Document 522 POST-ASSESSMENT REPORT CHAPTER: Texas Tech University COUNTRY: Panama COMMUNITY: Solong PROJECT: Clean Water For Solong

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Document 522

POST
-
ASSESSMENT REPORT


CHAPTER:

Texas Tech University

COUNTRY:
Panama

COMMUNITY:

Solong

PROJECT:

Clean Water For Solong









PREPARED BY

Tim Warren


Submittal Date




E
NGINEERS
W
ITHOUT
B
ORDERS
-
USA

www.
ewb
-
usa.org

Document 522
-

Post
-
Assessment Report

Texas Tech University

Solong, Panama

Clean Water For Solong




©
2007
Engineers Without Borders


USA. All Rights Reserved

Page
2

of
18

Post
-
Assessment Report Part 1



Administrative

Information



1.0

Contact Information



Name

Email

Phone

Chapter

Project Leads

Tim Warren

Tim.warren@ttu.edu

979
-
966
-
9234

TTU

President

James Casias

j.casias@ttu.edu

806
-
241
-
3528

TTU

Mentor #1

Dr. Clifford
Fedler

clifford.fedler@ttu.edu

806
-
742
-
2801

X255

TTU

Mentor #2





Faculty Advisor
(if applicable)

Dr. Siva
Parameswaran

Siva.parameswaran@ttu.edu

806
-
742
-
3563
ext
246

TTU

Health Point
Person #1

Barbara
McDougal

sdrojf@nts
-
online.net

806
-
797
-
9687


Health Point
Person
#2





NGO/Community
Contact

Felix
Sanchez

abigails55@gmail.com

011
-
507
-
6496
-
9841


Education Lead

Dr. Siva
Parameswaran

Siva.parameswaran@ttu.edu

806
-
742
-
3563
ext
246

TTU






Document 522
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Post
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Assessment Report

Texas Tech University

Solong, Panama

Clean Water For Solong




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2007
Engineers Without Borders


USA. All Rights Reserved

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2.0

Travel History



Dates of Travel

Assessment or
Implementation

Description of Trip

July 6
-
15, 2009

Assessment

Health assessment,
water quality survey,
rough land survey, get
to know people, get to
know Panama



3.0

Travel Team



Name

E
-
mail

Phone

Chapter

Student or
Professional

Dr.
Clifford
Fedler

clifford.fedler@ttu.edu

806
-
742
-
2781

TTU
EWB

Professional

Tim
Warren

Tim.warren@ttu.edu

979
-
966
-
9234

TTU
EWB

Student

Taylor
Choate

Taylor.choate@gmail.com

512
-
289
-
7857

TTU
EWB

Student



4.0

Safety


4.1

Safety Incident Reports


Throughout the trip our safety was never compromised. Tim did get a few
needles in his hand from a type of palm tree but the locals assured the tree was not
poisonous. Also, there has been no reaction since that day on Tim’s hand.










Document 522
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Post
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Assessment Report

Texas Tech University

Solong, Panama

Clean Water For Solong




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2007
Engineers Without Borders


USA. All Rights Reserved

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5.0

Budget



5.1

Cos
t


Expense

Total Cost

Airfa
re

$

2183.10

On Ground

$ 1339.33

Materials


Other


Total

$ 3522.43



6.0

Project Location

Longitude:
-
82.60865

Latitude: 9.36319

Document 522
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Post
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Assessment Report

Texas Tech University

Solong, Panama

Clean Water For Solong




©
2007
Engineers Without Borders


USA. All Rights Reserved

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Post
Assessment Report Part 2


Technical Information


1.0

INTRODUCTION


The purpose of this document is to
give a report of the findings the travel team
discovered during their recent trip to Panama.


The project
is located

in nort
hwest Panama in a community of
380

people. The
community currently does not have most of the ame
nities that we consider a necessity,
including water and electricity.
This project’s goal is to provide clean water and provide
a sanitation system for the people of this community.


The recent
assessment trip to Solong allowed the travel team to be able
to collect
information about Solong, it’s people, their infrastructure, water quality, health, local
contacts, Panama in general, and information for future places to stay in Panama City

and
elsewhere as needed
.



2.0

PROGRAM BACKGROUND


The mission of the EWB

program is to provide clean drinkable water to
the people of
Solong, Panama. This mission will include filtering and distributing the water they
currently drink and creating a sanitation system for their waste to prevent cross
contamination between the w
aste and their water source. This is necessary due to the
health problems that Solong currently faces. The water sanitation is also necessary to
prevent pollution of the environment
in which the people of Solong live
.


