SSL on SAP J2EE Engine

tenchraceSoftware and s/w Development

Jul 14, 2012 (4 years and 11 months ago)

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SAP AG
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Angel Dichev
RIG, SAP Labs
Enabling SSL and
Client Certificates on
the SAP J2EE Engine
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SAP AG
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SAP AG 2005, Enabling SSL on the SAP J2EE Engine
Learning Objectives
As a result of this session, you will be able to:
 Understand the different SAP J2EE Engine SSL
scenarios
 Use the Key Storage and the SSL Provider Services
 Configure SAP J2EE Engine for using SSL
 Configure the use of client certificates for
authentication
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Key Storage and SSL Provider Services
SAP J2EE Engine - SSL Scenarios
Enabling SSL on SAP J2EE Engine
Client Certificates for Authentication
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SSL Transport Layer Scenarios

SAP J2EE Engine
as server
component

SAP J2EE Engine
as client
component

Using an
Intermediary
Proxy Server
HTTPS (SSL)
SAP Java
Cryptographic Toolkit
HTTPS (SSL)
WEB
Server
SAP Java
Cryptographic Toolkit
SAP Java
Cryptographic Toolkit
WEB
Proxy
HTTPS (SSL)
HTTPS (SSL)

SSL is a quasi-standard protocol developed by Netscape.

SSL can be used with the Web AS for securing application protocols: HTTP, P4, LDAP.

SAP J2EE engine as client and using intermediary proxy server are not covered in this session.
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SAP J2EE Engine – SSL Scenarios
Key Storage and SSL Provider Services
Enabling SSL on SAP J2EE Engine
Client Certificates for Authentication
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SAP AG 2005, Enabling SSL on the SAP J2EE Engine
SAP J2EE Security Services – Overview
Secure
Storage
Service
SAML
Authentication
Service
Key
Storage
Service
SSL
Provider
Service
Virus
Scan
Provider
User
Storage
Service
Security
Provider
Service
Security-
Related
Services

Providing security for the applications that run on the J2EE Engine is an important aspect in the
overall architecture of the SAP Web Application Server. You need to be able to identify the users
that access the server and you need to protect access to individual resources. In addition,
confidentiality is also important when dealing with sensitive information. The J2EE Engine services
help to perform the various security-related administration tasks.

For using SSL, the services “Key Storage Service” and “SSL Provider Service” are used.
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Key Storage Service

Manages certificates and credentials used by SAP J2EE
Engine

Is an enabler to generate keys and certificates needed for
encryption, identification, and verification.

Compatible with the Java Cryptography Architecture (JCA)

Keystore entries are stored in a distributed database with
particular access rights on it

The Key Storage Service of the SAP J2EE Engine enables you to manage certificates and
credentials on the server, e.g. for using SSL.

The Key Storage Service enables you to generate keys and certificates. You can use them for
encryption, identification, and verification. The Keystore entries are stored in a distributed database
and can be assigned particular access rights. The service is compatible with the Java Cryptography
Architecture.

To take full advantage of the Key Storage service functionality that is provided by the Visual
Administrator tool, a full version of the IAIK package must be used. IAIK package can be
downloaded from the service marketplace.
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Key Storage Service
Public-key certificates are to be stored in a keystore entry in the
Key Storage Service
You need to configure the Key Storage Service if you want to:
 establish
an SSL connection
 authenticate
users via an X.509
client certificate
 use logon tickets
for Single Sign-On

Public-key certificates are to be stored in a keystore entry in the Key Storage Service. These include
the trusted CAs' certificate to use to verify the target server's server certificate and, if applicable, the
user's X.509 client certificate to use for authentication.

HTTP destinations can also use the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol to establish secure
connections to the target server. The Destination service uses the secure connection factory to
establish these connections.

So if you either want to establish an SSL connection or authenticate users via X.509 client
certificates you have to use and properly configure the Key Storage Service.

The Key Storage Service and its proper configuration is also mandatory for using the Secure
Storage service.

The Key Storage Service is found in SAP J2EE Engine Administrator -> Cluster -> Services -> Key
Storage

The role “KeystoreAdministrator” is required for performing Key Storage Service maintenance on
the SAP J2EE Engine.
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SSL Provider Service

Uses the certificates created using Key Storage Service

Maps SSL sockets and entry points to certain credentials.

Manages the credentials and trusted certificates to use SSL

The SSL Provider Service offers the selection of the key pair that the server uses for SSL. If you are
using client certificates for user authentication, then you also maintain the list of CAs who you trust
as issuers of client certificates.

The SSL Provider Service is able to manage Cipher Suites (e.g. SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA
or SSL_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA), Credentials and Client Authentication.

Managing Cipher Suites: If the client has the same cipher suites as the ones included in the SSL
Provider, you can use it during the handshake phase. On the Cipher Suite tab you can add or remove
such suites. Also you can set their priority, that is, you can define the order in which the cipher
suites are used.
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SAP J2EE Engine – SSL Scenarios
Enabling SSL on SAP J2EE Engine
Key Storage and SSL Provider Services
Client Certificates for Authentication
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Configuring the SAP J2EE Engine to use SSL
 Prerequisites for SSL Configuration:
 download and deploy the SAP Cryptographic Toolkit
 download and apply the Java Unlimited Strength Jurisdiction
Policy Files
 Steps for configuring SSL:
1.Change startup-mode for SSL Provider Service; SSL Provider
Service in running mode.
2.Create Server’s Public/Private key pair
3.Generate Certificate Signing Request (CSR); Sign CSR from a
Certification Authority (CA); Import Sighed Certificate
4.Bind the key pair to specific SSL Port
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Prerequisite – SAP Cryptographic Toolkit – 1/3
Restrictions from SAP
 The distribution of SAP cryptographic software is controlled by
German export regulations
 Therefore SAP delivers per default only cryptographic functions for
Digital Signatures
 For using SSL, the SAP Java Cryptographic Toolkit must be
installed. It can be downloaded from the Service Marketplace if the
customer meets certain legal requirements
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Prerequisite – SAP Cryptographic Toolkit – 2/3
Prerequisites and step by step instruction to download the SAP Cryptographic Toolkit:

You have authorized access to the SAP Service Marketplace with a SAP s-user ID.

