s
c
il
l
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

pe
n
du
l
u
m
s
,

cen
t
e
rs

o
f
os
c
il
l
a
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

s
us
p
en
s
io
n
.

T
r
ans
v
e
r
s
e

l
o
a
d
s
,

v
ib
r
a
t
io
n
s

o
f

b
ea
m
s

w
i
th

c
o
nc
e
n
tr
a
t
e
d

a
n
d

di
s
tr
i
b
u
t
e
d
loa
d
s
.

D
u
n
ke
r
l
y

s

me
t
h
od
s
,

R
a
lei
g
h’
s

me
t
ho
d
.

W
hi
r
li
n
g

o
f

s
ha
ft
s
,

c
r
i
t
i
c
a
l

s
pee
d
s
,

t
o
r
s
ion
a
l

v
i
b
r
a
t
i
o
ns
,

t
w
o

an
d

t
h
r
e
e

r
o
t
o
r

s
y
s
t
e
ms
.

S
i
m
p
l
e

p
r
o
b
le
m
s

o
n

f
o
r
ce
d

d
a
mpe
d

v
ib
r
a
t
io
n

V
ib
r
a
t
i
o
n

I
s
ol
a
t
io
n

&

T
r
ansm
i
ss
i
bi
l
i
ty


TEXT

B
OO
KS :

1
.

T
heo
ry

o
f

M
achine
s

/

S.S R
a
ta
n
/

M
c
.

G
r
a
w

H
il
l

P
ubl
.

2
.

T
heo
ry

o
f

M
achine
s

/

J
aga
d
i
s
h

La
l

&

J
.
M
.S
ha
h

/

M
e
tr
opo
l
i
t
a
n
.


REFERENCES :

1
.

M
echani
s
m

a
n
d

M
achin
e

T
h
e
o
ry

/

J
S R
a
o

an
d

RV
D
u
k
kip
a
ti

/

N
e
w

A
g
e

2
.

T
heo
ry

o
f

M
achine
s

/

S
h
i
egl
y

/

MG
H

3
.

T
heo
ry

o
f

M
achine
s

/

T
hom
a
s

B
e
v
a
n

/

CBS P
u
b
li
s
he
r
s

4
.

T
heo
ry

o
f

m
a
ch
i
ne
s

/

K
hu
r
mi
/
S.C
hand
.











J
A
W
A
H
A
R
L
A
L

NE
H
RU TE
C
HN
O
L
OG
I
C
A
L

UNIVERSITY
H
YDE
R
A
B
A
D

III

Y
ea
r B.
T
ec
h.

M
.E.I
-
S
em
es
t
e
r (R
09
)



UNIT



I

M
A
CHINE T
OO
LS

E
lem
e
n
t
a
ry

tr
e
a
t
e
men
t

o
f

me
t
a
l

c
u
tt
i
n
g

t
h
eo
ry



E
l
em
e
n
t

o
f

cu
tt
i
n
g

p
r
o
c
e
s
s



G
e
o
me
try

o
f

sin
g
l
e

p
oi
n
t

t
o
o
l
an
d

a
ngl
e
s

ch
i
p

f
o
r
ma
t
i
o
n

an
d

t
y
pe
s

o
f

c
h
i
p
s



b
ui
l
t

u
p

ed
g
e

an
d

i
ts

e
ff
e
c
ts

ch
i
p

b
r
ea
k
e
r
s
.

M
echanic
s
o
f
o
rt
ho
g
on
a
l

c
u
tt
i
n
g


M
e
r
chan
t’
s

F
o
r
c
e

d
iag
r
am
,

cu
t
t
in
g

f
o
r
c
e
s



cu
t
t
in
g

sp
e
ed
s
,

f
e
e
d
,

d
ep
th

o
f

c
u
t,

t
o
o
l

li
f
e
,
coo
l
an
t
s
,

m
a
c
hin
a
bi
l
i
ty



T
oo
l

ma
t
e
r
ia
l
s
.