The community of Solong is one of t
he few villages left in the Naso tribe. They are ruled
by a king but each community is able to control its own issues. The Solong community
currently has a water distribution system but this system is not filtered

nor treated in any
manner
. Th
e

water su
pplied to this
distribution system comes from a
mountain stream

but because of a lack of knowledge on plumbing or piping, the system is not as efficient
as it can become.



This program will improve the quality of life for the
people within the
village of
Solong.
Clean water will help to prevent some of the diseases that are rampant through
out

the
area, including blue baby syndrome, meningitis, and HUS. Also, water sanitation will
help prevent disruption of the environment by the Solong people and help th
em to
continue living with their present culture.





Document 522
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Post
-
Assessment Report

Texas Tech University

Solong, Panama

Clean Water For Solong




©
2007
Engineers Without Borders


USA. All Rights Reserved

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3.0

TRIP DESCRIPTION


The travel team flew into Panama City on July 6
th
, 2009. The group spent one night in
Panama City and the following evening began traveling by bus and then water taxi to
Solong. In Solong the travel team began their research by hiking to the water tank and
the water source for the village of Solong.
H
ere

the team took some water samples for
testing for bacteria.


Later that evening the travel team had a town meeting with the people of Solong. About
thirty people showed up to take part in the meeting. The team discussed what it was
trying to do in Sol
ong and what it would be doing for the next few days.


The next two days included more water testing, health assessments and talking to various
people in the village. A GPS was used for a rough survey of the land and pictures were
taken of the infrastruct
ure of the village.


Before the team left
,

another meeting took place with the elders in the community. A
more detailed approach was taken at this meeting and the findings from the water tests
were provided to the elders.


After leaving Solong the travel
team met with the ministry of health in Panama City to
discuss EWB’s involvement with Solong. The team also spent some time looking for
other places to stay and better ways to get around Panama.


4.0

COMMUNITY INFORMATION


4.1

Description of Community


Solong is
one of eleven villages that make up the Naso tribe. It is located in the
mountainous rainforest area in northern Panama
,
with

the closest city
being

Changuinola.
Solong can only be reached by foot or by boat but
since

the village is located on a bluff
ov
erlooking the Teribe river
;

travel by boat is almost always used. Solong is made up of
about 380

people and 40 homes. Most of the village is located on the south side of the
river but a small group of homes reside on the north side of the river and can o
nly be
accessed by using a boat to cross the water.


The area that the people live in is about a half mile long and around two tenths of a mile
wide. The homes tend to be built closer to the river for easier transportation. The source
of water is a mount
ain stream that is very reliable. The water is taken from the stream at
a point roughly 100 feet above the level of the village and over 2500 feet away. There is
a school in the center of the community as well as a covered gathering area and a doctor’s
Document 522
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Post
-
Assessment Report

Texas Tech University

Solong, Panama

Clean Water For Solong




©
2007
Engineers Without Borders


USA. All Rights Reserved

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o
ffice. These were all built with aid from the Panamanian government about seven years
ago.


The growth rate for the community is about five people each year and there are around
two homes built each year. These homes are arranged in groups of three to f
ive homes,
usually consis
ting

of families. There are many trails that connect the groups of homes
but they are all small foot paths with the exception of a large concrete sidewalk
which
was recently built along the river to help the children get to and fr
om school.




4.2

Community/NGO Resources and Constraints


The village of Solong has a leader and a council under the leader. The leader politically
resides under the King of the Naso tribe. The villagers speak Spanish and very few speak
their native languag
e. The village has a school for the children and is used on a regular
basis. For finances, the village sells crafts
,

made by the people within the village

and a
handful work for a company that is building a bridge down river. The distance from
Changuino
la to Solong is eight miles direct and about ten miles along the river, which is
a two hour boat ride.


The two main resources that the community will be able to help us with are labor and
travel.


The design of EWBs system will be limited in size by the c
apability to transport materials
in a boat up the river. All of the boats that were seen on the river throughout the trip
were hollowed tree trunks and were long and narrow. The other size limitation is on the
materials that can be hand carried through t
he narrow trails, especially if the materials are
to be carried a significant distance,
such as

to the water source.


