Section 2: Biology, Technology, and Society

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Nov 15, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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Applications of Biology

Section 2

Section 2: Biology, Technology, and
Society

Preview


Bellringer


Key Ideas


Biotechnology Around Us


Applications of Biological Research


Biology, Forensics, and Public Safety


The Ethics of Biotechnology


Summary


Applications of Biology

Section 2

Bellringer

Have you ever heard of
Drosophila melanogaster?

Fruit
flies are commonly found near ripe fruit and are only about
3 mm long as adults. They are widely studied in genetics
research, and their genome has recently been sequenced.



Applications of Biology

Section 2

Key Ideas


What is one way that genetic engineering affects our
lives?



How has biotechnology provided new tools for scientists
to understand biological processes?



How are biological factors used to verify an individual’s
identity and to ensure public safety?



What ethical issues are raised by the use of
biotechnology?


Applications of Biology

Section 2

Biotechnology Around Us


Genetic engineering

is a technology in which the
genetic material of a living cell is changed.



Genetic engineering can be used to create crops that
yield more product or are resistant to pests.



Bt corn has been genetically engineered to contain a
gene from
Bacillus thuringiensis.


Applications of Biology

Section 2

Visual Concept:
Genetic Engineering


Applications of Biology

Section 2

Biotechnology Around Us,
continued


This
Bacillus thuringiensis
gene allows the corn to make
a toxin that kills the European corn borer.



The use of Bt corn has raised crop yields and decreased
the use of pesticides to control European corn borers.


Applications of Biology

Section 2

Applications of Biological Research


Nigel Atkinson uses genetically modified fruit flies to test
how certain genetic changes affect a fruit fly’s response to
alcohol. His research may help other scientists treat
alcoholism in new ways.



Gene technology can also be used to make vaccines and
other medical products such as insulin.



Some people with diabetes need to take insulin to help
them metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Insulin
is now made from bacteria that contain the human gene
that produces insulin.


Applications of Biology

Section 2

Visual Concept:
Using Plasmids to
Produce Insulin


Applications of Biology

Section 2

Making a Genetically Engineered Vaccine


Applications of Biology

Section 2

Applications of Biological Research,
continued


Nanotechnology is the science of changing individual
atoms or molecules to create new products.



For example, researchers are developing a very small,
biodegradable template that may help damaged brain cells
grow back after an injury.


Applications of Biology

Section 2

Applications of Biological Research,
continued


Scientists are inspired by naturally occurring
biomolecules,

or organic compounds, to develop new materials such as
some ceramics that are based on the process clams use
to form their shells.



Biomimetics

is the application of biological processes and
systems to solve design and engineering problems.


Applications of Biology

Section 2

Applications of Biological Research,
continued


Familiar biomimetic products include hook
-
and
-
loop
fasteners, modeled after burrs, and submarines, modeled
after the swimbladder of bony fishes. The lobster
-
eye
telescope collects and focuses X rays.



Existing tools and methods are often adapted for new
uses. CAT scans were developed to make detailed three
-
dimensional images of internal organs. Biologists now use
them to create models of fossils and of living organisms.


Applications of Biology

Section 2

How Telescopes Work


Applications of Biology

Section 2

Biology, Forensics, and Public Safety


Fingerprints, iris patterns, and genetic material are unique
and can be used to identify people.



The use of biological traits to determine a person’s identity
is called
biometrics.





Fingerprints are one of the most common forms of
evidence used in criminal investigations.


Applications of Biology

Section 2

Biology, Forensics, and Public Safety,
continued


DNA fingerprinting

is the use of a person’s unique pattern
of DNA as a form of identification. Investigators can use
hair or skin cells for DNA fingerprinting.



Iris scans are as unique as a fingerprint.



Applications of Biology

Section 2

Visual Concept:
DNA Fingerprint


Applications of Biology

Section 2

Biology, Forensics, and Public Safety,
continued


Scientists are working on developing new ways to detect
and prevent the use of biological agents by terrorists.



Handheld probes can be used to detect biological agents.



Other researchers are focusing on vaccines and new
antibiotic treatments for victims of biological weapons.


Applications of Biology

Section 2

The Ethics of Biotechnology


Advances in biotechnology raise ethical concerns that
must be addressed, both by individuals and by society.



Opponents of genetic engineering are concerned that
genetically engineered organisms could harm the
environment or that eating food made from those
organisms might not be healthy.



Applications of Biology

Section 2

The Ethics of Biotechnology,
continued


Some people object to changing an organism’s DNA, to
techniques such as cloning, or to the use of human stem
cells in research.



Others think that limiting scientific research that might
save lives or cure diseases is unethical.



Biometric identification methods raise ethical issues
related to privacy and to the potential improper use of the
data.



Applications of Biology

Section 2

Summary


Genetic engineering is used to create crops that yield
more product or are resistant to pests.



Tools such as genetic engineering, nanotechnology, and
computer models have expanded the potential
applications of biological research.



Applications of Biology

Section 2

Summary,
continued


Because biological factors such as fingerprints, iris
patterns, and genetic material are unique, they can be
used to determine an individual’s identity.



Advances in biotechnology raise ethical concerns that
must be addressed by individuals and society.