K
ine
m
a
t
i
c

s
ch
e
m
e
s

o
f

m
a
ch
in
e

t
o
o
l
s



C
o
n
s
tr
u
c
t
i
o
na
l

f
ea
t
u
r
e
s

o
f

s
p
ee
d

gea
r

bo
x

an
d

f
e
e
d

gea
r

b
o
x
.


UNIT



II

E
ngin
e

la
t
h
e



Pr
i
n
ci
p
l
e

o
f

w
o
r
kin
g
,

s
pe
c
i
f
i
ca
t
i
o
n

o
f

l
a
t
h
e



t
y
pe
s

o
f

l
a
t
h
e



w
o
rk

h
o
lde
r
s

t
o
o
l

ho
l
de
rs



B
o
x
t
oo
l
s

T
ape
r

t
u
r
ni
n
g

t
h
r
ea
d

t
u
r
n
in
g



f
o
r

L
a
t
h
e
s

a
n
d

a
tt
a
ch
m
e
n
t
s
.

T
u
rr
e
t

an
d

ca
p
s
t
a
n

la
t
he
s



c
o
lle
t

ch
u
c
k
s



o
t
he
r

w
o
rk

ho
l
de
r
s



t
oo
l

ho
l
din
g

de
v
i
c
e
s



bo
x

an
d

t
o
o
l

la
y
ou
t.
Pr
inc
i
pa
l

f
ea
t
u
r
e
s

o
f

au
t
o
ma
t
i
c

la
t
h
e
s



c
l
a
s
si
f
ic
a
t
io
n



S
i
ng
l
e

sp
i
ndl
e

an
d

m
u
l
t
i
-
sp
i
nd
l
e

a
u
t
o
ma
t
i
c

l
a
t
h
e
s



t
o
o
l

la
y
o
u
t

a
n
d

c
a
m

d
e
s
ign
.


UNIT



III

S
hapi
n
g

s
lo
t
t
in
g

an
d

pl
a
ni
n
g

ma
c
hin
e
s



Pr
i
n
ci
p
le
s
o
f

w
o
r
k
i
n
g



P
r
in
c
ip
a
l

pa
r
t
s



s
p
ec
i
f
i
c
a
t
io
n

cl
a
s
s
i
f
i
ca
t
i
on
,
ope
r
a
t
io
n
s

pe
r
f
o
r
m
ed
.

K
in
e
m
a
t
i
c

sc
h
e
m
e

o
f

t
h
e

sh
a
pin
g

s
l
o
t
t
in
g

a
n
d

p
la
n
nin
g

m
a
c
h
in
e
s
,

m
ach
i
ni
n
g

t
i
m
e
ca
l
cu
l
a
t
i
o
ns
.


UNIT



IV

Dr
illi
n
g

a
n
d

B
o
r
in
g

M
ach
i
ne
s



Pr
in
c
ip
l
e
s

o
f

w
o
r
king
,

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
t
io
n
s
,

t
y
p
e
s
,

ope
r
a
t
io
n
s

p
e
rf
o
r
me
d



t
o
o
l
hol
d
in
g

de
v
ic
e
s



t
w
is
t

d
r
i
l
l



B
o
r
in
g

m
a
ch
i
ne
s



F
i
n
e

bo
r
i
n
g

ma
c
hin
e
s



J
i
g

B
o
r
i
n
g

m
a
chi
n
e
.

D
ee
p

ho
l
e
d
r
il
l
in
g

m
a
ch
i
ne
.