A non government organization by the name of the Alliance for Conservation and
Development (ACD) has contacted EWB at Texas Tech and has
offered information to
the group. They are an organization that works in Panama to promote alternate models of
development that will benefit the country. ACD worked with the Naso tribe for six years
in the past and is still in contact with the village le
aders. There

is

also a small group of
missionaries that live in the village that will be a valuable source of information for
EWB.



4.3

Community Relations


The Texas Tech EWB chapter’s main contact for this project is Felix Sanchez. He is the
village
leader of Solong and lives in the nearby city of Changuinola. Because he lives in
Document 522
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Assessment Report

Texas Tech University

Solong, Panama

Clean Water For Solong




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2007
Engineers Without Borders


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a city, we can email and even call him if we need to. Felix is also a direct advisor to the
King of the Naso tribe and is the president of the Naso Foundation, which has a
goal to
preserve the culture of the Naso tribe.



4.4

Community Priorities


The community’s top priority is clean water. Some of the people in Solong showed an
interest in having bathrooms or out houses but this was not a desire that was expressed to
the trav
el group.



5.0

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS


5.1

Summary of Data


Water Quality:


Water quality tests were taken and the results are shown in a table in section 5.3. This
data verified that the water quality of the mountain stream, and therefore the quality of
the water that most of the villagers drink, is good with the exception of bacteria in the
water.


Bacteria tests (using the LaMotte coliform indicator test kit) were taken that would show
the presence of bacteria but no numerical values could be obtained f
rom the test. There
were four indications of bacteria presence,
water color,

turbidity,
bubbles, and the
location of the
gell plug
.

Water for the bacterial
tests was

obtained from three
areas
:

the
water source, the storage tank, and the host’s home. In
all three locations, all four
indicators were positiv
e

for the presence of coliform bacteria in the drinking water
.



Village area is estimated to be 1200 acres.


Health Survey:


In obtaining demographic and health information regarding the village of Solo
ng, a focus
group was constructed and asked a series of questions in the following areas: regional
population, disease and illness in the community, mortality, daily life, food, maternal
health, diarrhea, respiratory health, hygiene, health resources, edu
cation, and
transportation. The community doctor, the advisor to the Naso king, and various other
position
-
holding elders of the village were consulted in order to complete the focus group
questionnaire.


Document 522
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Assessment Report

Texas Tech University

Solong, Panama

Clean Water For Solong




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2007
Engineers Without Borders


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The three most predominant diseases/illnesses in t
he village were said to be diarrhea,
common cold, and parasites. Proportionally, those affected by these ailments each year
were noted as 50% children, 25% young adults, and 25% older adults. The
aforementioned diseases/illnesses were not gender
-
specific

and the village perceived the
main causes of these illnesses as an unclean water supply and change in climate. Most
treat these ailments by going to see the village doctor at his office or by using herbal
remedies.



5.2

Mapping


The travel group to Solong,
Panama used a hand held GPS for a rough estimate and to
create a general map. In the future, a more precise map will have to be made and include
elevation and the difference in elevation at each water spout across the village.


The current map shows many
of the trails that connect the villager’s homes and work
areas. It also shows the water spouts that were found by the EWB team during the trip.
These are signified by a circle with an X through it. All of these spouts were in areas of
homes or other sig
nificant buildings like the school or doc
tor

s

office.


The river was plotted up to the village and is shown on the map. A second part of the
village was discovered across the Teribe River from the main
village; however

the travel
team did not get to visi
t this area. Another area
which

was

not visited was located
northwest and further upstream from the main part of the village.
This area does
receive
water from the current system and will
be explored

in the future.


On the map there is a symbol of a green

box with a question mark. This is where all
meetings in the village are held
, under a pavilion which was constructed for that very
purpose.

The school is signified by a building with three pillars and the doctor’s office is
directly next to the water sp
out labeled Dr. Water. There is a picture of an anchor located
where the travel team docked and walked into the village from the river. There is one
part of the trail system that is made of a concrete sidewalk. This begins at the bridge
labeled Bridge 2

and ends just past the doctor’s office where the trail takes a ninety
degree turn and drops down to the river bed. The water source and the water tank are
labeled and are south west of the village.









Document 522
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Post
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Assessment Report

Texas Tech University

Solong, Panama

Clean Water For Solong




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2007
Engineers Without Borders


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5.3

Monitoring and Evaluation Data


The following t
able shows the values taken from water tests throughout Solong. The
names correlate to the names shown on the map.


