Energy Storage and

tentchoirAI and Robotics

Nov 15, 2013 (4 years and 1 month ago)

89 views

A. Shakouri, Purdue Univ. 5/15/2012; p.
1

Energy Storage and
Hydrogen Economy

Ali Shakouri

Birck Nanotechnology Center

Purdue University


UC Santa Cruz, EE80J / 180J

Renewable Energy Course

May 15, 2012

A. Shakouri, Purdue Univ. 5/15/2012; p.
2

Electricity Usage Pattern

A. Shakouri, Purdue Univ. 5/15/2012; p.
4

Energy Usage in a typical household

Electricity Usage ~15 kWh/day (54 MJ/day)
power ~ 625W

Storage:


Water:
78,717 liter (4.3 m
3
) at 100 meter (70% conversion efficiency)


Flywheel:
2138kg, 4m radius, 600rpm
(80% conversion efficiency)


Compressed Air:
3600 liter
(0.03 MJ/liter, 50% conversion efficiency)


Hot Water Usage ~25
-
35MJ

150
-
200 liter water heated from 15C up to 55C


Burn 4
-
5kg of wood in 50% efficient wood stove.

A. Shakouri, Purdue Univ. 5/15/2012; p.
5

Energy Storage Options

A. Shakouri, Purdue Univ. 5/15/2012; p.
6

Lead Acid Battery

www.daviddarling.info

A. Shakouri, Purdue Univ. 5/15/2012; p.
7

Battery Discharging

Pb

PbO
2

H
2
SO
4

Pb+PbO
2
+2H
2
SO
4



2 PbSO
4

+ 2 H
2
O

A. Shakouri, Purdue Univ. 5/15/2012; p.
8

Battery Charging

Pb+PbO
2
+2H
2
SO
4



2 PbSO
4

+ 2 H
2
O

A. Shakouri, Purdue Univ. 5/15/2012; p.
9

Discharge Characteristics

A. Shakouri, Purdue Univ. 5/15/2012; p.
10

Specific Energy (Wh/kg)

Specific Power (W/kg)

Combustion
Engine

Energy Storage Options

A. Shakouri, Purdue Univ. 5/15/2012; p.
12

June 24, 2004

DOE Nano Summit

Washington, D.C.


Presented by:

Mildred Dresselhaus

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

millie@mgm.mit.edu

617
-
253
-
6864





Basic Research Needs

for the Hydrogen Economy



A. Shakouri, Purdue Univ. 5/15/2012; p.
13


Tonight I'm proposing $1.2 billion in research funding
so that America can lead the world in developing
clean, hydrogen
-
powered automobiles… With a new
national commitment, our scientists and engineers will
overcome obstacles to taking these cars from
laboratory to showroom, so that the first car driven by
a child born today could be powered by hydrogen, and
pollution
-
free.”

President Bush, State
-
of the
-
Union Address,
January 28, 2003



Hydrogen: A National Initiative in 2003

M. S. Dresselhaus, MIT

A. Shakouri, Purdue Univ. 5/15/2012; p.
16

The Hydrogen
Economy

solar

wind

hydro

fossil fuel

reforming

nuclear/solar

thermochemical

cycles

H
2

gas or

hydride

storage

automotive

fuel cells

stationary

electricity/heat

generation

consumer

electronics

H
2
O

production

storage


use

in fuel cells

Bio
-

and

bioinspired

9M tons/yr

150 M tons/yr

(light cars and trucks in 2040)

9.70

MJ/L

(2015 FreedomCAR Target)

4.4 MJ/L (Gas, 10,000 psi)


8.4 MJ/L (Liquid H2)

$3000/kW

$30/kW

(Internal Combustion Engine)

H
2

M. S. Dresselhaus, MIT

A. Shakouri, Purdue Univ. 5/15/2012; p.
17

Fundamental Issues


The hydrogen economy is a compelling vision:


-

It potentially provides an abundant, clean, secure and flexible

energy carrier


-

Its elements have been demonstrated in the laboratory or in

prototypes


However . . .


-

It does not operate as an integrated network


-

It is not yet competitive with the fossil fuel economy in cost,

performance, or reliability


-

The most optimistic estimates put the hydrogen economy




decades away


Thus . . .