K
in
e
ma
t
i
c
s

s
ch
e
m
e

o
f

t
h
e

d
r
i
lli
n
g

a
n
d

b
o
r
i
n
g

m
a
ch
i
ne
s


UNIT



V

M
illin
g

m
a
c
h
in
e



Pr
i
n
ci
p
l
e
s

o
f

w
o
r
kin
g



sp
e
ci
f
ic
a
t
i
o
n
s



c
la
ssi
f
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
s

o
f

m
il
l
in
g

m
a
ch
i
n
e
s



Pr
i
n
c
ipa
l
f
ea
t
u
r
e
s

o
f

ho
r
i
z
on
t
a
l
,

v
e
rt
i
ca
l

an
d

u
ni
v
e
r
s
a
l

mi
l
lin
g

m
a
c
h
in
e
s



m
a
c
h
ini
n
g

o
p
e
r
a
t
io
n
s

T
y
pe
s

ge
o
me
try
o
f
mi
l
lin
g

c
u
tt
e
r
s



mi
l
li
n
g

c
u
tt
e
r
s



me
t
ho
d
s

o
f

in
d
e
x
in
g



A
c
ce
s
so
r
i
e
s

t
o

m
il
l
in
g

m
a
chi
n
es
,

k
in
ema
t
i
c
sc
h
em
e

o
f

mi
l
li
n
g

c
u
tt
e
r
s



mi
ll
in
g

cu
tt
e
r
s



m
e
t
ho
d
s

o
f

i
n
de
x
ing
.


UNIT


VI

G
r
indin
g

m
a
c
h
in
e



F
u
nd
a
m
e
n
t
a
l
s



T
heo
ry

o
f

g
r
i
n
di
n
g



c
l
as
s
i
f
i
ca
t
i
o
n

o
f

g
r
i
nd
i
n
g

ma
c
hi
n
e



c
y
l
ind
r
i
c
a
l

a
n
d
su
rf
a
c
e

g
r
in
d
in
g

m
a
ch
i
n
e



T
oo
l

a
n
d

c
u
tt
e
r

g
r
i
n
din
g

m
a
c
h
in
e



s
p
e
c
ia
l

t
y
p
e
s

o
f

g
r
i
nd
i
n
g

m
a
chi
n
e
s



D
i
ff
e
r
e
n
t

t
y
pe
s

o
f

a
b
r
a
si
v
e
s



bon
d
s

s
pe
c
i
f
i
ca
t
i
o
n

o
f

a

g
r
in
di
n
g

w
hee
l

a
n
d

s
el
e
c
t
i
o
n

o
f

a

g
ri
ndin
g

w
hee
l

K
ine
m
a
t
i
c

s
ch
e
m
e

o
f

g
r
in
d
in
g

ma
c
hin
e
s
.


UNIT

-

VII

Lapp
i
ng
,

ho
n
in
g

an
d

b
r
o
a
ch
in
g

m
a
ch
i
ne
s



co
m
pa
r
i
so
n to

g
r
ind
i
n
g



la
p
pi
n
g

a
n
d

h
o
nin
g
.

K
ine
m
a
t
i
c
s
sc
h
em
e

o
f

L
ap
p
ing
,

H
on
i
n
g

an
d

Br
o
a
chi
n
g

m
ac
h
in
e
s
.

C
o
ns
t
r
uc
t
i
ona
l

f
e
a
t
u
r
e
s

o
f

sp
e
e
d

a
n
d

f
ee
d

U
n
i
t
s
,
ma
c
hi
n
in
g

t
i
m
e

c
al
c
ula
t
io
n
s


UNIT

-

VIII

Pr
inc
i
pl
e
s

o
f

d
e
si
g
n

o
f

Ji
g
s

an
d

f
i
x
t
u
r
e
s

a
n
d

u
se
s
.

C
l
a
s
s
i
f
i
ca
t
io
n

o
f

J
ig
s

&

F
i
x
t
u
r
e
s



P
r
i
n
ci
p
le
s

o
f

l
oca
t
io
n
an
d

cl
a
mp
i
n
g



T
y
pe
s

o
f

c
l
a
m
pin
g

&
w
o
rk

hol
d
in
g

de
v
i
c
es
.

T
y
pica
l

e
x
ample
s

o
f

j
i
g
s

a
n
d

f
i
x
t
u
r
es
.


TEXT

B
OO
KS :

1
.

Pr
odu
c
t
io
n

T
echn
o
log
y

b
y

R.
K
.

Ja
i
n

a
n
d

S.C.

G
u
p
t
a
.

2
.

Pr
odu
c
t
io
n

T
echn
o
log
y

b
y

H
.
M
.
T
.

