Ursinus College Summer Fellows

tenderlaSoftware and s/w Development

Dec 13, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

1,292 views











Ursinus College

Summer Fellows


Fifteenth

Annual

Research Symposium


July
19
, 201
3

2


Special Acknowledgements



Jamira Bowens, Alyse Brewer, Jenna Pellegrino, Elena Roadcloud, Andy Santiago, Karla
Thiele, Samantha White, Annie Li,
Cheyenne
Layman, Kayla Waits, Erica Gorenberg,
Nathan Labourdette, Thuy Nguyen, Rachel Polinski, Andrew Kane, Mary Kate Speth

(mentored by Joel Bish, Rebecca Roberts, Carlita Favero, Rebecca Lyczak, Cory Straub,
Becky Kohn, Amanda Reig and April Kontostathis) were
supported by a Howard Hughes
Medical Institute (HHMI) grant.



Erin Bennett and Tyler Helms (mentored by Tom Carroll) were supported by a National
Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduate Students grant (#1205897).



Eric Brown and Taylor Gall
ardo (mentored by April Kontostathis) were supported by a
National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduate Students grant
(#0916152).



Frank Devone and Matt Glowacki (mentored by Lew Riley) were supported by a National
Science Foundation R
esearch Experiences for Undergraduate Students grant (#6931061).



Briana Anderson (mentored by Scott Deacle) was supported as a Whitman Summer Fellow
by Gladstone and Sally Whitman.



Atticus Graven (mentored by Eric Gaus) was supported by the Michele C.
McLennan
Memorial Scholarship Fund, established in memory of Michele C. McLennan, Associate
Professor of Business and Economics, who passed away in 2005.


The students and faculty who participated in the Summer Fellows program

are

grateful to all who have contributed to support student research over the past year:


Beth Bailey

Kathleen Brogan p'16

Sarah Brukilacchio
p'13

Thomas Brukilacchio p'13

Jennifer Stenson Campbell '00

Barbara Castanzo p'14

Antoni Castells
-
Talens '91

Hugh Clark

John C. Cushman '82

Francine Trzeciak Cwyk '78

Stephanie Restine
DerOhannessian '00

Rick DiFeliciantonio

Paul L. Doughty '52

Polly French Doughty '52

Walter R. Dutton '76

Brooks Eden

Eden Charitable Foundation

Delwyn Engstrom

ExxonMobil Foundation

Robert Fuller

Patrick J. Gasda '07

Phillip Gladfelter

Grace Foundation Inc.

Robert L. Hoh '62

Ghadir S. Ishqaidef '05

Johnson & Johnson Family of
Companies

Robert E. Kessler '73

Janet Knauerhase Keyser '80,
p'06, p'16

Steven Keyser p'06, p'16

April Kontostathis

Margaret Kozub p'13

Orie V. Kristel IV '97

Douglas Lindley p'14

Joan Lindley p 14

Thomas P. Loughran,
Jr. '75

Andrea E. Martin '75

Anthony Mastoris p'09, p'11

Margaret Mastoris p'09, p'11

Michele C. McLennan Ovarian
Cancer Foundation

Kelsey M. McNeely '05

Ingrid K. Meier '84

Emily R. Mercadante '10

Merck Partnership for Giving

Geoffrey D. Mills
'99

Alicia Morgans Snowden '02

Valerie Von Volen Nelson '11

Katherine O'Connor p'13

Michael O'Connor p'13

Heather O'Neill p'08, p'09, p'14

Michael O'Neill p'08, p'09, p'14

Craig A. Overpeck '94

PACCAR Foundation

Gianna N. Paone '10

Donald E.
Parlee '55

Pfizer Foundation

The Phoenix Foundation, Inc.

Barbara Rachunis Piffat '61

Ryan B. Pugliese '12

Heide Rink p'15

Thomas Rink p'15

Raymond R. Ritting '68

Scott C. Savett, Ph.D. '94

Kelly Knapp Schmidt '00

Jennifer Hansen Schreiter '00

Brian Schultz '06

Courtney Root Schultz '06

Salvatore M. Serra '51

Amanda Struer

Mohammed Yahdi



3


Welcome to all students, faculty, and invited guests who gather today for the 2013
Summer Fellows Research Symposium!
This long and honored annual event gives us the
opportunity to recognize and celebrate our students’ outstanding achievements. The student
participants, called Summer Fellows, will present the results of their scholarship conducted this
summer in collabora
tion with their faculty mentors. The breadth and depth of the student work
described in this program reflects the talent, dedication, seriousness and hard work of Ursinus
students and their mentors. Participation in the program is increasingly competitive;

today’s
presenters developed, wrote, and submitted proposals and budgets that were reviewed and
selected by an interdisciplinary faculty panel to receive funding, which includes a stipend, research
expenses, and campus housing for the summer. In addition,

Fellows and mentors also share
weekly lunches, attend talks by invited guests who describe their own work, and enjoy a variety of
social activities. The opportunity for students to live and work together as a community of scholars
generates a valuable col
legial and stimulating atmosphere on campus.

Ursinus has a long tradition of fostering student
-
faculty collaborative research, an
exceptionally effective pedagogy for undergraduates. When Pfahler Hall was designed in the late
1920s, the plans included rese
arch laboratories for each professor “in which he serves as an
investigator and in which, under his direction, students are trained in the methods of research.” Of
course, the scholarship conducted by students of today differs considerably from the researc
h of
students some eighty years ago: today, Ursinus students are not merely taught research methods,
but create work that is rigorous, relevant, and respected, often leading to Honors projects,
conference presentations, and publications. The history of the

program itself shows how important
research is to the college: from a program for ten students and their faculty mentors in 1996, the
program has grown this year to include some 75 students and their faculty mentors from almost
every discipline. That grow
th has been sparked by support both internal and external

from the
initial Howard Hughes Medical Institute grants to funding from federal agencies, such as the
National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health, and industry (please find
opp
osite a list of donors and alumni who also generously support the program).

Because of their hard work and intellectual maturity, it comes as no surprise that
Summer Fellows have been recognized and rewarded for their accomplishments outside the
college. G
raduate schools see in Summer Fellows engaged and well
-
prepared students ready for
the challenge of graduate research: recent Fellows have
gone on

to graduate programs at such
first
-
class research universities as

Duke, Penn, and Yale
. The maturity, curiosi
ty, and
independence demonstrated by Summer Fellows have also merited further support in the form of
prestigious scholarships and fellowships. Last summer, Dominic Castanzo conducted research
under the mentorship of Rebecca Lyczak in Biology; that experien
ce helped
him
receive the
prestigious Goldwater scholarship to support his career in scientific research.

I look forward today to hearing from and reading work by the latest group of students to
carry on the tradition of exceptional academic achievement at

Ursinus.


Lucien T. Winegar

Vice President for Academic Affairs

Dean of the College



4


List of the 201
3

Summer Fellows


Name

Page

Name

Page

Anderson
,
Briana

Anderson
,
Hillary

Belle
,
Matt
hew

Bennett
,
Erin

Berardi
,
Steve

Blessing
,
Hailey

Brown
,
Eric

Bullington
-
Hodge
,
Kelsey

Cannon
,
Caroline

Chang
,
William

Chen
,
Hongli

Chernuhina
,
Senie

Conrad
,
Kendal

DeVone
,
Frank

Eble
,
Rikki

Kathryn

Engleking
,
Ray

Faselt
,
Jamie

Gallardo
,
Taylor

Giongo
,
Michael

Glowacki
,
Matt

Gorenberg
,
Erica

Graven
,
Atticus

Green
,
Brian

Healey
,
Rose

Helms
,
Tyler

Hickey
,
Mark

Hickey
,
Douglas

Hill
,
Elizabeth

Hodges
,
Heather

Hope
,
Matthew

Johnson
,
Caitlin

Kane
,
Andrew

Kim
,
Jin Sun


19

20

25

32

2
1

28

25

3
3

24

16

25

30

37

32

35

11

14

26

3
2

33

15

20

26

23

33

22

31

36

26

13

14

15

16

Kurtz
,
Alyssa

Labourdette
,
Nathan

Layman
,
Cheyenne

Lee
,
Charles
Chan Hee

Lindley
,
Caitlin

Long
,
Jessica

Marad
,
Daniel

McMasters
,
Heather

Metcalf
-
Kelly
,
Logan

Neslen
,
Brett

Nguyen
,
Thuy

Nolan
,
David

Pandelidis
,
Alex

Parry
,
John

Peterson
,
Jessica

Pham, Jady Tu

Polinski, Rachel

Pontoriero, David

Reilly
,
J
immy

Reynolds
,
Elizabeth

Rink
,
Matthew

Ruby
,
Matthew

Ryder
,
Christopher

Shah
,
Samir

Shin
,
Kyu Chul

Sierzega
,
Anthony

Sirch
,
Frank

Speth
,
Mary Kate

Stumpo
,
Erik

Sulyok
,
Cara

Summers
,
Epiphany

Tan
-
Tiongco
,
Kyra

Waits
,
Kayla

Young
,
Codey


13

27

29

29

36

16

17

37

23

23

17

29

21

28

30

14

21

17

31

34

27

24

18

18

34

35

22

14

12

2
7

11

12

19

12



5


Table of Contents


Page

Anthropology and Sociology


Conversion to Christianity and Islam in sub
-
Saharan Africa

by Ray Engleking (Mentor:
Gina Oboler)



11

Anthropology and
Sociology and Media and Communication Studies


Colle
ctive or Divisive? Language of t
he Occupy Wall Street Movement by Epiphany
Summers (Mentors: Jane Jones and Sheryl Goodman)


11

Anthropology and
Sociology and Philosophy

and Religious Studies



America’s First Black President: The Legacy of the One Drop Rule in the Age of
Obama

by Codey Young (Mentors: Jane Jones and Roger Florka)


12

Art and Art History


The Unconventional City: Reimagining Urban Life in the 21st Century
by Erik Stumpo
(Mentor: Sarah Kaufman)

12

The Art of the Scrovegni Chapel and its Relation to the Politics in Late Medieval Italy

by
Kyra Tan
-
Tiongco (Mentor: Matt Shoaf)


12

Biochemistr
y and Molecular Biology


MCF
-
7 Cell Culture and Determination of Estradiol and Bisphenol A’s Influence on Cell
Proliferation and Cath
epsin Secretion in Cancer Cells by Matthew Hope (Mentor:
Rebecca Roberts)

13

The regulation of centrosome positioning in
C. elegans

axis polarization and the role of
PAM
-
1

by Alyssa Kurtz (Mentor: Rebecca Lyczak)

13

The Regulation of Cathepsin Activity by Estrogen and Bisphenol A and its Connection
to the Autoimmune Disease Syste
mic Lupus Erythematosus and Breast Cancer

by
Jady Tu Pham (Mentor: Rebecca Roberts)





14

6


Biology


Effects of intercropping

and predation on the Potato Leafhopper

by Jamie Faselt,
Caitlin Johnson, and Mary Kate Speth (Mentor: Cory Straub)

14

Effect of hydrogen peroxide exposure on apoptosis in dopaminergic neurons of
Caenorhabditis elegans

by Erica Gorenberg (Mentor: Rebecca Kohn)

15

The Effects of Lipopolysaccharide on cell survivability and levels of MHC
-
II and B220
on Splenic B
lymphocytes in a Lupus Model

by Andrew Kane (Mentor: Rebecca
Roberts)

15

Pregnancy
-
Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy and Functional Changes in Contractility Post
-
Pregnancy

by Jin Sun Kim and William Chang (Mentor: Beth Bailey)

16

Investigating Macrolide
Resistance Mechanisms in Enterococci

by Jessica Long
(Mentor: Anthony Lobo)

16

The Identification and Characterization of pam
-
1 Targets Through the Use of
Suppressors in
Caenorhabditis elegans

by Thuy Nguyen (Mentor: Rebecca Lyczak)