-

An aggressive basic research program is needed,


especially in gaining a fundamental understanding of the


interaction between hydrogen and materials at the nanoscale





A. Shakouri, Purdue Univ. 5/15/2012; p.
19

Fuel Cell Vehicle Learning Demonstration

Project Underway; 3 Years into 5 Year Demo


Objectives


Validate H
2

FC Vehicles and Infrastructure in Parallel


Identify Current Status and Evolution of the Technology

Photo: NREL

Hydrogen refueling station, Chino, CA

Keith Wipke

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

A. Shakouri, Purdue Univ. 5/15/2012; p.
20

Vehicle Status: All of First Generation Vehicles Deployed,
2
nd

Generation Initial Introduction in Fall 2007

On-Board Hydrogen Storage Methods
-
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
2005Q2
2005Q3
2005Q4
2006Q1
2006Q2
2006Q3
2006Q4
2007Q1
2007Q2
# of Vehicles (All Teams)
Liquid H2
10,000 psi tanks
5,000 psi tanks
Created Aug-28-2007 9:29PM
77

Keith Wipke

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

A. Shakouri, Purdue Univ. 5/15/2012; p.
23

Hydrogen Production Panel

Current status:




Steam
-
reforming of oil and natural gas produces 9M tons H
2
/yr



We will need 150M tons/yr for transportation



Requires CO
2

sequestration.

Alternative sources and technologies:



Coal:





Cheap, lower H
2

yield/C, more contaminants



Research and Development needed for process development,


gas separations, catalysis, impurity removal
.

Solar:




Widely distributed carbon
-
neutral; low energy density.



Photovoltaic/electrolysis current standard


15% efficient



Requires 0.3% of land area to serve transportation.



Nuclear:

Abundant; carbon
-
neutral; long development cycle.


Panel Chairs:
Tom Mallouk (Penn State), Laurie Mets (U of Chicago)

M. S. Dresselhaus, MIT

A. Shakouri, Purdue Univ. 5/15/2012; p.
25

Current Technology for automotive applications




Tanks for gaseous or liquid hydrogen storage.



Progress demonstrated in solid state storage materials.

System Requirements



Compact, light
-
weight, affordable storage.



System requirements set for FreedomCAR: 4.5 wt% hydrogen for 2005,


9 wt% hydrogen for 2015.



No current storage system or material meets all targets.

Hydrogen Storage Panel

Gravimetric Energy Density

MJ/kg system

Volumetric Energy Density

MJ / L system

0

10

20

30

0

10

20

30

40

Energy Density of Fuels

proposed DOE goal

gasoline

liquid H
2

chemical

hydrides

complex
hydrides

compressed
gas H
2

Panel Chairs: Kathy Taylor (GM, Retired) and Puru Jena (Virginia Commonwealth U)

M. S. Dresselhaus, MIT

A. Shakouri, Purdue Univ. 5/15/2012; p.
32

Metal Hydrides and Complex Hydrides


Degradation, thermophysical properties, effects
of surfaces, processing, dopants, and catalysts in
improving kinetics, nanostructured composites



Nanoscale/Novel Materials


Finite size, shape, and curvature effects on
electronic states, thermodynamics, and bonding,
heterogeneous compositions and structures,
catalyzed dissociation and interior storage phase



Theory and Modeling


Model systems for benchmarking against
calculations at all length scales, integrating
disparate time & length scales, first principles
methods applicable to condensed phases

Priority Research Areas in Hydrogen Storage


NaAlH
4
X
-
ray view
NaAlD
4
neutron view
NaAlH
4
X
-
ray view
NaAlD
4
neutron view

H
D
C
O
Al
Si
Fe
X ray cross section
Neutron cross section
H
D
C
O
Al
Si
Fe
X ray cross section
Neutron cross section
NaBH
4

+ 2 H
2
O


4 H
2

+ NaBO
2


Cup
-
Stacked Carbon
Nanofiber

H Adsorption in
Nanotube Array

Neutron Imaging of
Hydrogen

M. S. Dresselhaus, MIT

A. Shakouri, Purdue Univ. 5/15/2012; p.
33

Fuel Cells

H
2

+ O
2



H
2
O + electrical energy

A. Shakouri, Purdue Univ. 5/15/2012; p.
34

Fuel Cells and Novel Fuel Cell Materials Panel



Current status:



Limits to performance are materials, which
have not changed much in 15 years.