(H
indus
t
a
n

M
achin
e

T
oo
l
s
).


REFERENCE
S
:

1
.

M
achin
e

T
ool
s



C.E
l
a
n
c
he
z
h
i
a
n

a
n
d

M
.

V
ija
y
a
n

/

A
n
u
r
ad
h
a

A
gen
c
ie
s

P
ub
l
i
s
he
r
s
.

2
.

W
or
k
sho
p

T
echn
o
log
y



B.
S
.
R
agh
u

V
a
m
s
h
i



V
o
l

II











J
A
W
A
H
A
R
L
A
L

NE
H
RU TE
C
HN
O
L
OG
I
C
A
L

UNIVERSITY,
H
YDE
R
A
B
A
D

III

Y
ea
r B.
T
ec
h.

M
.E.I
-
S
em
es
t
e
r (R
09
)



UNIT



I

DESI
G
N
O
F

M
A
CHINE
M
E
M
BERS
-

I

INTR
O
DUCTI
O
N

:

G
ene
r
a
l

c
o
nsi
d
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
s

i
n

t
h
e

de
s
ig
n

o
f

E
ngin
e
e
r
i
n
g

M
a
t
e
r
ia
l
s

a
n
d

t
h
e
i
r

p
r
ope
r
t
ie
s



sel
e
c
t
i
o
n


M
anu
f
a
c
t
u
r
in
g

co
n
s
ide
r
a
t
io
n

i
n

de
s
ign
.

T
ole
r
a
n
ce
s

an
d

f
i
ts


BIS

cod
e
s

o
f

s
t
ee
l
s
.

STRESSES IN
M
A
CHINE
M
E
M
BERS :

S
impl
e

s
tr
e
s
s
e
s



C
omb
i
ne
d

s
tr
e
s
s
e
s



T
o
r
si
o
na
l

an
d

b
end
i
n
g

s
tr
e
s
s
e
s



im
p
ac
t

s
t
r
e
s
se
s



s
tr
es
s

s
t
r
ai
n

r
ela
t
io
n



V
a
r
io
u
s

t
heo
r
i
e
s

o
f

f
a
ilu
re



f
ac
t
o
r

o
f

s
a
f
e
ty



D
e
s
ig
n
f
o
r

s
t
r
eng
t
h

a
n
d

r
i
g
id
i
ty



p
r
e
fe
rr
e
d

n
u
mbe
r
s
.

T
h
e

co
n
cep
t

o
f

s
t
i
f
f
ne
s
s

i
n

t
e
ns
i
on
,

ben
d
ing
,

t
o
r
si
o
n

a
n
d
co
m
bin
e
d

s
i
t
u
a
t
i
o
n
s



St
a
t
i
c

s
t
r
eng
th

d
e
sig
n

b
a
se
d

o
n

f
r
ac
t
u
r
e

t
ou
g
hn
e
ss
.


UNIT



II

STREN
G
TH
O
F

M
A
CHINE
E
LE
M
ENTS :

Str
es
s

c
o
nc
e
n
tr
a
t
io
n



T
heo
r
e
t
i
ca
l

s
t
r
e
s
s

C
o
n
c
e
n
tr
a
t
i
o
n

f
ac
t
o
r



F
a
t
i
g
u
e

s
tr
e
s
s

co
n
ce
n
tr
a
t
i
o
n

f
a
c
t
o
r

no
t
c
h

s
e
n
si
t
i
v
i
ty



D
es
i
g
n

f
o
r

f
l
uc
t
u
a
t
i
n
g

s
tr
e
ss
e
s



E
ndu
r
an
c
e
li
m
i
t



E
s
t
i
ma
t
io
n

o
f

E
n
d
u
r
a
n
c
e

s
tr
e
ng
th



G
o
o
dm
a
n’
s

l
i
n
e



S
ode
r
be
r
g

s

l
i
n
e



M
odi
f
ie
d

g
o
odm
a
n’
s

l
i
ne
.