17

Understanding th
e relationship between ribosome
-
associated chaperones and [PSI+]
prion formation in

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

by David Pontoriero and Daniel Marad
(Mentor: Dale Cameron)

17

Identification of a strain that suppresses para
lysis in
Caenorhabditis elegans

by
Christopher Ryder (Mentor: Rebecca Kohn)

18

Identification of Suppressors Strains of the
pam
-
1 Mutation and Determination of the
Regulatory Mechanisms of Centrosome Positioning in
Caenorhabditis elegans

by
Samir Shah (Mentor: Rebecca Lyczak)


18

Bi
ology and Neuroscience


The Effects of Prenatal Ethanol Exposure on Corticothalamic Neurons Using a
Mammalian Model
by Kayla Waits (Mentor: Carlita Favero)


19

Business and Economics


Exploring Crisis: Dissecting the Spanish Collapse

by Briana Anderson (Mentor: Scott
Deacle)

19

The Pretty Boy Swag on the D Line: Colorism and facial symmetry discrimination in
NFL linebackers’ salaries

by Hillary Anderson (Mentor: Jennifer VanGilder)

20

Learning About Learning: Realistic Expectation
Formation in a Macroeconomic Context

by Atticus Graven (Mentor: Eric Gaus)


20

7


Business and Economics and Music



The Platinum Formula: Analyzing Musical Trends in Popular Music

by Steve Berardi
(Mentors: Eric Gaus and Garrett Hope)


21

Chemistry


Interaction of the Lectin
-
like Domain of Thrombomodulin with C3 of the Complement
System

by Alex Pandelidis (Mentor: Julia Koeppe)

21

Creation of Rubrerythrin and Symerythrin Model Proteins

by Rachel Polinski (Mentor:
Amanda Reig)

21

Attachment of Anti
biotics to Carbon Nanotubes to Circumvent Resistance Mechanisms

by Frank Sirch (Mentor: Mark Ellison)


22

English


Reigniting Relevance: Restoring the “Relevance” of Canonical American Texts to High
School Students through Transcendentalism

by Mark Hickey (Mentor: Rebecca Jaroff)

22

One Sunday

by Logan Metcalf
-
Kelly (Mentor: Jon Volkmer)

23

The “Othering” of White Readers in Early African American Literature

by Brett Neslen
(
Mentor: Patricia Schroeder)


23

History


From Law, the
State: Chinese and Roman Statutes

by Rose Healey (Mentor: Hugh
Clark)

23

Genghis Khan: What Was He Thinking?

by Matthew Ruby (Mentor: Ross Doughty)


24

Interdisciplinary Studies


Community
-
Engaged Research: An Examination of ACLAMO's Impact on the
Local
Community

by Caroline Cannon (Mentor: Christian Rice)


24

Mathematics and Computer Science


The Discrete Lusternik
-
Schnirelmann category of 1
-
dimensional simplicial complexes

by Matthew Belle (Mentor: Nicholas Scoville)

25

8


Capturing and Storing
Social Messages on Android

by Eric Brown (Mentor: April
Kontostathis)

25

Mathematical Model of Carbapenem
-
Resistant
Enterobacteriaceae

with Low and High
Prevalence Settings

by Hongli Chen (Mentor: Mohammed Yahdi)

25

Clustering Twitter Posts by User
using K
-
Means

by Taylor Gallardo (Mentor: April
Kontostathis)

26

Developing an Algorithm to Compute the Discrete Lusternik
-
Schnirelmenn Category

by
Brian Green (Mentor: Nicholas Scoville)

26

The ElGamal Cryptosystem

by Heather Hodges (Mentor: Kevin McG
own)

26

TherAPPist: Tracking Mental Health through Mobile Technology

by Nathan Labourdette
(Mentor: April Kontostathis)

27

TherAPPist: Using Mobile Technology to Enhance Therapy

by Matthew Rink (Mentor:
April Kontostathis)

27

Mathematical Modeling, Sensitivity Analysis, and Optimal Control of Agroecosystems

by Cara Sulyok (Mentor: Mohammed Yahdi)


2
7

Media and Communication Studies


Sandy Hook and News Coverage in the Age of Social Media

by John Parry (Mentor:
Kirstie Hettin
ga)


28

Music


Comparing Differences and Similarities in Global Chant Styles

by Hailey Blessing
(Mentor: Holly Hubbs)

28

Analysis and Composition of a Neo
-
Romantic Symphony

by David Nolan (Mentor:
Garrett Hope)


29

Neuroscience


Detecting Residual
Changes in Concussed Individuals using EEG

by Charles Chan
Hee Lee (Mentor: Joel Bish)

29

The Role of Facial Features and Configuration During Facial Categorization

by
Cheyenne Layman (Mentor: Joel Bish)

29

The Neurocognitive Examination of Executive A
ttention in Non
-
Clinical OCD and ADHD

by Jessica Peterson (Mentor: Joel Bish)


30

9


Philosophy and Religious Studies


The Ethics of Intranasal Administration of the Hormone Oxytocin:

Putting Empirical
Data on “The Moral Molecule” in Context of Recent
Literature on Moral Enhancement
in Contemporary Philosophy

by Senie Chernuhina (Mentor: Kelly Sorensen)

30

The Hidden Wounds of War: An Exploration of the Moral Wounds Sustained in Combat

by Douglas Hickey (Mentor: Kelly Sorensen)

31

Morality and
Self
-
interest: Irreconcilable Foes or Harmonious Allies?

by Jimmy Reilly
(Mentor: Kelly Sorensen)


31

Physics


Controlling Energy Exchange Among Rydberg Atoms

by Erin Bennett (Mentor: Thomas
Carroll)

32

Inelastic Proton Scattering from
50
Ca

by Frank DeVone (Mentor: Lewis Riley)

32

Simulating the Energy Exchange Among Ultra
-
cold Atoms

by Michael Giongo (Mentor:
Thomas Carroll)

32

Inelastic Proton Scattering from
46
Ar

by Matt Glowacki (Mentor: Lewis Riley)

33

Energy Exchange among ultra
cold Rydberg atoms

by Tyler Helms (Mentor: Thomas
Carroll)


33

Politics and International Relations


Examining the West’s relationship with the Middl
e East:
Why is 9/11 American?

b
y
Kelsey Bullington
-
Hodge (Mentor: Joseph Melrose)

3
3

The Growth of the

Latino American Population and its Implications on Higher Education

by Elizabeth Reynolds (Mentors: Xochitl Shuru and Houghton Kane)

34

Presidents and Pinochet: The Civilian
-
Military Clash and Democratization in
Chile by
Kyu Chul Shin (Mentor: Rebecca E
vans)

3
4

The Resurrection of the “Dead” Second Amendment in
Heller v. District of Columbia

(2008)

by Anthony Sierzega (Mentor: Gerard Fitzpatrick)


35

Psychology


The Development of a Sorority
-
based Disordered Eating and Negative Body Images
Program

by Rikki
Kathryn
Eble (Mentor: Kneia DaCosta)

35

10


A Group Mentoring Approach: College Students Helping High School Students

by
Elizabeth Hill (Mentor: Brenda Lederach)

36

The Speech and Motor Differences between Autistic and Non
-
Autistic Children
by
Ca
itlin Lindley (Mentor: Jennifer Stevenson

36

Effects of False Beliefs on Personality Change

by Heather McMasters (Mentors:
Gabrielle Principe and Joel Bish)


37

Theater and Dance


Violent Delights: Atrocity and Appropriation in
Sweeney Todd

by Kendal Conrad
(Mentor: Beverly Redman)


37

11


Ray Engleking

Conversio
n to Christianity and Islam in S
ub
-
Saharan Africa

Anthropology and Sociology

Mentor: Regina Oboler


For most of their respective existences, Christianity and Islam have been present
in Africa.
A timeline of the spread of Christianity and Islam in Africa shows that while the initial Muslim
Conquest successfully converted most of North Africa, where Islam has since been the dominant
religion, neither religion had much success in sub
-
Sah
aran Africa until the twentieth century. The
exception
s

to this
are

the presence of Islam on the Swahili coast and
in
the West African Sahel
,
along Christianity’s presence in Ethiopia
. In 1900, about 25% of sub
-
Saharan Africans were
Christian or Muslim. Ar
ound this time, Islam and Christianity suddenly began gaining large
numbers of converts in sub
-
Saharan Africa. By 2010 87% of sub
-
Saharan Africans followed Islam
or Christianity. In this project current and historical texts concerning conversion to Christi
anity and
Islam in sub
-
Saharan Africa were surveyed. The rapid shift from failure to success in sub
-
Saharan
Africa could be explained by resurgence in missionary activity that began in the late nineteenth
century. However, when theories proposed by Robin H
orton in his article titled “African Conversion”
are applied to the study of conversion, a compelling argument is formed. This argument changes
religious conversion in Africa to a social or politically motivated choice where religion is simply the
conseque
nce of changes that were in the air due to the sudden imposition of colonialism and
process of westernization. The case of Nigeria, where religion is divided almost evenly between
Islam and Christianity
,

will be used to more definitively illustrate this ar
gument.




Epiphany Summers

Collective or Divisive?
Language of t
he Occupy Wall Street Movement

Anthropology and
Sociology and Media
and
Communications

Studies

Mentors: Jane Jones and Sheryl Goodman


Occupy Wall Street was a social movement that started September 11, 2011 in Zucotti Park.
“We are the 99%” is a slogan used within OWS. Eighty
-
one percent of the OWS’s “99%” was white
,

which is the mere fact that led me to question the collective identity
of the movement.

Sociologists
Francesca Polletta and James M. Jasper define collective identity as “an individual’s cognitive,
moral, and emotional connection with a broader community, category, practice, or institution”
(2001). Therefore, collective ident
ity is what molds the different types of people involved in a
movement together: “one can join a movement because one shares its goals without identifying
much with fellow members” (2001).

While originally investigating the racial dynamic of the movement
, during Summer Fellows, I
realized that there was a bigger project at hand: How does the rhetoric of the movement match up
with the language of the participants? With this new question I’ve analyzed websites, interviewed
participants, and read literature
to discover if the Occupy Movement has a different or similar
agenda as its participants. The goal of this project is to realize if the movement has a collective
identity or if the participants and the rhetoric of the movement have contrasting views on wha
t
needs to be done for the “99%”. With the horizontal structure of the movement and the in
clusion

of
social networking sites the collective identity is questionable. Looking at the language of OWS can
reveal if a collective identity can still exist in soci
al movements of today.





12


Codey Young

America’s First Black President: The Legacy of the One Drop Rule in the Age of Obama

Anthropology and
Sociology and Philosophy

and Religious Studies

Mentors: Jane Jones and Roger Florka


Originating during slavery, th
e One Drop rule came to identify the boundaries that defined
blackness

in the United States based on the presence of African blood or ancestry. Racial
identification under the One Drop rule became legally enshrined as early as the 17
th

century. While
initi
ally a form racial domination designed to protect whiteness, the One Drop rule later was
additionally embraced by mulattos and “pure” blacks alike, contributing to the formation of a unique
African American ethno
-
racial and cultural identity.



In 2008, th
e election of Barack Obama as America’s president elicited widespread
ascription of the event as a significant marker in black history. This has also lead media
commentators and academics to debate whether his presidency marks a “post
-
racial” era. My
proje
ct situates Barack Obama in the history of racial categorization under the One Drop rule
through an examination of both his intentional (albeit fluid) claiming of blackness as well as the
external ascription of blackness to him. Further, the substance and
significance of post
-
racialism
are investigated in juxtaposition with colorblindness to address the broader issue of racial
inequality’s contemporary status.