Test

Source

Tank

Dr Water

Water007

Host

PH

8.6 +

8.6

7.4

7.2

7.3

CO
2
(ppm)

0
-

2

2

6

6

6

Fe

-

-

0.1

0.1

< 0.1

Ammonia

-

-

None detected

None detected

None detected

Chlorine

-

-

0.05

None detected

None detected

GH

-

-

0

0

0

KH

-

-

0

0

0

NO
2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.05

0.1




6.0

PHOTO DOCUMENTATION




Figure (1): Front view of Solong’s water collection tank


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Solong, Panama

Clean Water For Solong




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Figure (2): Side view of Solong’s
storage tank




Figure (3): Part of Solong’s intermittent piping network


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Texas Tech University

Solong, Panama

Clean Water For Solong




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2007
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Figure (4): A broken pipe within Solong’s piping network, a regular occurance




Figure (5): Five positive test taken from different sites all positive for coli form



7.0

PROJECT
FEASIBILITY

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Solong, Panama

Clean Water For Solong




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The project in Solong is feasible. The Texas Tech chapter has a mentor with the
knowledge needed to take on a water filtration project as well as other mentors that are
giving the project the support it needs. A design group has already star
ted the re
-
design
of the water source
which

will include a trash filter and strainer. The chapter also has a
group of dedicated individuals that would be willing to travel and do the required work to
make the project happen.


Financially the most expensiv
e part of the project will be the travel to
and from
Panama.
The cost of food and materials in Panama is significantly less than the cost in America
and other parts of the world.
The Texas Tech chapter should be able to raise funds
necessary to pay for t
his project.


8.0

LESSONS LEARNED


The people of Panama speak very little English. Although there were a few people that
knew English, they were few and far between. The Texas Tech travel team had
difficulties with this issue. Even though the group was very

small it relied on only one
person to translate at all times. This proved very difficult and burdensome on that
individual
. It was also hard for the group to back up the translator in times of conflict
with
the locals. As an example
, the group was almo
st charged for an extra day at a hotel
and the translator had to deal with the situation strictly on his own. It is recommended
that no matter what the travel group’s size, the majority of the
travelers are able to
fluently speak Spanish.


The people in S
olong believe all outsiders are very wealthy and will take advantage of
this if they can. The Texas Tech chapter had made prior arrangements with the leader of
Solong for the boat taxi from Changuinola to Solong. Although a travel team size had
been disc
ussed two or three times, a miscommunication
occurred

and our travel team was
asked to pay for more passengers because more than the required boats
had shown

up.
The team had also previously agreed on a rate of pay for host family and food. Before
going
to the village the team was taken by a grocery store and told to buy the groceries
the group would like to eat while in Solong. The team’s rate was not reduced after the
fact and most of the money that was
supposed
to go to the host family went to the lea
der
of the village to use in his travels. Also, anyone that helped the team in any way wanted
financial compensation for their time. It is recommended that all financial dealings be
agreed upon in advance and if the agreement is broken at any time a rene
gotiation occur
right away.


9.0

MENTOR ASSESSMENT



Document 522
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Texas Tech University

Solong, Panama

Clean Water For Solong




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2007
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The students on this project did an exceptional job considering the circumstances they
encountered during the trip as was mentioned within the lessons learned section of this
report. The students conducted themselves in a professional manner throughout the

trip.
The amount of data the group collected during this trip was excellent, which is a result of
the careful planning and a great deal of “guess
-
work” on the part of the project planner
(Tim Warren). One of the more interesting challenges encountered wa
s the establishment
of with the Health officials for the country. Despite their changing of the meeting time
several times and then saying that meeting with them was unnecessary, their persistence
paid off and the result was a very productive meeting, espe
cially with regards to how to
proceed in the future.


Since the trip has occurred, there has been a great deal of interaction between the project
planner and a student design team to continue their efforts to provide viable solutions to
the citizen of Sol
ong. The next team under development will benefit greatly from the
information gathered during this initial site visit and should therefore provide much to the
overall project.






Appendix:



Information gathered in the health survey:


Choate, Bevan T.