UNIT



III

R
i
v
e
t
e
d

a
n
d

w
elde
d

jo
i
n
ts



D
esi
g
n

o
f

jo
i
n
ts

w
i
th

ini
t
ia
l

s
tr
e
s
se
s



e
cc
e
n
tr
i
c

l
oad
i
n
g


UNIT



IV

B
ol
t
e
d

jo
i
n
ts



D
e
si
g
n

o
f

bol
t
s

w
i
th

p
r
e
-
s
tr
e
s
s
e
s



D
e
s
ig
n

o
f

j
oin
t
s

u
n
de
r

e
c
c
en
tr
i
c

l
oa
d
in
g



lo
c
ki
n
g

de
v
i
c
e
s



bo
th

o
f

uni
f
o
rm

s
tr
e
ng
t
h
,

di
ff
e
r
en
t

se
a
l
s


UNIT



V

KEYS,

C
O
TTERS
A
N
D KN
U
CKLE
J
O
INTS :

D
esi
g
n

o
f

K
e
y
s
-
s
t
r
e
s
se
s

i
n

k
e
y
s
-
co
tt
e
r
e
d

j
oi
n
t
s
-
spi
g
o
t

a
n
d

s
oc
k
e
t,

slee
v
e

an
d

co
t
t
e
r,

j
i
b

a
n
d

co
t
t
e
r

j
oin
t
s
-

K
nu
c
kl
e

jo
i
n
t
s
.


UNIT



VI

S
H
AF
T
S :

D
esig
n

o
f

s
ol
i
d

a
n
d

hol
l
o
w

sha
fts

f
o
r

s
tr
e
n
g
th

an
d

r
igi
d
i
ty



D
e
s
ig
n

o
f

sha
f
ts

f
o
r

c
omb
i
ne
d
bend
i
n
g

a
n
d

a
x
ia
l

loa
d
s



S
h
a
ft

si
z
e
s



BIS

c
o
de
.

U
s
e

o
f

in
te
r
na
l

a
n
d

e
x
t
e
r
na
l

ci
r
cl
i
ps
,

G
a
s
ke
ts

an
d

s
e
a
l
s
(
s
t
a
t
i
ona
ry

& r
o
t
a
r
y
).


UNIT



VII

SH
A
FT

C
O
UPLING

:

R
igi
d

c
o
upl
i
ng
s



M
u
ff,

S
pli
t

m
u
ff

a
n
d

F
lan
g
e

c
ou
p
lin
g
s
.

F
le
x
ibl
e

c
o
u
pli
n
g
s



F
lan
g
e

c
ou
p
lin
g

(
M
odi
f
ied
).


UNIT



VIII
Mec
h
a
ni
c
a
l

Sp
r
in
g
s

:

Str
es
s
e
s

an
d

de
f
l
ec
t
io
n
s

o
f

he
l
ica
l

sp
r
in
g
s



E
x
t
ens
i
o
n

-
c
o
m
p
r
es
s
io
n

sp
r
in
g
s



S
p
r
in
g
s

f
o
r

f
a
t
ig
u
e

l
o
ad
i
n
g



na
t
u
r
a
l

f
r
eq
u
enc
y

o
f

h
e
li
c
a
l

s
p
r
in
g
s



E
ne
r
g
y

s
t
o
r
a
g
e

c
ap
a
c
i
ty



h
e
li
c
a
l

t
o
r
s
i
o
n

sp
r
i
ng
s



C
o
-
a
x
ia
l

sp
r
i
ng
s
,
lea
f

sp
r
i
ng
s
.


TEXT

B
OO
KS :

1
.

M
achin
e

D
e
s
ign
,

V
.B
an
d
a
ri

T
m
h

P
u
bl
i
she
r
s

2
.

M
achin
e

D
e
s
ign
,

S

M
D
Jalal
u
din
,

A
n
u
R
ad
h
a

P
u
b
l
i
she
r
s

3
.

D
esi
g
n

D
a
ta

ha
n
d

B
o
o
k
,

S
M
D
Ja
l
alu
d
in
,

A
nu
R
a
d
h
a

P
u
bl
i
sh
e
rs


REFERENCES :

1
.