Erik Stumpo

The Unconventional City: Reimagining Urban Life in the 21
st

Century

Art

and Art History

Mentor: Sarah Kaufman



Industrial cities have struggled to retain their former glory in the Post
-
Industrial world.
Philadelphia (the basis of this study) in particular has only recently seen its first positive population
growth in half a
century. With this new growth, struggling neighborhoods that were so
disproportionately affected by the disappearance of industry have begun to change yet again. This
time, contrary to before, it is due to the influx of affluence and social class, usually
manifesting in
the form of young white professionals. As with before, the incumbents of these neighborhoods find
themselves against the ropes, though this time struggling desperately to retain the home that has
imprisoned them for over 50 years. Before the
ir stories have been altogether swept under the rug,
and their way of life usurped by the relentless march of capitalism, this study attempts to give voice
through the photographic lens to a culture and experience that might altogether be forgotten.





Kyra Tan
-
Tiongco

The Art of the Scrovegni Chapel and its Relation to the Politics in Late Medieval Italy

Art and Art History

Mentor: Matthew Shoaf

The Scrovegni Chapel in Padua, Italy is home to beautiful fresco paintings of biblical
scenes painted by Giot
to di Bondone in the early fourteenth century. Its significance goes beyond
the aesthetic appeal and excellent narrative qualities of the imagery. My project seeks to add to a
scholarly conversation about the artwork’s political and social context in late
medieval Padua.
Politics here refers specifically to themes of justice and the common good. During this time, the
politically unstable cities of Italy were susceptible to tyrannical rule. In an effort to maintain
communal identity and republican rule, artw
orks would convey messages reminding citizens and
political leaders that selflessness and justice leads to a flourishing, healthy society. While the
13


imagery in the Scrovegni Chapel is religious, the idea of communal good achieved through justice
is an over
arching theme of the artwork. Beyond political values, the chapel provides insight to the
politics of conduct, class, and gender in society. Subtle visual details represent behavioral codes
specific to an upper class outlook. Giotto used familiar gestures,

clothing, and symbols to paint
biblical stories for Trecento audiences. My goal is to aid a present day audience in seeing the
narrative scenes as an artistic lens for understanding Trecento politics and society.




Matthew Hope

MCF
-
7 Cell Culture and De
termination of Estradiol and Bisphenol A’s Influence on Cell
Proliferation and Cathepsin Secretion in Cancer Cells

Biochemistry and
Molecular Biology

Mentor: Dr. Rebecca Roberts


Cancer encompasses over 100 different diseases related to abnormal cell grow
th caused
by damaged DNA. Attempts to better characterize how cancer cells replicate and metastasize
have shown a relationship between cancer progression and cathepsin activity. Cathepins are
proteolytic enzymes that cleave peptide bonds. Increased cathe
psin activity leads to angiogenesis
and breakdown of the extracellular matrix, enabling metastasis. Breast cancer cells are
hormonally regulated when estradiol, E2, binds to
intracellular estrogen receptor
. The E2
-
estrogen
receptor complexes activate est
rogen response elements, enhancing gene transcription.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental estrogen used in the production of both epoxy re
sins and
polycarbonate plastics
. BPA binds to estrogen receptors, meaning it too might influence breast
cancer pr
oliferation and cathepsin activity. The cell line MCF
-
7, derived from an adenocarcinoma,
is a viable model for studying this illness given its estrogen dependence. Some complications with
this model involve the cell culture and medium, since the growth m
edium must include some
estrogen in order to facilitate healthy cell growth. Mycoplasma, a common contaminant, may also
inhibit cell growth and must be avoided by adhering to strict sterile technique. Mycoplasma
contaminations can be detected via PCR of
the sample medium and a subsequent agarose gel.
Once a robust cell culture is in place, some cells can be weaned of
f

E2 so that the result of further
exposure to E2 and/or BPA can be determine
d
. Cathepsin activity assays will be conducted to
determine th
e role of E2 and BPA on cell growth and metastasis.




Alyssa Kurtz

The regulation of centrosome positioning in
C. elegans

axis polarization and the role of
PAM
-
1

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Mentor: Rebecca Lyczak


In
C. elegans

there is little k
nown about the mechanism of
anterior
-
posterior axi
s formation.
The goal of this project was to understand the

process through the molecular mapping and
developmental observations
. To accomplish this

we study
pam
-
1
, a ge
ne involved in polarization.
When
pam
-
1

is compromised, the embryo fails to polarize and results in a symmetric cell that dies.
We study
pam
-
1

by exposing worms to mutations that cause the
pam
-
1

phenotype to reverse. We
cross

strains
containing the
pam
-
1

suppressor and hatch tests are perform
ed
to d
etermine if the
mutations still exists. Once
verified,
genomic mapping is performed to identify the suppressor’s
chromosomal location. This mapping will allow us to better understand the suppressor and
pam
-
1
.
Another way we study
pam
-
1

is by observi
ng the polarization of the one
-
celled embryo using
fluorescent proteins

under a confocal microscope. Using this technology, time
-
lapse images of the
14


single cell processing through meiosis until a two celled embryo exists are recorded. Later, videos
are ana
lyzed and the time at which certain landmarks of anterior
-
posterior axis formation occur is
noted and compared in suppressor strains. Knowing more about related genes will help us to
better understand

polarization.

From our studies, we have isolated a str
ain with the potential to
suppress
pam
-
1

that also possesses a visible phenotypic marker that affects its movement and
have also made progress on mapping the suppressor. With further tests and observations to
characterize this strain, the targets of
pam
-
1
and its role in biological pathways can be further
elucidated.


Jady Tu Pham

The Regulation of Cathepsin Activity by Estrogen and Bisphenol A and

its Connection to
the Autoimmune Disease Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and
Breast Cancer

Biochemistry and

Molec
ular Biology

Mentor: Rebecca Roberts


Estrogen is a
hormone found predominately in women. Bisphenol
-
A (BPA) is an estrogen
mimic found in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins such as

those used to line food cans. A

correlation
exists
between estrogen le
vels and autoimmune

diseases including

Systemic Lupus
Erythematosus (SLE). Given this, we investigated the effect of estrogen and BPA on a class of
lysosomal proteases (
cathepsins
)

that a
re important in immune function.

We
showed that

cathepsins

are regulated by both estrogen and BPA
in a cell
-
specific manner
.

W
e found that
cathepsin B is upregulated in liver cells from
mice that are a model for
SLE but not in liver cells
from

control mice.


The expression of cathepsins
also

change
s

during cancer

progression and
cathepsins are

involved in various aspects of tumorigenesis, including metastasis. Estr
ogen, through interactions
with

estrogen receptors, plays a role in regulating the growth and differentiation of breast cancer
cells. We have shown that

estrogen and BPA regulate cathepsins in non
-
cancer cells and we now
want to investigate

how these compounds
affect cathepsins

in cancer c
ells. In particular, we are
focusing

on the breast cancer cell line MCF
-
7, which is known t
o express estrogen receptor
s.
Culturing these cells has proven to be complex and many changes have been made throughout
the cell culturing procedure such as not removing the endogenous estrogen in the supplemented
serum in order to enhance cell growth and proliferation. Once hearty

growth is established, the
cathepsin activities in the MCF
-
7 cells will be analyzed.


Jamie Faselt, Caitlin Johnson,
and
Mary Kate Speth

Effects of intercropping

and predation on the Potato Leafhopper

Biology

Mentor: Cory Straub


Alfalfa is a main forage
crop for cattle. The potato leafhopper (PLH) is the key pest of alfalfa
in the Northeast United States. To control this pest farmers traditionally use chemical pesticides
that are costly and detrimental to the environment. An alternative pest management st
rategy is
intercropping, which can reduce pests by making their host
-
plants difficult to locate, or by
increasing the effectiveness of predatory insects that eat them. We studied the effects of
intercropping and predators in an open field experiment and in

a mesocosm experiment in which
predatory insects were manipulated. The intercropping treatment consisted of alfalfa mixed with
orchardgrass (a non
-
host for PLH), and this treatment was compared to a monoculture of alfalfa.
The natural predators used in th
e mesocosm experiment were the damsel bug and the pink lady
beetle. We hypothesized that intercropping would reduce PLH abundance and damage to alfalfa,
and that it would increase the effectiveness of the damsel bug, as has been shown in previous
work. Th
e results of these experiments will be presented and their implications for PLH control will
be discussed.

15


Erica Gorenberg

Effect of hydrogen peroxide exposure on apoptosis in dopaminergic neurons of
Caenorhabditis elegans

Biology

Mentor: Rebecca Kohn


Reactive oxidative species may cause oxidative stress to biological molecules within cells if
sufficient antioxidants are not present. When this occurs in neurons, it may result in
neurodegeneration due to either apoptosis or necrosis, which may contribute

to the progression of
Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. However, recent studies have shown that increased neural
activity may have a protective effect against these disorders. In order to determine the mode of
neurodegeneration caused by oxidative str
ess, strains of the nematode
Caenorhabditis elegans

were exposed to hydrogen peroxide to induce oxidative stress. The dopaminergic neurons of
strains are labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP). Some strains contained mutations in
unc
-
13

and/or
ced
-
3
,

which cause paralysis due to reduced neural activity and a defective apoptotic
pathway, respectively. Neurons were viewed using fluorescence microscopy to determine the rate
of neurodegeneration. Generation of strains containing
ced
-
3
or
ced
-
3
and

unc
-
13

mutations in
combination with GFP
-
labeled dopaminergic neurons are in progress and will be completed in the
fall. Assays of loss of GFP
-
labeled neurons showed a trend towards an increase in lost neurons
after hydrogen peroxide exposure, with little differ
ence between wild
-
type organisms and those
containing
unc
-
13

mutations, meaning that there may not be a protective effect of neural activity
against neurodegeneration in
C. elegans
. Future research will include testing the effects of
apoptosis on neurodeg
eneration in
C. elegans

after the
ced
-
3

strains are complete.




Andrew Kane

The Effects of Lipopolysaccharide on cell survivability and levels of MHC
-
II and B220 on
Splenic B lymphocytes in a Lupus Model

Biology

Mentor: Rebecca Roberts


Systemic Lupus Ery
thematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by its
predominance in women, especially during times of increased estrogen levels. As with most
autoimmune disease, patients with SLE produce autoantibodies, which then attack the patient’s
own tissu
es. This results in many of SLE’s symptoms, which vary in severity from a butterfly rash to
organ failure. The causes of SLE are mostly unknown, but it has been linked to genetics, viruses
and environmental factors. In order to determine how the immune sys
tem responds differently in
SLE as compared to normal function, this study used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) a powerful mitogen
produced by gram negative bacteria, to induce immune responses in two types of mice, control
C57BL/6 and lupus
-
prone NZB/WF1. This w
as accomplished by using fluorescence activated cell
scanning (FACS) to determine the relative amounts of B lymphocytes in each strain as well as the
percentage and level of resting and blasting cell expression of the major histocompatibility complex
class

II (MHC
-
II) molecule on the surface of the cells. MHC
-
II is essential to the interaction of the B
lymphocyte with the T lymphocyte by presenting antigen fragments to the T lymphocyte for
identification. Levels of this molecule in cells cultured in 0.02 M
LPS were compared to natural
levels present in control and lupus
-
prone mice. It has been found that NZB/WF1 mice have lower
overall levels of B lymphocytes than C57BL/6 but react differently to LPS, having an increased
level of blasting cells and an increa
sed amount of surface MHC
-
II.




16


Jin Sun Kim and William Chang

Pregnancy
-
Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy and Functional Changes in Contractility Post
-
Pregnancy

Biology

Mentor: Beth
Bailey



During pregnancy, the heart increases in size to accommodate the grow
ing fetus in a
condition known as cardiac hypertrophy. Studies suggest that after delivery, the heart returns to
pre
-
pregnancy size and function, but the timing of this return is unknown. Interestingly, in a small
population of women, the heart does not r
eturn to normal function, and a condition known as
peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) develops. PPCM is a form of congestive heart failure in which
the heart size is increased but its ability to effectively pump blood to the body is reduced. The goal
of this

study is to observe the post
-
partum period to gain insight into the return of the post
-
pregnancy heart to its pre
-
pregnancy state. In this study, we investigated cardiac muscle cell
hypertrophy and contractility in the post
-
partum (PP) mouse heart 24 hou
rs and 3
-
4 days after
delivery. We isolated individual cardiac muscle cells and electrically stimulated them to contract.
We recorded their contraction
-
relaxation cycles using a video camera and used fluorescence
microscopy to measured calcium homeostasis.