9/27/09


Solong, Cha
nguinola, Panamá: Focus Group i
n the Naso Village



In obtaining demographic and health information regarding the village of Solong, a focus
group was constructed and asked a series of questions in the following areas: regional
population, disease and illness in the community, mortality, daily life, food, maternal
health, diarrhea, respiratory health, hygiene, health resources, education, and
transportation. The community doctor, the advisor to the Naso king, and various other
p
osition
-
holding elders of the village were consulted in order to complete the focus group
questionnaire.


The village of Solong is tucked away in the outskirts of Changuinola about an hour and
half boat ride upriver on the Changuinola River. Its 61 househ
olds are dispersed along
the river valley among the mountains. The village school, doctor’s office, and village
meeting area are located on a small plateau overlooking the Changuinola River. The total
Document 522
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Post
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Assessment Report

Texas Tech University

Solong, Panama

Clean Water For Solong




©
2007
Engineers Without Borders


USA. All Rights Reserved

Page
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number of those who would benefit from the project wa
s said to be roughly 380. Males
number approximately 180, whereas the females are roughly 200. The following age
groups were inquired of regarding their numbers in the village:


People < 1 yr

1
-
4 yr

5
-
15 yr

> 50yr

60

70

40

35



Everyone in the village meeting identified themselves culturally as Nasos.


The three most predominant diseases/illnesses in the village were said to be diarrhea,
common cold, and parasites. Proportionally, those affected by these ailments each year
wer
e noted as 50% children, 25% young adults, and 25% older adults. The
aforementioned diseases/illnesses were not gender
-
specific and the village perceived the
main causes of these illnesses as an unclean water supply and change in climate. Most
treat thes
e ailments by going to see the village doctor at his office, or by using herbal
remedies. The

village doctor is a middle
-
aged man that is intelligent and affable, yet has
no accredited medical training. The village doctor had a minimal amount of antibiot
ics
and suturing equipment in his office that were given to him by the ministry of health in
Changuinola. When asked if there were any general differences between a male’s and a
female’s health in the village he said he noted one thing. “Generally, women

tend to
have cancer more, and men tend to get Tuberculosis more.” AIDS/HIV was not
considered to be a problem in the village and Tuberculosis was said to be a very minimal
threat to the village, as it was fairly rare. Those that acquire Tuberculosis go
to the free
clinic in Changuinola to receive medical attention. The major cause of worry among
households regarding the health of their family members was the common cold and
bronchitis. As for any elders residing in the household, the main cause of worr
y was
heart attack. The men of the focus group said their greatest worry regarding their own
health was high blood pressure and increased risk of heart attack.


The average life expectancy of men in the village was said to be 70 years of age, whereas
the
female life expectancy was around 75 years of age. The birth rate was said to be
roughly 5 newborns per year and the death rate was less than 1 per year. The number of
newborn deaths was noted as 1 per every 5 years, whereas deaths of children between
ag
es 1 and 5 years of age were noted as 1 per every 10 years. No women have died in
child birth in the village, according to the village doctor. The major causes of death in
the village in order of most common to least common are natural causes, snake bite
s, and
the flooding river. Illnesses that were present seasonally were common cold, fever,
diarrhea, chicken pox, and whooping cough. These illnesses presented primarily during
the rainy season
,

which occurs annually from April to November (the rainy sea
son).


The main water supply comes from the confluence of two mountain springs that flow into
a collection basin, which is then channeled into a PVC pipe system to the households of
the village. The spring source of water was referred to as
la
quebrada

by the villagers.
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Solong, Panama

Clean Water For Solong




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2007
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The

water is not purified and was tested for the presence of E. coli bacteria at various
sites of the water’s distribution (i.e. collection basin, midway down the pipeline, and
straight from a household’s water spigot). All tests indica
ted presence of E. coli bacteria.
The villagers iterated that a recurring problem was dead animals falling into the water
supply upstream. For bathing and consumption, the spring water was used in every
household. Most households utilized pit latrines f
or toilets. The final discharge from
these units was the various streams that ended up in the river.


A typical breakfast in the village consisted of one or more of the following foods: banana,
plantains, yucca root, or yams. A typical lunch consisted of

rice and beans, and a typical
supper consisted of rice, beans, plantain, and possibly chicken, beef, or fish from the
river. Vegetables were prepared fried or cooked in a skillet or pot. Villagers typically do
not eat vegetables raw and only have small
amounts of vegetables at any given time so
that they do not spoil prior to consumption. In general, the most common types of meats
consumed are chicken and beef which are prepared by smoking them or cooking them
into a soup. Meats are preserved by smokin
g or salting them. Fishes consumed from the
nearby river include tilapia, ronco (a perch
-
like fish), and boca chicas. It is widely
believed in the village that poor food preparation and preservation is the cause of many
illnesses. Such basic necessities

such as salt, pepper, cooking oil, rice, and beans are
acquired at the supermarket in Changuinola. Domestically cultivated foods such as
yucca, plantains, chickens, and cattle are prevalent yet vary among households. Most
people eat three times per day.