D
esi
g
n

o
f

M
achi
n
e

E
l
em
e
n
ts

/

V.
M
.

F
ai
r
e
s

2
.

M
achin
e

d
e
si
g
n

/

S
cha
u
m

S
e
ri
es
.

3
.

M
achin
e

d
e
si
g
n



P
a
nd
y
a

&

s
hah
.











J
A
W
A
H
A
R
L
A
L

NE
H
RU TE
C
HN
O
L
OG
I
C
A
L

UNIVERSITY
H
YDE
R
A
B
A
D

III

Y
ea
r B.
T
ec
h.

M
.E.I
-
S
em
es
t
e
r (R
09
)



S
ec
tion

A

:

M
ETR
O
L
OG
Y

AND
M
A
C
HI
N
E T
OO
LS L
A
B


1
.

M
easu
r
emen
t

o
f

len
g
t
hs
,

h
e
i
g
h
t
s
,

di
a
me
t
e
r
s

b
y

v
e
r
n
i
e
r

c
al
ip
e
rs

m
ic
r
om
e
t
e
rs

e
t
c
.

2
.

M
easu
r
emen
t

o
f

b
o
r
e
s

b
y

in
t
e
r
na
l

mic
r
o
m
e
t
e
rs

a
n
d

d
i
a
l

b
o
re

ind
i
ca
t
o
r
s
.

3
.

U
s
e

o
f

gea
r

t
ee
t
h
,

v
e
r
n
i
e
r

c
al
ip
e
rs

a
n
d

c
h
e
ck
i
n
g

t
h
e

cho
r
d
a
l

a
dden
d
u
m

an
d

cho
r
da
l

he
i
gh
t

o
f

spu
r

gea
r
.

4
.

M
achin
e

t
o
o
l


a
lig
n
m
e
n
t

t
e
s
t

o
n

t
h
e

la
t
h
e
.

5
.

M
achin
e

t
o
o
l

a
lig
n
m
e
n
t

t
e
s
t

o
n

mi
l
li
n
g

m
ac
h
ine
.

6
.

T
oo
l

m
a
ke
rs

m
i
c
r
o
sc
o
p
e

a
n
d

i
t
s

a
p
pl
i
ca
t
i
o
n

7
.

A
ngl
e

an
d

t
ape
r

m
e
asu
r
e
m
en
t
s

b
y

B
e
v
e
l

p
r
o
tr
a
c
t
o
r,

S
in
e

ba
r
s
,

e
t
c
.

8
.

U
s
e

o
f

s
p
i
r
i
t

le
v
e
l

i
n

f
i
nd
i
n
g

t
h
e

f
la
t
n
e
s
s

o
f

su
r
f
ac
e

p
l
a
t
e
.

9
.

T
h
r
ea
d

m
e
asu
r
em
e
n
t

b
y

T
w
o

w
i
r
e
/

T
h
r
e
e

w
i
re

me
t
ho
d

o
r

To
o
l

m
ake
r
s

mic
r
o
s
co
p
e
.

10
.

S
u
rf
a
c
e

r
o
u
ghn
e
s
s

m
e
asu
r
e
m
en
t

b
y

T
al
y

S
u
rf.

11
.

S
u
rf
a
c
e

W
e
a
r

R
e
s
is
t
an
c
e
s

Te
s
t

u
si
n
g

E
l
e
c
tro

S
pa
rk

C
oa
t
in
g

D
e
v
ice
.


S
ec
tion

B :


1
.

I
n
tr
od
u
c
t
i
o
n

o
f

g
e
ne
r
a
l

pu
r
po
s
e

m
a
ch
i
ne
s

-
La
t
he
,

Dr
i
ll
i
n
g

m
a
chi
n
e
,

M
illin
g

m
a
c
h
ine
,

S
ha
p
e
r
,

2
.

P
lani
n
g

m
a
c
hin
e
,

s
lo
t
t
in
g

m
a
c
hine
,

C
y
lind
r
i
c
a
l

Gr
in
d
e
r,

s
u
rf
a
c
e

g
r
inde
r

an
d

t
o
o
l

a
n
d

c
u
tt
e
r

g
r
ind
e
r.