We compared the heart size and muscle cell
contractile function in control versus 24 hours and 3
-
4 days after delivery. Our preliminary results
suggest that the heart returns to its pre
-
pregnancy weight 3
-
4 days following delivery and
contractile functio
n may be enhanced during the post
-
pregnancy period.




Jessica Long

Investigating Macrolide Resistance Mechanisms in Enterococci

Biology

Mentor: Anthony Lobo


In the past few decades, the use and misuse of antibiotics has increased dramatically,
causing antibiotic resistance to arise in pathogenic bacteria. These bacteria pose a threat to the
health

and safety of humanity
.
Previous research

ha
s shown that certai
n antibiotic
-
resistant strains
do not survive when exposed to
the antibiotic
conjugated to single
-
walled carbon nanotubes
(SWNTs)
.

This study investi
gates the utility of antibiotic
-
conjugated SWNTs by comparing the
sensitivity

of bacteria that have differe
nt antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Efflux pumps, coded by
the
msrC
gene in enterococci and the
tetA

gene in coliform bacteria, extrude the antibiotic out of
the cell upon intake. Other antibiotic resistance mechanisms protect the ribosome from attack by
the antibiotic
; these are

encoded by the

ermB
and
tetM

genes.
A catalogue of 36 w
ild strains of
enterococci resistant to the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin and
36
coliform bacteria resistant to
tetracycline were isolated from raw sewage and analyzed usi
ng PCR to determine their resistance
mechanisms.
Following PCR analysis
, the minimum inhibitory concentration of un
-
conjugated
antibiotic was established

for
msrC

strains (MIC



7.8
μ
g/mL) and
ermB
(MIC


4600
μ
g/mL)
using
serial dilutions of antibiotic

in

inoculated growth medium, then measuring the absorbance on a
spectrophotometer
.
Tetracycline
-
resistant strains await further analysis.
The
enterococci
strains
were then exposed
to antibiotic
-
conjugated SWNTs and their levels of growth were compared with
t
heir growth in the presence of unconjugated antibiotics. Preliminary results with erythromycin
-
conjugated SWNTs suggest that strains expressing efflux pumps may be more sensitive than
target
-
modified strains.





17


Thuy Nguyen

The Identification and Characterization of
pam
-
1

Targets Through the Use of Suppressors in
Caenorhabditis elegans

Biology

Mentor: Rebecca Lyczak



Caenorhabditis elegans

is a model organism that is widely used in experimentation due to
its rapid

growth rat
e
, sequenced genome,

and genetic tractability. The interest of our study was the
pam
-
1

gene of the organism, which codes
for a puromycin
-
sensitive aminopeptidase, or PAM
-
1

protein. PAM
-
1

plays an important role in the positioning of the centrosome in
C. el
egans

embryos

which allows them to establish the anterior
-
posterior (AP) axis and develop normally. Our study
focused on the mutated
pam
-
1

gene, which has an embryo
-
lethality effect. In order to identify
regulators and targets of PAM
-
1, we identified suppr
essors, mutations that reverse the lethality
effect. We worked with two suppressors,
lz3
and
lz5,
that suppress the lethality of a missense
allele of
pam
-
1
. One goal of this research was to determine if the
lz5

suppressor could suppress
the nonsense mutati
on (
or403
) of the
pam
-
1

gene. Another goal was to genetically map the
chromosomal location of
lz3

using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) mapping. Hatch tests of
potential
or403,

unc
-
linked,
lz5

worms showed that they failed to lay embryos and died. P
ossible
explanations could be that
lz3

cannot suppress
or403
, or that sterility and death are the
phenotypes of this new strain. Also, through SNP mapping, three strains of progenies of a genetic
cross of the suppressor and the wild
-
type strain were valida
ted for further mapping, and
chromosome I or IV was identified to be the possible location of
lz3
. Overall, we hope to
characterize all the current suppressors of mutated
pam
-
1

and their genotypes.




David Pontoriero and

Daniel Marad

Understanding the
relationship between ribosome
-
associated chaperones and [PSI+] prion
formation in

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Biology

Mentor: Dale Cameron



The cell’s ability to synthesize and maintain properly folded proteins allow
s

it to perform the
vital functions necessary for survival. Many

cellular fail
safe mechanisms have been conserved
throughout evolution to prevent defects in protein synthesis and folding, the most prevalent of
these being the cell’s production of chaperone

protein
s. The mechanisms of chaperone function

va
ry, but they all
help
prevent protein misfolding
. Misfolded proteins can lead to lack
-
of
-
function
polypeptides, unwanted protein interactions, and even subsequent cell death. A particularly
harmful set

o
f misfolded

proteins are
prion
s, which are s
elf
-
propagating,
infectious particles

that
are

difficult for the cell to degrade.
These molecules are responsible for many fatal diseases in
humans, the most infamous of which is Creutzfeldt
-
Jakob Disease, as wel
l as Mad Cow Disease in
cows. Our lab studies the effects of the [PSI
+
] prion, a misfolded form of the SUP35 termination
factor, on various
Saccharomyces cerevisiae

knockout strains. The goal of our summer research
is to develop an assay that decouples t
he phenotypes stemming from the absence of SUP35 and
the presence of [PSI+]. By engineering a strain of
S. cerevisiae

that possesses a plasmid that
prevents the stop codon readthrough caused by the [PSI+] phenotype, we can account for the
synergistic effec
t of multiple readthrough inducers. We also seek to develop strains with an
enzyme
-
based reporter fused into the SUP35 prion forming gene
to confirm our data using a
reporter that is

independent of stop codon read
through
.




18



Christopher Ryder


Identificat
ion of a strain that suppresses paralysis in
Caenorhabditis elegans

Biology

Mentor: Rebecca Kohn



Regulation of release of neurotransmitter is needed to control movement properly. The unc
-
13 gene products are essential for the release of neurotransmitters

at all synapses in C. elegans.
The partially lethal unc
-
13(s69) allele causes improper synaptic vesicle docking and priming and
results in decreased synaptic transmission. Homozygotes are almost completely paralyzed. A
mutation that suppresses the unc
-
13(
s69) mutation was generated in an ethyl methanesulfonate
EMS screen. EMS induces random single nucleotide polymorphisms. The inheritance pattern of
this mutation will be determined through genetic crosses, and the mutation will then be mapped to
a position

on a chromosome. This suppressor strain is significant for our understanding of
regulation of neurotransmitter in a variety of organisms. Homologs of C. elegans unc
-
13 are found
in humans, other mammals, and flies. Analysis of a gene that suppresses paral
ysis in unc
-
13
mutants can increase knowledge of genes involved in the docking and priming of neurotransmitter
-
containing vesicles.




Samir Shah

Identification of Suppressors Strains of the
pam
-
1
Mutation and Determination of the
Regulatory Mechanisms of Centrosome Positioning in
Caenorhabditis elegans


Biology

Mentor: Rebecca Lyczak


A fundamental process in developmental biology, the establishment of cell polarity is crucial
for the development of specialized functions in complex organisms. In early embryogenesis of
Caenorhabditis elegans
, an asymmetric first cell division establishes

the anterior
-
posterior (AP)
axis. Previous research has implicated the importance of the aminopeptidase PAM
-
1 as a regulator
for AP axis establishment and centrosome
-
cortex contact. While we know that PAM
-
1 is required
to positioning the centrosome during

AP axis development, we can learn more about polarization
and the regulation of centrosome positioning in
C. elegans

by determining the targets and
regulators of PAM
-
1. This is done through the identification and mapping of suppressors of
pam
-
1

mutants. T
his study focused on characterizing the previously identified suppressor
lz4
, which
hatched at an initial rate of 49% in comparison to a 1% hatch rate of
pam
-
1
. In order to determine
the chromosomal location of the suppressor, I crossed
lz4

pam
-
1

mutant st
rains with a Hawaiian
mapping strain and identified seven strains homozygous for both genes of interest. Targets of the
suppressor are identified via SNP mapping, which makes use of sequence differences in N2 and
HA strains to determine the chromosomal loc
ation. Current work has mapped
lz4

on chromosomes
I
-
VI. Additional work this summer focused on phenotypically characterizing wild type strains via
differential interference contrast microscopy. The work done in this study, including the phenotypic
characte
rization of wild type strains and the mapping of suppressors, will contribute to the
elucidation of PAM
-
1’s role in polarity establishment and the regulatory mechanisms of centrosome
positioning in
C. elegans
.



19



Kayla Waits

The Effects of Prenatal Ethanol

Exposure on Corticothalamic Neurons Using a Mammalian
Model

Biology and Neuroscience

Mentor: Carlita Favero


Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder is the umbrella term used to describe an array of
abnormalities that include, but are not limited to physiologica
l developmental problems in sensation,
perception, learning and behavior. In this study the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on
corticothalamic neurons was studied. Sensation and perception is regulated in part by
corticothalamic neurons. Mice served a
s the model organism because they are mammals and
have a gestation period and neuronal development similar to that of humans. In this experiment,
Swiss Webster mice received ethanol via injection on gestational days (G) 12.5
-
(G) 14.5 which
correlates to ea
rly in the second trimester in human gestation. During this period corticothalamic
neurons develop. In order to verify any observed effects on the cortex were not a result of stress
due to the injection, controls were created through administering a phosph
ate buffer solution (PBS)
to mice via injection. To visualize corticothalamic neurons, sections of P0 (post natal day) brain
tissue were stained with the antibody T
-
box brain 1 (Tbr
-
1), a molecular marker for these cells.
Corticothalamic neurons were locat
ed in the deep layers V and VI of the cortical plate in both the
PBS exposed control and ethanol exposed brains as expected. However, a decrease in cell count
of the superficial cortex and an increase within the deep layers of the cortex was observed in
et
hanol exposed brains, creating a change in distribution from the PBS control brains. These
differences may contribute to the observed abnormalities in sensation and perception described in
FASD.




Briana Anderson

Exploring Crisis: Dissecting the Spanish

Collapse

Business
and

Economics
and
Modern Languages

Mentor: Scott Deacle


Home construction exploded throughout Spain during the early 2000s as the country
profited from entrance into the Eurozone. As a result of an increase availability of mortgages,
va
luation of existing homes increased by 117% from 1997 to 2006. Many homeowners began
buying second homes while recent graduates and young adults indebted themselves through
home purchasing as capital within the country became more accessible. These actions

resulted in
a highly leveraged sector resulting in a property bubble as prices continually soared. After the
collapse of the United States’ financial system and housing market, Spain scrambled to readjust
lending principles in hopes that the country would

sustain growth and prevent a similar breakdown.
However, a large portion of the country ignored the looming signs of collapse and Spain entered
into a recession during the third quarter of 2008. What were the underlying causes of the
construction boom and

what economic factors led to the demise of the Spanish financial system?
Through a detailed timeline of the major economic and political events over the last seven years
and in
-
depth research into some of the economic conditions, my research aims to answe
r these
questions and lay the framework for further honors research.




20


Hillary Anderson

The Pretty Boy Swag on the D Line: Colorism and facial symmetry discrimination in NFL
linebackers’ salaries

Business and Economics

Mentor: Jennifer VanGilder



Complex salary decisions are not unique to the general labor market.


For example,
the National Football League (NFL) includes players with salaries that

range from

$84 million
dollars to

a few hundred

thousand per year.


With this large range in conjuncti
on with

salary cap
regulations,

even more pressure is placed on questions to how salaries are determined. Are
players being paid for passing yards completed and tackles made, or are there other,
nonproductive characteristics that

enter into these decisions
.


