Panel Chairs:
Frank DiSalvo (Cornell), Tom Zawodzinski (Case Western Reserve)


Challenges:


Membranes


Operation in lower humidity, more strength,


durability and higher ionic conductivity.


Cathodes



Materials with lower overpotential and resistance to impurities.


Low temperature operation needs cheaper (non
-

Pt) materials.


Tolerance to impurities: S, hydrocarbons, Cl.


Anodes


Tolerance to impurities: CO, S, Cl.


Cheaper (non or low Pt) catalysts.

Reformers


Need low temperature and inexpensive reformer catalysts.



What are Fuel Cells?
2H
2
+ O
2

2H
2
O + electrical
power + heat
www.
hpower
.com
membrane conducts protons from anode to cathode
P
roton
E
xchange
M
embrane (PEM)
Membrane conducts protons from anode to
cathode
proton exchange membrane
(PEM)
What are Fuel Cells?
2H
2
+ O
2

2H
2
O + electrical
power + heat
www.
hpower
.com
membrane conducts protons from anode to cathode
P
roton
E
xchange
M
embrane (PEM)
What are Fuel Cells?
2H
2
+ O
2

2H
2
O + electrical
power + heat
www.
hpower
.com
membrane conducts protons from anode to cathode
P
roton
E
xchange
M
embrane (PEM)
What are Fuel Cells?
2H
2
+ O
2

2H
2
O + electrical
power + heat
www.
hpower
.com
P
roton
E
xchange
M
embrane (PEM)
Membrane conducts protons from anode to cathode
proton exchange membrane (PEM)
2H
2

+ O
2



2H
2
O + electrical power + heat

M. S. Dresselhaus, MIT

A. Shakouri, Purdue Univ. 5/15/2012; p.
35

Types of Fuel Cells

Solid Oxide FC

(SOFC) 100 kW

Siemens
-


Westinghouse


Proton Exchange

Membrane (PEM)

50 kW, Ballard

Molten Carbonate FC

(MCFC) 250 kW

FuelCell Energy,

Alkaline Fuel Cell

(AFC), Space Shuttle

12 kW

United Technologies


Low
-
Temp


High Temp

Phosphoric Acid FC

(PAFC), 250 kW

United Technologies

A. Shakouri, Purdue Univ. 5/15/2012; p.
40

Messages

http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/

hydrogen.pdf


Enormous gap between present state
-
of
-
the
-
art capabilities
and requirements that will allow hydrogen to be competitive
with today’s


energy technologies


production: 9M tons



150M tons
(vehicles)


storage: 4.4 MJ/L
(10K psi gas)



9.70 MJ/L


fuel cells: $3000/kW


$30/kW
(gasoline engine)



Enormous R&D efforts will be required


Simple improvements of today’s technologies


will not meet requirements


Technical barriers can be overcome only with high
risk/high payoff basic research



Research is highly interdisciplinary, requiring chemistry,
materials science, physics, biology, engineering,
nanoscience, computational science



Basic and applied research should couple seamlessly


M. S. Dresselhaus, MIT

A. Shakouri, Purdue Univ. 5/15/2012; p.
41

Some Useful References

Basic Research Needs for the Hydrogen Economy (DOE/BES)

http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/hydrogen.pdf


Basic Research Needs to Assure a Secure Energy Future (DOE/BES)


http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/besac/Basic_Research_Needs_To_Assure_A_Secure_Energy_Future_FEB2003.pdf



Powering the Future
-

Materials Science for the Energy Platforms of the 21st Century: The
Case of Hydrogen (MIT lecture notes)




http://web.mit.edu/mrschapter/www/IAP/iap_2004.html


Hydrogen Programs (DOE/EERE)



http://www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/


National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap (DOE/EERE)

http://www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/national_h2_roadmap.pdf


FreedomCAR Plan (DOE/EERE)




http://www.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/


Fuel Cell Overview (Smithsonian Institution)



http://fuelcells.si.edu/basics.htm


The Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities, Costs, Barriers, and R&D Needs


(National Research Council Report, 2004)




http://www.nap.edu/books/0309091632/html/




M. S. Dresselhaus, MIT

A. Shakouri, Purdue Univ. 5/15/2012; p.
42

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Car Lab