3
.

St
e
p

t
u
r
ni
n
g

a
n
d

t
a
p
e
r

t
u
r
ni
n
g

o
n

l
a
t
h
e

m
a
chi
n
e

4
.

T
h
r
ea
d

cu
t
t
i
n
g

a
n
d

k
n
u
r
l
i
n
g

o
n

-
la
t
h
e

m
ac
h
ine
.

5
.

Dr
illi
n
g

a
n
d

T
app
i
n
g

6
.

S
hapi
n
g

a
n
d

P
l
ani
n
g

7
.

S
lo
tt
i
n
g

8
.

M
illin
g

9
.

C
y
lind
r
i
c
a
l

S
u
r
f
a
c
e

G
r
in
d
in
g

10
.

G
r
indin
g

o
f

T
oo
l

an
g
le
s
.











J
A
W
A
H
A
R
L
A
L

NE
H
RU TE
C
HN
O
L
OG
I
C
A
L

UNIVERSITY
H
YDE
R
A
B
A
D

III

Y
ea
r B.
T
ec
h.

M
.E.I
-
S
em
es
t
e
r (R
09
)

THER
M
A
L

EN
G
INEERI
N
G L
A
B
P
e
r
fo
r
m

a
n
y

1
0

out

of

t
h
e

1
2

exe
r
c
i
se
s


1
.

I.C.

E
ng
i
ne
s

V
al
v
e

/

P
o
rt

T
im
in
g

D
iag
r
a
m
s

2
.

I.C.

E
ng
i
ne
s

P
e
rf
o
r
ma
n
c
e

T
e
s
t(

4

-
Str
o
k
e

D
i
es
e
l

E
n
g
in
e
s

)

3
.

I.C.

E
ng
i
ne
s

P
e
rf
o
r
ma
n
c
e

T
e
s
t

o
n

2
-
S
t
r
o
k
e

P
e
tr
o
l

4
.

E
v
alua
t
i
o
n

o
f

E
ng
i
n
e

f
r
ic
t
io
n

b
y

cond
u
c
t
i
n
g

M
o
r
s
e

t
e
s
t

o
n

4
-
Str
ok
e

M
ul
ti

c
y
lin
d
e
r

P
e
t
r
o
l

E
n
gin
e

5
.

E
v
alua
te

o
f

e
n
gi
n
e

fr
i
c
t
i
o
n

b
y

c
ond
u
c
t
i
n
g

m
o
t
o
r
i
n
g

/
r
e
t
a
r
d
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
s
t

o
n

4

s
tr
o
k
e

d
i
es
e
l

E
n
gi
n
e
.

6
.

H
ea
t

b
a
la
n
c
e

o
n

IC E
n
gin
e
s
.

7
.

D
e
t
e
r
m
i
na
t
io
n

o
f

A/F

R
a
t
i
o

a
n
d

V
ol
u
me
t
r
i
c

E
f
f
i
c
ie
n
c
y

o
n

IC

E
ngin
e
s
.

8
.

D
e
t
e
r
m
i
n
e

o
f

E
c
on
o
mi
c
a
l

sp
ee
d

t
e
s
t

f
o
r

f
i
x
e
d

loa
d

o
n

4
-
s
tr
o
k
e

E
ng
i
ne
.

9
.

D
e
t
e
r
m
i
n
e

o
p
t
i
m
u
m

c
ool
i
n
g

w
a
t
e
r

t
e
mpe
r
a
t
u
r
e

o
n

I
C

E
n
g
i
n
e

10
.

D
is
-
a
s
s
e
mbl
y

/

A
s
s
em
b
l
y

o
f

E
ngin
e
s
.

11
.

P
e
rf
o
r
m
an
c
e

t
e
s
t

o
n

R
e
c
ip
r
o
c
a
t
in
g

A
i
r
-
c
omp
r
e
s
so
r

uni
t.

12
.

St
ud
y

o
f

B
o
ile
r
s
.