Previous research has shown that, for NFL quarterbacks, holding all else constant, for
every 1% increase in the symmetrical valuation of a player’s face, a

3%

increase in salary was
expected. This shows quarterbacks are paid more for hav
ing pretty faces. Similarly, given an NFL
running back,

for every 10%

decrease in a numerical value of skin tone, a player’s salary
will

increased by

2.25%.


Therefore a player is paid more

simply for

having

darker skin.

















This

study seeks to

extend previous research and examine the theories from the
defensive side of the ball.


Utilizing data on

the defensive line such as

tackle factor,

quarterback
hits, and

positive expected points added,

this study will

determine how much of a linebacker’s
salary can be explained by his performance on the field, and how much of it is left to nonproductive
characteristics.




Atticus Graven

Learning About Learning: Realistic Expectation Formation in a Macroeconomic Context

Business and Economics

Mentor
: Eric
Gaus



Adding to a growing body of work concerning assumptions about expectation formation, this
summer’s work has been a literature review and technical preparation for a coming experiment in
the fall. The experiment will ask participants to make predicti
ons of future output (GDP) and
inflation. Their responses will create a dataset upon which analysis will be performed to illuminate
and corroborate current theories of economic decision making. The literature has shown that most
agent’s forecasting rules c
an be modeled by basic linear formulae. It has also shown that agent’s
convergence to fundamental economic values, or their participation in the creation of “bubbles”,
heavily depends on the system’s expectation feedback ‘sign.’ Discussion will include rel
evant
literature, experimental design, hypotheses, and mathematical analysis.





21


Steve Berardi

The Platinum Formula: Analyzing Musical Trends in Popular Music

Business and Economics and Music

Mentor
s
: Eric Gaus and Garrett Hope


Popular recording artists and record companies could greatly benefit from knowing the
characteristics of a song that the general public will like and purchase. A field called Hit Song
Science has recently emerged to attempt to find a formula that predicts
whether a song will be a
“hit” or not. This literature assumes that the most popular songs have similar characteristics that
cause the general public to like them. Previous research on Hit Song Science has had very
conflicting results with varied methodolo
gies, including using sound wave, harmonic, rhythmic,
lyrical, and general music characteristic analysis. These methodologies have also been used in
related research that have looked at the relationship of musical characteristics with good and poor
socioec
onomic, physical attributes of artists, etc. as well as what creates superstars. I will be
analyzing the rhythmic qualities of songs that have made the top 10 of the
Billboard
’s Hot 100 over
the past 20 years as Honors Research in the fall.


Alex Pandelid
is

Interaction of the Lectin
-
like Domain of Thrombomodulin with C3 of the Complement
System

Chemistry

Mentor: Julia Koeppe



Thrombomodulin (TM) is vascular endothelial protein with many domains (including a lectin
-
like domain) and is involved in the antic
oagulation cascade. Protein C3, on the other hand, is a part
of the complement system which is involved in innate mammalian immunity. Inflammatory diseases
such as rheumatoid arthritis may be caused by misregulation of these systems, especially with a
pote
ntial interaction between the lectin
-
like domain of TM and C3. The immediate goal was to
optimize the yield of TM produced from
Pichia pastoris
yeast and C3 isolated form bovine plasma.
Using various chromatographic techniques such as hydrophobic interacti
on, anion exchange, and
size exclusion, the proteins isolated were purified. In order to determine that the correct proteins
were made, along with identifying different parts of the protein, digestions with the enzymes trypsin
and pepsin were performed. Th
e products of each digestion will be characterized using mass
spectrometry. Finally, by utilizing hydrogen/ deuterium exchange with C3, it can be determined
what parts of C3 interact with the solvent and, eventually, with TM.


Rachel Polinski

Creation

of
Rubrerythrin and Symerythrin
Model Proteins

Chemistry

Mentor: Amanda Reig


The goal of our research is to understand the importance of the active site

geometry in
controlling the function of diiron proteins. To investigate this, we create and characteriz
e model
proteins of naturally occurring diiron enzymes. This summer, our goal was to model rubrerythrin
and symerythrin, which contain one and two additional carboxylate residues compared to the
G4DFsc model system. A rubrerythrin model that incorporated

an extra carboxylate group

at
position 14 in the active site, either aspartate (G14D) or glutamate (G14E) was produced and
purified. The oxygen and hydrogen peroxide reactivity of this model was investigated. We also
began creating a symerythrin model th
at incorporated an additional carboxylate residue

at position
47 in the active site, either aspartate (G47D) or glutamate (G47E). These mutants will help us to
gain a better understanding of how systematic changes to structural features of a protein affec
t its
folding and reactivity.

22

Frank Sirch
Attachment of Antibiotics to Carbon Nanotubes to Circumvent Resistance Mechanisms
Chemistry
Mentor: Mark Ellison

Microbial developments of resistance, as well as economic incentives, have resulted in the
development of a variety of antibiotics. Eventually bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics and
these antibiotics become obsolete. Research suggests that single-walled carbon nanotubes
(SWNTs) can act as drug delivery vessel because of their ability to penetrate bacterial cell walls.
In this study SWNTs were functionalized with antibiotics to circumvent resistance mechanisms in
bacteria. To quantify the drug-delivering capability of carbon-nanotubes, amide/oxidized SWNTs
were covalently functionalized with erythromycin ,or tetracycline was adsorbed on the SWNT
through pi-stacking. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and dimensional analysis was used to quantify
the amount of tetracycline adsorbed to each nanotube. Growth rate experiments were then
performed to investigate the interaction of the antibiotic-functionalized SWNT with Enterococcus
Faecalis and Escherichia coli. Two strains of E.coli used were DH5α and DH5α containing the
plasmid pBR322. DH5α was susceptible to tetracycline while the strain with pBR322 was resistant
to tetracycline. The four strains of E.faecalis used were ERE-8, ERE-13, ERE-16, and ATCC.
ATCC is sensitive to erythromycin lab strain of E.Faecalis while ERE-8 has msrC, a gene that
codes for an efflux pump method of resistance. ERE-16 has ermB, a gene that codes for a
methylation of the small ribosomal subunit. ERE-13 has both ermB and msrC genes and thus has
both the efflux pump and methylation modes of resistance. To further quantify the efficacy of the
antibiotic functionalized SWNTs a viable count was conducted for each bacterial culture. The
results of these experiments demonstrate that erythromycin functionalized, as well as adsorbed
tetracycline SWNTs, can effectively inhibit bacterial growth.


Mark Hickey
Reigniting Relevance: Restoring the “Relevance” of Canonical American Texts to High
School Students through Transcendentalism
English and Education
Mentor: Rebecca Jaroff

Quality of public education is a hotly debated national issue. Despite the controversies, one
thing most educators agree on is that for most students to learn effectively, they need to be excited
and engaged in the material being studied, especially those at risk because of their socio-
economic status. More important, effective learning occurs when students use the material they’ve
interacted with to independently shape their futures and solve the problems before them.
The philosophy behind the American Transcendentalist Movement might offer an exciting
opportunity to help students identify with Transcendentalist thinkers such as Ralph Waldo Emerson
and Walt Whitman. Students can engage with canonical texts by these authors in order to expand
their world view, and successfully incorporate complex ideas into their everyday experience. This
summer, I immersed myself in several essays by Emerson and Whitman’s classic poem “Song of
Myself” to create a unit plan that pays special attention to economically disadvantaged high school
students attending underfunded schools. My unit plan focuses on teaching students to reflect on
their concepts of themselves and take responsibility for their learning, while gaining a sense of
independence and empowerment. By relating the words of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Walt Whitman
and other authors of the American Transcendentalist Movement along with the Harlem
Renaissance and contemporary rap artists, my students will be engaged and start to develop a
skillset that will help shape their identities as young adults.


23



Logan Metcalf
-
Kelly

One Sunday

English

Mentor: Jon Volkmer



‘One Sunday’ is a novella of the Ellmore family, taking place on a single day. James
Ellmore, the youngest, wants to get out of small town Texas. His grandfath
er Grady, who sits on an
ill
-
gotten oil fortune, might be his ticket out. But when a young Catholic priest impugns James’
reputation, things fall apart. Grady disowns him, and reveals to James’ father that his son is a
homosexual and an abomination. Before

shutting his door for good, Grady brokers a deal with his
grandson. He will pay for James’ schooling in the north

provided he never returns. As the sun
sets on the plains, James will have to face the road he has chosen.


Brett Neslen

The “Othering” of
White Readers in Early African American Literature

English

Mentor: Patricia Schroeder


The first African
-
American novels have traditionally held a maligned placed in the canon of
black literary history. The argument goes that these novels missed their opp
ortunities to announce
black identities and restore African folk traditions, opting instead to ground their work in white
devices and even racial prejudices. This project disputes that claim through a study of three works:
William Wells Brown’s Clotel, Fra
nk Webb’s The Garies and Their Friends, and Charles Chesnutt’s
The Marrow of Tradition. A re
-
assessment within social contexts reveals that these novels and
their authors were consciously aware of the limitations of writing for an audience that would be
pr
imarily white. Thus early African
-
American authors blended white devices of sentimentalism,
stereotype, and moral superiority in a conscious attempt to “Other” the white reader and alienate
him or her just as white authors had been doing to black character
s throughout their own fiction.
White readers were to be engaged by a language and style that was familiar but which was then
used to reveal such beliefs as hypocritical and damaging to both blacks and white. Ultimately the
use of white devices as Othering

would open up the possibility of writing later works that could be
more purely focused on black identities and the restoration of lost heritage and folklore.


Rose Healey

From Law, the State: Chinese and Roman Statutes

History

Mentor: Hugh Clark


The
further back in the past we look, the less we can know for sure. Ancient states did not
record a formal political agenda. Rulers did not carve their plans for the empire into stone tablets.
Historians have to extrapolate information about these matters
from the remains which have
survived. I am using surviving law codes of Ancient China and Rome to learn about these
historical states and to compare these two great empires. The Twelve Tables, traditionally dated
to 451
-
450 BCE, are the earliest codified

set of Roman laws that historians know of, and although
no intact collection remains, they are integral to Roman law as a whole. In addition to this, I am
exploring the Institutes of Justinian, a collection of laws as issued by the Emperor Justinian, who

ruled from 527
-
565 CE. A set of bamboo strips detailing a series of statutes and other official rules
was found in a grave in Hu
-
pei province in China. These strips date back to the 3
rd

century BCE, to
the Qin dynasty, which consists of only two rulers
during that time. The Qin was the only dynasty
to explicitly depend on Legalism as a ruling philosophy, although it has been influential ever since.

24


Matthew Ruby

Genghis Khan: What Was He Thinking?

History

Mentor: Ross Doughty




In the 13
th

century, Gen
ghis Khan (born Temujin) and his Mongol heirs conquered the
single largest land
-
based empire in world history. While we know that there are many elements
that led to this great success, the motivations behind it are less clear. Modern historians and
biogra
phers are divided on the issue, with some claiming religious and others claiming political or
personal motivations. Shagdaryn Bira, a modern Mongolian historian, has coined the term
“Tenggerism” as the driving force behind the Mongol Empire. Tenggerism ref
ers to the belief that
the Mongols had a divine right to rule the world, granted through the shamanist sky god Tenggeri.
John Man, the British author of a recent best
-
selling biography of Genghis Khan, agrees with Bira.
However, other historians including

the Russian Paul Ratchnevsky and American Timothy May
believe that religion was not a major motivating factor; arguing instead that traditional nomadic
cultural practices impelled Temujin’s actions. My paper argues that, while Genghis Khan’s heirs
may hav
e exploited and perhaps even sincerely believed in the Tenggerist vision, Temujin himself
was influenced by rather typical nomadic political and societal practices. My research included the
anonymous chronicle
The Secret History of the Mongols
and other p
rimary sources and secondary
works by Bira, Man, Ratchnevsky, May, Morris Rossabi, Thomas Allsen, Michal Biran and the
anthropologist Jack Weatherford.