It was noted that adult’s and children’s diets were largely
the same, and pregnant women were said to not change their diets during pregnancy.
Foods considered to be taboo were largely tied to religious beliefs. For example, the
Adventists of the villag
e do not eat pork, whereas the Catholics do. Foods considered to
be delicacies were coffee, fatty foods, and spicy foods.


As for maternal health, 100% of mothers breast feed their children until they are roughly
5 years of age. The average age at which
women begin to give birth is around 13 years.
Women have on average 5
-
6 children.


Diarrhea is considered a major problem afflicting many members of the village. The
majority of the village believes that unclean water and unclean food are the cause of th
e
diarrhea. Most use herbal remedies and perhaps some medical aid from the local doctor
to mitigate symptoms of the diarrhea. Food, milk, and water were said to make the
diarrhea worse.


Sinusitis, common cold, and bronchitis were noted as the major resp
iratory illnesses
affecting the members of the village. The cause for these ailments was attributed to
seasonal climate change and most sought treatment from the local doctor. Many say that
travel to Changuinola and seasonal climate changes engender the
onset of respiratory
illnesses. About 1% of the village smokes cigarettes.


Document 522
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Assessment Report

Texas Tech University

Solong, Panama

Clean Water For Solong




©
2007
Engineers Without Borders


USA. All Rights Reserved

Page
17

of
18

When asked about fulfilling proper personal hygiene, the focus group ascertained that
approximately 70% of the village members used proper hygienic practices. However, it
was n
oted that several households did not have available soap at all times. Most people
bath under the spring water spigots and were said to utilize soap when bathing. Some
people used soap to clean their clothes, whereas some washed clothes without soap.


As for waste disposal, most in the village burn or bury trash. Their organic waste was
thrown on the ground or used as biodegradable nutrients for household gardens.


There is one health center in the village consisting of the local doctor and his one
a
ssistant. The doctor told
the travel group

he sees about 130


160 people per month. As
for child vaccines in the village, roughly 95% of the children of the village receive
vaccines for polio, tuberculosis, hepatitis B, tetanus, and rubella. The local
doctor stated
that the vaccines are free to the children of the village and are administered by a health
program called La Liga from the Ministry of Health in Changuinola or Panama City that
comes out to the village every two months or so.


Children of age
s 7 to 12 years attend the only school in Solong. After speaking with the
school’s teacher,
the team

was told that the school had roughly 60 children at any given
time. He said most come for the free meal given at lunchtime and says that the meal is a
ma
jor incentive for the children of the village to attend class. The literacy rate of the
village was said to be roughly 100% and that most of the villagers sought advice and
information from the village teacher and doctor. The doctor serves as the health
educator
of the village. The villagers’ transportation and communication sources present as
follows:



Access to radio

Television

Cell Phone

Newspaper

Vehicle

95%

0%

95%

0%

25%

(have boat or
horse only)






The water
-
purification project of
Solong would directly benefit a growing community of
roughly

380 Naso villagers by drastically reducing the prevalence of water
-
borne vectors
in the potable water supply of the village. As the majority of the Solong villagers are
literate and agree that t
heir unclean water supply is the root cause of diarrhea
-
related
illness, purifying their water source would mitigate this predominant illness and improve
the quality of life for many people in this village. At this point in the preliminary
research on Sol
ong, results of the project’s impact could be carried out by doing yearly
medical questionnaire follow
-
ups or clinical evaluations to see how the prevalence of
water
-
borne and food
-
borne illnesses have changed subsequent to the water purification
implantat
ion. It is possible that Texas Tech HSC students from the medical school and/or
Document 522
-

Post
-
Assessment Report

Texas Tech University

Solong, Panama

Clean Water For Solong




©
2007
Engineers Without Borders


USA. All Rights Reserved

Page
18

of
18

nursing school could work in conjunction with EWB
-
Texas Tech Chapter to carry out
data collection.



Some notes are attached in .pdf format: