Associate Research Professor

tentchoirAI and Robotics

Nov 15, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Tom Hedman, PhD

Associate Research Professor

Biomedical Engineering Department

Adjunct Associate Professor

Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy Division

University of Southern California


Senior Research Scientist

University of Texas


Founder and Chief Scientific Officer

Orthopeutics, L.P.


Musculoskeletal biomechanics and
biomaterials (PhD)


>20 years experimental work, >8 years of tissue
engineering


Mechanical Engineering Education:


Design Morphology: Processes, Principles,
Probabilistic Considerations, & Philosophies of
Design


NOT a geneticist or molecular or cell biologist
or biochemist

Rom. 1:20 From the creation of the world His
invisible attributes, that is, His eternal power
and divine nature, have been clearly seen,
being understood through what He has made.
As a result, people are without excuse. [HCS]


To show specifically how I clearly see a
powerful and wonderful god through the
unlimited complexity and enduring superiority
in my area of science


“Have been clearly seen”


I agree


absolutely!
However, no absolute, iron
-
clad proof


“From the creation of the world [until today]”
--

The telescope, microscope, materials testing
system, FEM, RT
-
PCR, or Western Blot do not
obscure the divine nature of the creation, but
rather enhance the clarity.


Scientists are without excuse


Psalm 19:1
-
4


The heavens declare the glory of God;



the skies proclaim the work of his hands.



Day after day they pour forth speech;



night after night they display knowledge.



There is no speech or language



where their voice is not heard.



Their voice goes out into all the earth,



their words to the ends of the world.




Complexity,
superiority
,


Rich in patterns and
singularities,


Interconnected,
balanced, harmonious,


Hardy, resilient,
powerful, regenerating,
compensating,


Spectacular…


Definition:


The application of principles and methods of
engineering and life sciences toward development of
biological substitutes to restore, maintain and
improve [human] tissue functions. [NSF]


Goals:


to repair diseased or damaged tissue, or


to create replacement tissue, or


to augment insufficient tissue



Human
-
made processes, substances, devices,
or systems that imitate nature. The art and
science of designing and building
biomimetic
apparatus is called
biomimetics
, and is of special
interest to researchers in nanotechnology,
robotics, artificial intelligence (AI), the medical
industry, and the military. [Whatis.com]



Limitless Complexity
of ‘Natural’ materials,
processes, and systems



Enduring Superiority
of ‘Natural’ materials,
processes, systems compared to ‘Man
-
Made’



[The] possibility that there is an infinite
sequence of more and more refined theories, is
in agreement with all our experiences so far.
On many occasions we have increased the
sensitivity of our measurements or made a new
class of observations, only to discover new
phenomenon that were not predicted by the
existing theory, and to account for these we
have had to develop a more advanced theory.
It would therefore not be very surprising if the
present generation of grand unified theories
was wrong…


Strength


Toughness


Elasticity


Resilience


Fatigue Resistance


Plasticity


Post
-
Yield Strength


Strain Energy


Loading Rate
Dependence



Toe Region Mechanics


Neutral Zone
Characteristics


Stress Relaxation


Creep Behavior


Loading History
Dependence


Hysteresis






Adhesion without
liquids or surface
tension


van der
Waal’s interaction


Potential of 133 kg
holding force


Reverse jointed toes
allow peel
-
off


UDCA


anti
-
apoptotic
[prevents programmed
cell death and cell
degradation]


1
-
5% in most vertebrates


8
-
40% of bile acids in
bears


May explain why bears
don’t suffer or die from
hibernation


Used for 3000 yrs in Asia


May treat glaucoma,
Huntington’s, Parkinson’s
and Alzheimer’s


Samoan village
healers and the
Mamala tree


For acute viral illness
(Hepatitis, HIV)


Draws virus to cell
surface where
protease inhibitor or
retroviral inhibitor
can clear it



Aim: deciphering the genetic
code to provide cures and
preventions for diseases


HGP: 30 years and 10s of
billions of industry and federal
research $


Genome mapped, but:


Very few single gene diseases
(2% sickle cell, cystic fibrosis,
Huntington’s)


Multiple genes are involved in
the production of numerous
proteins that are changed by
environmental factors while
they affect our physiology in
ways that are very poorly
understood


Proteomics much more difficult
(10X as many, 20 building
blocks
vs

4, 3 dimensional)


Preventatives and cures by this
approach are still a long, long
way off, if ever


“At a scientific level, there is

now ready
acknowledgment that the ascertainment of the
genomic

sequence is but the first of many complex
steps in the understanding

of disease processes.
Within the genome, little is known of … and the
biological processes of the cell that are

ultimately
determined by gene action are to a large extent
unanswered,

or only answered in the most
imperfect way, and will require many

years of
dedicated basic research….the
complexities of
biological phenomena
may be such that even

with
the most advanced computing technologies, the
multitudinous

interactions of gene with gene and
gene with environment
may defy

analysis
. “


CONVENTIONAL TISSUE
ENGINEERING

BIOMIMETIC APPROACH


Aims to create new, superior,
young tissue


Assumes that the science to
create new, superior tissues
is within reach


Inspiration: Steve Austin,
movies and science fiction




Mimics/augments the natural
course of compensatory tissue
modification


Assumes biological
complexity is limitless and
beyond our ability to fully
comprehend


Assumes synthesis of
functionally superior tissues
beyond our capabilities


Assumes existence of
compensatory mechanisms
consistent with an all knowing
designer rather than
evolutionary adaptations

Spinal Biomechanics

1985
-
91:
Inventor, lead
-
developer on
1
st

North
American
spinal disc
replacement


1998:

Began to
investigate
injectable
biomimetic
treatment for
intervertebral disc


Treatment
approach came
from personal
belief in 1) divine
creation, 2)
humbling
complexity of
design


In 2003, MIT’s
Technology Review
named
injectable tissue engineering
one of ten
emerging technologies that
will change the
world
, citing its aim to make conventional
surgery obsolete


vs.

+


Injectable approach
mimics
natural biochemical
stabilization of tissue


Shown to provide
immediate

joint stability,
tissue strength, durability
and resistance to
progression of deformity


While improving nutritional
flow for
long term

viability


This technology has
potential as an
alternative
and as an
adjunct

to spinal
surgery


It can still be said that natural materials, processes
and designs are far
superior

to those generated by
men at great expense and tremendous effort


No limit to the
complexity

of natural materials,
processes and designs has been found


Biomimetic strategies are proving to provide a
short cut towards effective technological advances


In this way, scientists and engineers are relying
(knowingly or unknowingly) on the Master
designer for technological “advancements”


thedman@orthopeutics.com