Caroline Cannon

Community
-
Engaged Research: An Examination of ACLAMO's Impact on the Local
Community

Interdisciplinary Studies

Mentor: Christian Rice


My community
-
based research delves into exploring the organizational structure of
ACLAMO, a local nonprofit association, based in Norristown, which strives to improve the
economic, educational, social and c
ultural opportunities for low
-
income individuals and families in
Montgomery County, particularly those of Spanish language background. In the last eight weeks, I
have volunteered at ACLAMO and collaborated with board members, program leaders and the
Execut
ive Director to analyze ways in which the association can better address its goals and meet
the needs of the local community. My research explores the history and context of ACLAMO as
well as its contribution to structural changes in the local community si
nce its inception in 1977.
Through the use of in
-
depth interviews with key actors, I have examined ACLAMO’s constraints
and opportunities. By researching theories of effective non
-
profit management and drawing upon
my previous experience at another non
-
pro
fit organization, my project outlines the strengths and
weaknesses of ACLAMO’s planning policies and program developments and suggests future steps
for the organization to better address the needs of the target population. By volunteering at
ACLAMO and wor
king side by side with staff members, my research has enabled me to develop
and propose ways in which the partnership between ACLAMO and the Ursinus community can be
better structured to maximize the benefit of both institutions. In the end, this research
is intended to
extend into an honors research project: one that incorporates my experiences at two non
-
profit
organizations to develop my own understanding and analysis on effective non
-
profit management.





25


Matthew Belle

The Discrete
Lusternik
-
Schnirelmann category of 1
-
dimensional simplicial complexes

Mathematics and Computer Science

Mentor: Nicholas Scoville


A set of data points along with a distance between them can be given the structure of a so
-
called 1
-
dimensional simplicial co
mplex. Intrinsic properties of this complex can tell us information
about the data set. One such property of the complex is its discrete Lusternik
-
Schnirelmann (LS)
category. This is the minimum number of “simple” pieces the complex can be broken into.

In this
pa
per, we compute the discrete LS

category for a variety of 1
-
dimesnional complexes including
complete graphs and wedges. We also discuss the discrete LS category of Cartesian products.




Eric Brown

Capturing and Storing Social Messages on Andro
id

Mathematics and Computer Science

Mentor: April Kontostathis


The rise of the Internet has enabled people from around the world to communicate easier
than ever before; however, this is a potentially abusive power. The advent of social media, chat
rooms, and text messaging has also contributed to the rise of phenomen
a such as cyberbullying.
The goal of this project is to develop an Android smartphone application that will capture messages
that the phone sends and receives, and forward them to a SQL database for future research.
Messages captured by the app include S
MS and Facebook; Twitter is the next candidate for
inclusion. Once we have a decent sample size, we will be able to use this database to study social
incidents such as cyberbullying. In the future, we hope to apply this study to machine learning
techniqu
es to enable the app to proactively detect cyberbullying content. If this trial goes well, we
will port the app to iOS as well and attempt to roll out usage on a bigger scale.




Hongli Chen

Mathematical Model of Carbapenem
-
Resistant
Enterobacteriaceae

wi
th Low and H
igh

Prevalence Settings

Mathematics and Computer Science

Mentor: Mohammed Yahdi


Antibacterial resistance is a serious and growing threat to hospitalized patients. The
treatment of drug
-
resistant bacterial infections is predicted to become a gl
obal crisis due to the
scarcity of new antibiotics in the pharmaceutical industry’s pipeline. Carbapenem, one of the most
reliable antibiotics, has become increasingly ineffective in the past 10 years. Infections caused by
carbapenem
-
resistant
Enterobacter
iaceae

(CRE) have been associated with extremely high
mortality rate (30%
-

72%), and have demonstrated resistance to many other classes of antibiotics.
Therefore, with limited treatment options, examining strategies to efficiently prevent and control
tho
se infections is becoming critically urgent (CDC). New advances in mathematical modeling,
complex dynamical systems and computing capabilities, combined with the continuing data
-
explosion in biomedical fields, gave momentum to the importance of the role ma
thematics has
been playing in breakthroughs investigating control strategies in epidemiology. This project’s aims
include the use of robust mathematical modeling tools to understand and simulate the mechanism
underlying the emergence in hospitals of CRE, a
nd determine efficient and cost effective control
strategies that incorporate up
-
to
-
date special preventive measures.

26


Taylor Gallardo

Clustering Twitter Posts by User using K
-
Means

Mathematics and Computer Science

Mentor: April Kontostathis


Data in microt
ext format, such as Twitter data, presents another obstacle in the already
difficult task of using clustering to group documents by author. K
-
means clustering primarily takes
into account the words used in a document in order to perform clustering. Due to
the short length
of text in microtext format documents, the normal K
-
Means clustering technique must be modified
in some way in order to effectively work with microtext documents.

My project attempts to cluster Twitter posts (which are microtext documents)

using the K
-
Means method of clustering. Some modifications were made, such as the inclusion of punctuation,
capitalization, time of day, day of week, and link feature sets in the clustering. The term frequency
-
inverse document frequency and log entropy we
ighting schemes were also implemented. We have
yet to identify the superior algorithm and we have explored promising opportunities for future
research.




Brian Green

Developing an Algorithm to Compute the Discrete Lusternik
-
Schnirelmenn Category

Mathematics and Computer Science

Mentor: Nicholas Scoville



We develop an algorithm to compute the Discrete Lusternik
-
Schnirelmenn category of an n
-
dimensional simplicial complex. This is a non
-
negative integer associated to a simplicial complex
which mea
sures its complexity. Specifically, it counts the minimum number of collapsible
subcomplexes the complex can be broken into. We test the accuracy of the program against the
theoretically determined correct values of complete graphs.




Heather Hodges

The

ElGamal Cryptosystem

Mathematics and Computer Science

Mentor: Kevin McGown


The use of electronic devices as a means of storing personal information has caused a
rising interest in information security on the internet. Recent events in the news, such as t
he NSA’s
PRISM program and corporations having their security breached by hackers, reinforce the
importance of protecting information. Cryptography is the study of the methods of protecting our
information and creating a way to communicate securely. A cryp
tosystem is a particular way in
which we encrypt and decrypt information. One important cryptosystem is the ElGamal public
-
key
cryptosystem. The purpose of this project is to study the ElGamal PKC. Classical ElGamal employs
the multiplicative group of the
finite field of p elements, F_p^*, where p is a prime number. The
idea behind Elliptic Curve Cryptography is to replace the group F_p^* with E(F_p), the group of
F_p points on an elliptic curve E. In both of these cases we have implemented ElGamal using
the
mathematics software, Sage.





27


Nathan Labourdette

T
herAPPist: Tracking Mental Health through Mobile Technology

Mathematics and Computer Science

Mentor: April Kontostathis


TherAPPist

is a mobile application that is designed to help patients with severe mental
illnesses live more free and independent lives. Over the past year, Ursinus students have been
working on the development of this app with the Computer Science and Psychology De
partments.
This summer, I have been working to add a tracking feature to TherAPPist that would allow a
patient and their therapist to help track their moods in relation to habits that they would like to
improve. For example, patients who need to develop
improved sleep schedules can log their sleep
and mood every day. The user could then look at a visual summary of the data over the course of
a month with his/her therapist and see the correlation between improved sleep schedules and
improved mood. This f
eature of the app will provide positive reinforcement to encourage
individuals. With tools such as Android Studio and SQLite databases, I have designed and
implemented a calendar that displays colors which indicate habit and mood on any given day. This
a
llows the patient to look at past data with their therapist to help find ways to improve their lives.


Matthew Rink

TherAPPist: Using Mobile Technology to Enhance Therapy

Mathematics and Computer Science

Mentor: April Kontostathis


Mental Health patients

afflicted with disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder
often have trouble coping with everyday situations that many people take for granted. A seemingly
simple situation such as waiting in line can feel insurmountable to these patients. The
rAPPist is a
mobile application that uses technology to assist patients in remaining calm in stressful situations.
It can guide users through a relaxation routine, display a soothing scene with matching audio,
present an image of a supportive person in th
eir life to encourage them, and more.

Previously, TherAPPist only supported use of the images it was packaged with. While this
can be helpful to patients, the longer term goal, and my work this summer, is to leverage the
customizable nature of mobile appl
ications and technology to make the mentioned features
personal to the patient. This will allow for the patient to take control over their relaxation and
calming techniques, giving back some independence, while also leveraging the ubiquitous nature
of mob
ile devices to deliver help in a manner that is inconspicuous.


Cara Sulyok

Mathematical Modeling, Sensitivity Analysis, and Optimal Control of Agroecosystems

Mathematics and Computer Science

Mentor: Mohammed Yahdi


This project develops mathematical models and computer simulations for cost
-
effective and
environmentally
-
safe strategies to minimize alfalfa damage from pests with optimal biodiversity
levels. Predator and plant diversity can control
potato leafhopper (
PL
H
)

damage to the host
-
plant
alfalfa, Pennsylvania’s second
-
most important crop and the most cultivated forage legume in the
world. The damage to alfalfa is costly and

chemical

pesticides are unsafe.
A

mathematical
model

including

eleven

size
-

and time
-
depe
ndent
parameters

was

created using
a system of non
-
linear
differential equations
. After the validation and analysis of the model,
the project
focused on
designing con
trol strategies
. Ultimately, the model
was shown to accurately fit results from open
-
field

experiments and thus predict outcomes for scenarios not covered by the experiments. Steady
state solutions were determined a
n
d
a
sensitivity analysis established the relative importance of

each
parameter to reduce the plant damage. Optimal control theory
led to designing practical
28


controls

on the diversity levels

to minimize the plant damage

while preserving the plant production
at
maximum efficacy and
minim
al

cost. In conclusion, the project provides a framework for
designing cos
t
-
effective and environmen
tally
-
safe strategies to minimize alfalfa damage, determine
critical parameters, and utilize
the
enemies hypothesis and polyculture diversity.


John Parry

Sandy Hook and News Coverage in the Age of Social Media

Media and C
ommunications

Studies

Mentor:
Kirstie Hettinga


Media critics and lay theorists have argued that media coverage encourages mass murder
by granting the perpetrators notoriety. This content analysis sought to explore that criticism by
quantifying the extent to which major online news pub
lishers granted notoriety to the Sandy Hook
shooter in articles about the shooting published from Dec. 14, 2012 through Dec. 16, 2012. Online
articles (
N =
113) from
The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Los Angeles Times, USA
Today,
CNN, Fox News,
and Yahoo! News were coded. Aspects the author examined include the
frequency of the killer’s name, photo, and details of his personal life, and the salience of that
information. The study found that earlier coverage emphasized the death and toll and polic
e or
eyewitness accounts, while later coverage focused more on the victims. Social media is discussed
as the media context that differentiates Sandy Hook from previous school shootings.




Hailey Blessing

Comparing Differences and Similarities in Global
Chant Styles


Music

Mentor: Holly Hubbs


Chant is a
generic term to describe a large body of traditional religious music, typically
performed as vocal music.
For my study, I focused on two specifics styles of chant, Medieval
Roman Catholic Plainchant and T
ibetan Buddhist chant. These two styles of chant were chosen
based on how different from one another they are. Plainchant was performed indoors in large,
reverberating spaces, whereas Tibetan Buddhist chant was performed to aid in meditation
practices in o
r out
-
of
-
doors. In addition to location of performance, the purpose of performance was
extremely divergent as well. Plainchant’s goal was to teach sections of the liturgy to a group of
worshippers, whereas Tibetan Buddhist chant was to aid in personal medi
tation.
I analyzed

audio
clips, performance spaces, and relevant cultural details, such as political changes in government
and developments in religious infrastructure, as these elements will lead to key information as to
why certain compositional rules we
re implemented
. Analyzing the various performance spaces’
size, as well as the construction materials, will provide information on how the space
s

reacted to
sound. Materials react differently to sound waves, with some absorbing the waves, like foam, while
others reflect the waves back into the space like stone.
This led to some conclusions on
compositional considerations that composers may have had to work around.





29


David

Nolan

Analysis and Composition of a Neo
-
Romantic Symphony

Music

Mentor: Garrett
Hope


Musical composers following the end of the Romantic era (c. 1894) broke off from writing
the conventional harmonies that had been predominantly used for hundreds of years. Some forms
of musical composition instead focused on music that imitated a hi
gh level of emotional saturation.
Rather than a focus on a tonal center or a diatonic system, Neoromanticism (mid 1970s
-

today)
utilizes similar pitch
-
centric and traditional forms in conveying a distinct characterization, or color of
the sound. 12 famo
us symphonies were studied and analyzed to provide fodder for the
composition process.

An original score was composed on five staves in an effort to keep a focus on the overall
form of the piece. Written is a modified Sonata
-
allegro movement (first move
ment) of a symphony
which features an over
-
arching A


B


A form. Ideas for various motives and characterizations
were inspired by the Brothers Grimms’ short story, Hansel and Gretel. The orchestration is vast,
set for nearly 90 performers on 22 differe
nt instruments. Non
-
traditional and synthetic scales such
as the whole tone, pentatonic, slendro, dorian, and Slavic scales were used throughout the
composition.


Charles Chan Hee Lee

Detecting Residual Changes in Concussed Individuals using EEG

Neuroscience

Mentor: Joel Bish


Concussions are a common occurrence in many different sports and activities.
Concussions can cause changes in the chemical balance within the brain which then can affect the
behavior and cognitive ability of the affected ind
ividual. Historically, the electroencephalogram
(EEG) has been used as a neurocognitive tool to assess and evaluate an individual’s electrical
brain activity. Previous studies have used the EEG to gain a better understanding of minor
traumatic brain injuri
es (mTBI). This study uses EEG to measure participants’ responses to a
series of cognitive tests and also looks at the residual damage which can be observed months or
even years after the initial impact of a concussion. Subjects undertake a battery of test
s including
the Erikson Flanker, Number Stroop, Color Stroop, and Go
-
No Go. Comparisons between
concussed and unconcussed subjects reveal differences in the neural oscillations such as delta,
theta, alpha, and beta bands.


Cheyenne Layman

The Role of Fac
ia
l Features and Configuration d
uring Facial Categorization

Neuroscience

Mentor: Joel Bish


When encountering strange faces, people tend to categorize faces of another race faster
than those of their own race. This is known as the other race categorization a
dvantage, or ORCA.
Some theorize that this is due to more experience with own race faces and an enhanced ability to
recognize these on an individual rather than group level. This study tests not only classification of
own and other race faces for Caucasian

American and African American individuals but also
examines the response of participants in neither category. A second task tests gender
categorization and the affect a participant’s gender has upon performance. We hypothesize that
the ORCA will appear fo
r own and other race tasks and affects will be seen for the gender task as
well. Using an eye tracker, the regions and/or facial features looked at for each gender or race
were compared. Reaction times and accuracies differed between races of participants
and of
30


photographs of faces. Eye movements differed between tasks of gender and race recognition and
between races of participants.




Jessica Peterson

The Neurocognitive Examination of Executive Attention in Non
-
Clinical OCD and ADHD

Neuroscience

Mentor:

Joel Bish


Obsessive
-
Compulsive Disorder (OCD), an anxiety disorder characterized by obsessive
thoughts and compulsive actions, shares many common features with Attention Deficit
Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a neurological disorder typified by inattention, restless
ness, and a
lack of self
-
control. These common features include issues with selective attention and impulse
control. Given that these disorders share distinctive characteristics, it leads to question how the
two are related on a neurocognitive basis. The c
urrent study sought to examine this neurocognitive
relationship by using a nonclinical survey to assess levels OCD and ADHD and reaction time and
electroencephalographic data from four neurocognitive assessment tasks. The specific tasks used
included estab
lished methods for evaluating selective attention and impulse control. Results
demonstrate that both impulse control and selective attention are key features of the relationship
between OCD and ADHD. These domains of cognition have been shown both in previ
ous literature
and in the current study to be related to functioning of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the
anterior cingulate. Both of these regions have been shown in past research to be implicated in
OCD and ADHD.




Senie Chernuhina

The Ethics
of Intranasal Administration of the Hormone Oxytocin:

Putting Empirical Data on “The Moral Molecule” in Context of Recent Literature on
Moral Enhancement in Contemporary Philosophy

Philosophy

and Religious Studies

Mentor: Kelly Sorensen


In 1932, Adous

Huxley in Brave New World imagines a ‘moral potion’ he calls Soma. He
writes: “Anybody can be virtuous now. You can carry at least half your morality in a bottle.” With
the recent cascade of neurological studies done to understand every aspect of our cogn
ition, we
are closer to developing a ‘Soma’ than Huxley could have imagined 80 years prior. Research
aimed at understanding “moral” behaviors such as generosity and even monogamous tendencies
has found that what seems to be a naturally occurring “soma” whi
ch spikes in the brain around the
time of certain moral behaviors. Recent studies, articles, and books have earned the hormone
nicknames like the “love hormone”, “trust chemical” and the “moral molecule”. Meanwhile,
contemporary philosophy is also explodin
g in literature arguing for and against moral
enhancements in general. Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu of Oxford recently published Unfit
for the Future: The Need for Moral Enhancement. Not only do they accept moral enhancement as
permissible, but clai
m that it is necessary on a large scale in order to compensate for a morality
evolved for small tribes not populations of billions. I explore the implications of research on the role
of oxytocin as moral enhancement; what needs it addresses, what shortcomi
ngs it has, and how it
fares in context of ethical objections.




31


Douglas Hickey

The Hidden Wounds of War: An Exploration of the Moral Wounds Sustained in Combat

Philosophy and Religious Studies

Mentor: Kelly Sorensen


The 2013 reports released by the Depa
rtment of Defense and Department of Veteran’s
Affairs reveal that veteran suicide rates are at an all
-
time high despite advances in post
-
war
psychological care. This statistic leaves veteran healthcare providers furiously wondering what
they could be missi
ng. Philosophers like Nancy Sherman may just have the answer. In her book,
The Untold
War
, Sherman
argues

for the existence of moral wounds of war. The combat
environment and the transition for a soldier in
-
to and out
-
of that environment is a multifaceted
and
complex environment whose injuries don’t just restrict themselves to the physical and
psychological realms. In addition to visions of bullets tearing flesh from bone and memories of act
of violence that exemplify the depth of darkness in human nature,
soldiers grapple with the
paralyzing indecision of making life
-
or
-
death judgments. A soldier will routinely make decisions that
go against the typical code of civilian living,

which can do more than just debilitate them
psychologically. Their decisions wil
l knowingly bring harm to others, exploit relationships with
prisoners to gain useful intelligence, and even result in certain death of their closet comrades. Not
only do they challenge what soldiers define as moral, but they can leave their moral constitu
tion
shattered. My project aims to continue Sherman’s work and more clearly define the collateral
damage that comes with making these decisions so that we can work to ensure that these heroic
men and women who voluntarily risk their lives to ensure our fre
edom receive the care they
deserve.




Jimmy Reilly

Morality and Self
-
interest: Irreconcilable Foes or Harmonious Allies?

Philosophy and Religious Studies

Mentor: Kelly Sorensen


What are your goals in life? What will you
achieve

during your lifetime? Where are you
going, and why? These are incredibly important and especially
moral

questions that you are
challenged with during every moment of your life, whether you approve of it or not. These may not
concern the kind of matters

that involve your behavior regarding other people in need, but this
doesn’t alter the reality that your answers to these questions play the largest role in determining
the course of your life. It is for this reason that I consider these matters to be of
great
moral

importance. It’s worth noting, too, that these matters are fundamentally self
-
interested. These
matters concern
your

goals,
your

achievements, and
your

life. Is this a problem? Aren’t morality
and self
-
interest natural opponents? Isn’t the

purpose of the former to control the wickedness of
the latter? I don’t think so. I think that if
you

aren’t living
your

life for
yourself
, then
you

are making
a
grave

mistake. There is certainly a lot of adversity in life, but you should not be beaten down by
it. You should rise above it. How will you muster the strength to overcome such adversity? By
never forgetting, even for one moment, the reason that you’re li
ving the life that you are. That
reason is
you
. It is this special, self
-
interested reason that will enable you to achieve wonders.
And it is with this reason in mind that I provide my defense of a self
-
interested morality.





32


Erin Bennett

Controlling
Energy E
xchange a
mong Rydberg Atoms

Physics

Mentor: Thomas Carroll


Rydberg atoms are ultra
-
cold atoms that have had their outer electrons excited to very high
energy levels. These atoms interact with each other by exchanging energy. In my work, I study
this energy exchange by running simulations of the experiment on a supercomputer cluster. The
atoms are randomly placed in spatially separated groups that are then set at fixed distances from
each other. I will be presenting my data, which explores the us
e of an externally applied electric
field to control the energy exchange.




Frank DeVone

Inelastic Proton Scattering from
50
Ca

Physics

Mentor:
Lewis Riley



The Ursinus Nuclear Structure group performed an experiment at the National
Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University (NSCL) in May. We collected
gamma rays from several exotic nuclei that we have been working to analyze throughout

the
summer. For about 120 hours a “cocktail beam” containing
50
Ca was sent through a liquid
hydrogen target. We used the GRETINA (Gamma
-
ray energy tracking array) detector to measure
the gamma rays emitted by excited nuclei produced by reactions of beam

particles with protons in
the target. We spent a good portion of the summer calibrating and attempting to understand the
data. My goal both for this summer and next semester is to determine the probabilities of exciting
collective states of
50
Ca via pro
ton scattering. This continued analysis will allow us to better
understand the nuclear shell structure of
50
Ca.




Michael Giongo

Simulating the Energy Exchange a
mong Ultra
-
cold Atoms

Physics

Mentor: Thomas Carroll



Rydberg atoms, which are atoms that
feature outer electrons at a far distance from
the nucleus, can exchange energy when exposed to an electric field. We observe the dipole
-
dipole
energy exchange among these atoms. In order to accomplish this task, we generated simulations
in which we altere
d certain parameters, such as the geometric shape and dipole moment. The
reason for examining this is to learn about how to control and manipulate components of a
quantum mechanical system. I will present simulation results and the analysis of these result
s, as
well as explain my alterations to the program required to generate the aforementioned simulations.



33


Matt Glowacki

Inelastic Proton Scattering from
46
Ar

Physics

Mentor: Lew
is

Riley


The Ursinus College nuclear structure group performed an experiment at the National
Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University in May. We sent a super
-
cocktail beam of exotic nuclei through a liquid hydrogen target that was cooled to

16 K. When
beam nuclei are excited by collisions with protons in the target, gamma rays are emitted. We
measured these gamma rays in coincidence with outgoing beam nuclei. Then, we compared the
gamma ray spectra with simulations to determine how many gamm
a rays were emitted, which is
related to the probabilities of populating collective excited states of the nucleus in these collisions.
These probabilities help us better understand nuclear shell structure. My work is focused on
46
Ar as
a test case for whic
h a similar measurement of this nucleus has already been done.


Tyler Helms

Energy Exchange among ultra cold Rydberg atoms

Physics

Mentor: Tom Carroll



Highly excited atoms, or Rydberg atoms, have discrete energy levels that shift with
changing electric
field. Two atoms can interact by an energy exchange in which one atoms
releases energy and drops to a lower energy level while the other absorbs that energy and rises to
a higher energy level. Energy exchange can only happen when the energy released by the

first
atom is equal to the energy absorbed by the other atom. This energy conservation condition is only
met at specific (resonant) electric fields. I will be presenting two
-
atom and many
-
atom models, as
well as simulations based on these models.


Kelsey
Bullington
-
Hodge

Examining the West’s relationship with the Middle East: Why is 9/11 American?

Politics and
International Relations

Mentor:
Joseph

Melrose


Since the events of 9/11, America has waged a physical and ideological war in the Middle
East
against Islamic militant organizations, like al
-
Qaeda, which perpetrate acts of terror.
American citizens have been inundated with news specials concerning Islam, the Middle East, and
terror cells since President George W. Bush first referred to the 9/11
counterattack as the “War on
Terror.” A new vocabulary


one which contains words such as jihad and suicide bombing


has
been integrated into the common parlance in the United States. But the dialogue often neglects
mention of the history of Western and

Middle Eastern relations. Seen solely through the American
lens it is easy to lose sight of the fact that the Middle Eastern conception of the West derives not
only from its relations with the United States, but more importantly from previous years of
in
teraction with other Western nations. My research will focus on the Western European
perspective, specifically of Great Britain and France, on the Middle East and Islamic militant
organizations. I will examine the history of cultural exchange between the

Middle East and
Western Europe, as well as the foreign policy pursued by both regions as power has shifted
between them. By comparing and contrasting the American and Western European perspectives
-

from media broadcasts to foreign policy
-

I hope to dis
cover the events that instigated the
deterioration of the American standing in the Middle East and use these to form a hypothesis about
the shape of future American
-
Middle Eastern relations.



34



Elizabeth Reynolds

The Growth of the Latino American Populatio
n and its Implications on Higher Education

Politics

and International Relations

Mentors: Xochitl Shuru and Houghton Kane


Embodied in the promise of the American Dream, United States citizens treasure
opportunities for success in their nation. In the last
forty years, this hope of great possibilities and
improvements in living conditions has attracted millions of Latino immigrants. As American
demographics shift in this direction, however, Latino Americans remain underrepresented in higher
education instit
utions. According the Latino National Survey, as of 2006, only thirteen percent of
Latino Americans report having four
-
year college degrees. As a quality education is imperative to
an individual’s socioeconomic mobility and the societal need for a knowledg
eable and productive
citizenry, Latino Americans need feasible opportunities to access institutions of higher education.
There are a variety of issues that traditionally govern Latino Americans’ pursuit of higher
educational degrees, but I chose to focus o
n English language acquisition as there are English
learners in every Latino American population. While English proficiency is essential for academic
success in the U.S. school system, many Latino students fail to acquire adequate language skills
due to po
or curricular and instructional services. Through analyzing changes from the 1968
Bilingual Education Act to the 2001 No Child Left Behind Act, I argue that recent federal
government policies have contributed to the challenge of English acquisition for Lat
ino students. I
conclude by describing the implications for liberal arts colleges, such as Ursinus, as they seek to
promote educational and socioeconomic opportunities for Latinos and serve the diversity goals that
augment the quality of the institution.





Kyu Chul Shin

Presidents and Pinochet: T
he Civilian
-
Military Clash
and Democratization

in
Chile

Politics and International Relations

Mentor: Rebecca Evans


Following the end of military rule under General Augusto Pinochet in 1990, formal control of
government was handed to civilian politicians. The first elections saw the Concertación, a coalition
of multiple centrist and leftist parties made up of civilian p
oliticians, win the presidency; the next
three presidents would be members of this same coalition. However, in Chile, members of the
previous authoritarian regime, including the former dictator Pinochet who remained as commander
of the army, managed to mai
ntain strong influence and power in both the legislature and in the
armed forces. Thus, the Concertación presidents, Patricio Aylwin, Eduardo Frei, Ricardo Lagos,
and Michelle Bachelet, in order to institute their various agendas, needed to negotiate and a
t times
clash with the military and its commander, Pinochet. This traditional dialogue of the
d
emocratization process in Chile has focused on the important role of the Concertación politicians
and presidents. However, it has largely marginalized the import
ant role the military and particularly
Pinochet played in the oftentimes tense transition to democracy. This paper hopes to shed some
light in the important role that General Pinochet, and to an extent the armed forces as a whole,
played in the transition
to full democracy in Chile.





35


Anthony Sierzega

The Resurrection of the “Dead” Second Amendment in
Heller v. District of Columbia
(2008)

Politics
and International Relations

Mentor: Gerard
Fitzpatrick


For nearly two centuries following its adoption, t
he Second Amendment was largely ignored
and even referred to as a “dead amendment.” Virtually all legal scholarship considered the right
protected by the amendment to be a collective right written into the Constitution to protect local
militias from a powe
rful federal standing army. However, beginning in the late 1970s a surge of
scholarship began to emerge promoting the Second Amendment as a safeguard for an individual
right to bear arms without any connection to military service. Promoted by the National
Rifle
Association and libertarians, this theory began to gain popularity among legal scholars and
historians, and in 2008 it was adopted by the Supreme Court of the United States in
District of
Columbia v. Heller
. The majority decision, written by Justice Antonin Scalia, and the dissenting
opinion by Justice John Paul Stevens distinctly mirror the arguments made by individualists and
collectivists. Beyond the implications of the
Heller
decision for gun control pol
icy is the apparent
triumph of Scalia’s originalist view of constitutional interpretation. This project assesses the
arguments presented by individualists and collectivists, analyzes the opinions of Scalia and
Stevens, and evaluates the use of originalism
in the Court’s decision.




Rikki Kathryn Eble

The Development of a Sorority
-
based Disordered Eating and Negative Body Images
Program

Psychology

Mentor: Kneia DaCosta


Disordered eating and negative body images affect many young women. One context in
which these proportions are particularly high is within sorority life. While it is hard to say whether
this disproportion is due to sorority culture instigating these types
of behaviors or whether young
women who are predisposed to these issues congregate together, these problems need to be
addressed within the sororities themselves. Peer
-
led, consciousness
-
raising workshops and
programs that are interactive, discussion
-
based

and customizable are the best ways to combat
these heightened levels of disordered eating and negative body images within sororities. In
addition, a method of implementation that addresses their exclusive nature is important.

The existing disordered eati
ng and body image workshops that are conducted ignore at
least one of two things: 1) that sorority culture is a separate and independent culture from that of
the general student population and 2) the diversity among differing sorority cultures. To address
these issues the current

program combines t
wo effective components:


1) interactive

and evocative
workshops

and programs

and 2) the creation of an in
-
sorority peer leader position. This position
allows for the customizable functioning of the program, as th
e sorority sister modifies the program
in adherence with the inner workings of their sorority. In order to test the efficacy of this new
program, a brief proposal for a pilot study

using one of the Ursinus sororities is also presen
ted for
this coming fall
and upon conclusion will be reviewed by the sorority.





36


Elizabeth Hill

A Group Mentoring Approach: College Students Helping High School Students

Psychology

Mentor: Brenda Lederach


A mentoring relationship can be one of the most rewarding experiences for

both the mentor
and mentee. This past spring, I participated in a mentoring program at Spring
-
Ford High School for
at risk students. The program was run by Ursinus College students interning at Spring
-
Ford
Counseling Center. I saw the promise of the progr
am and decided to research how to improve it for
my Summer Fellows project. I discovered that, ideally, the program would have one Ursinus
College undergraduate paired with each Spring
-
Ford student in the mentoring program for at least
six months, but the

large number of Spring
-
Ford students in the program and a time constraint
problem made this impossible. I decided to design workshops for the program around the
important themes of self
-
esteem, identity and media influences, domestic partner violence, str
ess,
and healthy coping mechanisms. By using these workshops as a guideline, the students will be put
into small groups with at least one Ursinus College mentor. The goal is to progress through these
workshops from November 2013 to April 2014. At that poin
t, I will assess the effectiveness of the
program overall for both mentees and mentors. My hope is that the Spring
-
Ford students discover
tools and techniques to help them deal with the challenges of growing up. If the program is
successful overall, I hope

to make this an established program that can be run by future Ursinus
College students.




Caitlin Lindley

The Speech and Motor Differences between Autistic and

Non
-
Autistic Children

Psychology

Mentor: Jennifer
Stevenson


Autistic individuals are characterized by
atypical communication (including speech),
repetitive movements or restricted interests, and unusual social behaviors. Although not part of the
diagnostic criteria, autistic individuals often experience motor chall
enges. This study replicated
research which showed that non
-
autistic children met more early (6
-
24 months) oral
-

and manual
-
motor skills than autistic children (Gernsbacher et al., 2008). Furthermore, this study identified
whether motor skills in the first

two years predict later speech quality. Fifty parents of children
between the ages of three and seventeen years were recruited from the Philadelphia area via
flyers, conferences, and listservs to complete a retrospective phone interview about their child’
s
oral
-

and manual
-
motor skill development through age 2 and two questionnaires about their child’s
current language skills. The final sample comprised 22 autistic children and 19 non
-
autistic children
after confirming the presence or absence of a probable

autism spectrum diagnosis. Non
-
autistic
children met more early oral
-

and manual
-

motor skills, spoke more words, and had a higher quality
of speech than autistic children. Furthermore, for all children, the more early motor milestones
reached, the better

their current language skills both in terms of the number of words spoken and
speech quality. In addition, three undergraduate students piloted the Test of Visual Motor Skills
which will be used in a subsequent phase of this study to evaluate current moto
r abilities (Martin,
2010). This research may help to inform language therapies for autistic children.





37


Heather McMasters

Effects of False Beliefs on Personality Change

Psychology

Mentor
s
: Gabrielle Principe and Joel Bish


Past research has shown that false memories can have a lasting effect on behavior. False
memories that have been induced in the laboratory include memories of alien abductions, hot air
balloon rides, and getting lost in a mall as a child. However, a less e
xtensively studied but similar
phenomena, false beliefs, also has consequences for behavior. Studies have shown that people
will alter their food consumption after developing a false belief that they once had a food aversion.
Participants were told that, a
s children, they became ill after eating foods ranging from egg
-
salad to
strawberry ice cream. These participants later reported feelings of dislike for the targeted food and
actually avoided these foods at a party. However, studies on false beliefs are li
mited to those
involving food. Here, we attempt to show that false beliefs about one’s personality can have lasting
consequences on behavior. Participants were given an implicit personality inventory and later told
that the test indicated they are extraver
ted. After reflecting back on a time in which he/she behaved
in an extraverted manner, participants were given an impossible anagram task to measure
behavioral change associated with seeking help. Those that were told they are extraverted are
expected to s
eek help with the task more quickly and more frequently than those told given neutral
feedback or their true results.




Kendal Conrad

Violent Delights: Atrocity and Appropriation in
Sweeney Todd

Theater and Dance

Mentor: Beverly Redman


The literary lif
e of Sweeney Todd began as a single
-
mindedly greedy stock villain in a
cheap serial publication dated back to 1846 and over time grew into the oddly sympathetic albeit
vengeful and bloodthirsty barb
er that most of us know today.
The basic plot of the tale

consists of
Sweeney Todd murdering customers in his barber shop while Mrs. Lovett, his partner in crime,
takes the bodies and turns them into meat pies in her underground factory.


Although this storyline
remains constant through the ages, the details of
Sweeney’s escapades have been altered and
appropriated to the time period in which the adaptation had been written.


The 1846 penny dreadful
can be read as a cautionary urban fairytale urging against the combined threats of industrialism
and capitalism whi
le Christopher Bond’s 1973 adaptation minimizes all of the aforementioned
themes and instead focuses on revenge and other psychological motivations, making it something
more akin to the Gran Guignol, the French Theatre of Horror. However, despite their dif
ferences,
each version hinges on the brutal themes of murder, thievery, and cannibalism.


The relevance of
Sweeney Todd’s century
-
old tale in today’s world proves that violence continues to fascinate and
influence society by allowing us to deal with our da
rkest desires and fears through fiction.