You have installed the SAP Download Manager in your system (For more information on
downloading, installing, and configuring the SAP download manager, visit the Software
Distribution Center (http://service.sap.com/download) in the SAP Service Marketplace).

You have installed the SAP archiving tool SAPCAR (see SAP note 212876 for more information on
downloading, installing, and configuring SAPCAR).

Log on with your SAP s-user ID to http://service.sap.com/download and navigate to Download ->
SAP Cryptographic Software.

In the SAP Download Area, choose SAP JAVA Cryptographic Toolkit and download the file using
the SAP Download Manager.

Store the files in a temporary directory in your system, and unpack them using SAPCAR.

After unpacking you’ll see 2
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Prerequisite – SAP Cryptographic Toolkit – 3/3
Prerequisites and step by step instruction to deploy the SAP Cryptographic Toolkit:

You have copied the files from the SAP JAVA Cryptographic Toolkit to your host and can now install
and start the SAP Crypto Manager.

After unpacking, use the Software Delivery Manager (SDM) to deploy the correspondent
Cryptographic Toolkit to your server.

You should have your Web AS and SDM server up and running.

Start SDM client from <usr>/sap/<SID>/JC00/SDM/program/RemoteGui.bat

Use your SDM client password for logging to the Remote SDM Gui.

Navigate to Deployment Tab, Click on “Add SCA/SDA to deployment list” icon and navigate to SAP
crypto sda file (tc_sec_java_crypto_signed_fs_lib.sda); Click Next, Next, Start Deployment; Restart
Web AS

You can verify that the correct library has been properly deployed and loaded under Dispatcher/Server
→Libraries →core_lib in the Visual Administrator. The iaik_jce.jar should be included in the list of
loaded jars and not iaik_jce_export.jar
Result

The SAP Java Cryptographic Toolkit replaces the export version of the toolkit on the J2EE dispatcher
and server.

You should periodically check for an updated version of this library on the SAP Service Marketplace,
for example, when you install new support packages.
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Prerequisite – Java Cryptography Extension (JCE) – 1/2
Restrictions from SUN
 The Java Cryptography Extension (JCE) Unlimited Strength
Jurisdiction Policy Files is a set of packages that provide a
framework and implementations for encryption, key generation and
key agreement, and Message Authentication Code (MAC) algorithms.
 JCE was previously an optional package (extension) to the Java 2
SDK, Standard Edition (Java 2 SDK), versions 1.2.x and 1.3.x. JCE
has now been integrated into the Java 2 SDK, v 1.4.
 Starting from J2SE 1.4 it is also necessary to install the JCE
Unlimited Strength Jurisdiction Policy Files from Sun in order to use
the strong cryptographic functions necessary for SSL.

Prerequisites and step by step instruction to download the Java™Cryptography Extension (JCE)
Unlimited Strength Jurisdiction Policy Files from Sun Microsystems, Inc.:

Due to import regulations in various countries, Sun Microsystems, Inc. differentiates between
limited and unlimited strength cryptography in its J2SE 1.4.x packages by providing different
strength policy files (limited and unlimited). Per default, the limited policy files are delivered
with the J2SE packages.

Therefore, to use the strong cryptography functions provided with the Secure Storage FS and SSL
Provider services, you have to use the unlimited strength cryptographic functions. In this case,
download and install the unlimited strength jurisdiction policy files from Sun Microsystems, Inc.

Due to import control restrictions of some countries, the JCE jurisdiction policy files shipped with
the Java 2 SDK, v 1.4 allow "strong" but limited cryptography to be used. An "unlimited strength"
version of these files indicating no restrictions on cryptographic strengths is available for those
living in eligible countries (which are most countries). You can download this version and replace
the strong cryptography versions supplied with the Java 2 SDK, v 1.4 with the unlimited ones.
The policy files are available from Sun Microsystems, Inc. at http://java.sun.com.
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Prerequisite – Java Cryptography Extension (JCE) – 2/2

Prerequisites and step by step instruction to download the Java™Cryptography Extension (JCE)
Unlimited Strength Jurisdiction Policy Files from Sun Microsystems, Inc.:

Download the unlimited strength JCE policy files http://java.sun.com

Uncompress and extract them to a temporary folder.

Replace the strong policy files with the unlimited strength versions extracted in the previous step.

The standard place for JCE jurisdiction policy JAR files is: <java-home>\lib\security for Win32
and <java-home>/lib/security for Solaris

If you are using JRE you should replace the JCE jurisdiction policy JAR files under <Program
Files>\Java\lib\security
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1. Change startup-mode for SSL Provider service 1/2
Use the Config tool for changing the startup-mode of the SSL
Provider Service

The default setting for the SSL Provider Service for the Server is automatic start.

The default setting for the SSL Provider Service for the Dispatcher is a manual start. If you want to
enable SSL on your J2EE engine you should configure the Service for automatic startup.

Config Tool: Start the Config Tool: <usr>/sap/<SID>/JC<xx>/j2ee/configtool/

Navigate to Instance -> Dispatcher -> services -> ssl and change the Startup Mode of the SSL
Service to “always”; Apply the changes; Restart node.

The next time the J2EE Engine is started, the SSL Provider service will also be automatically
started.

The default setting for the Keystorage Service for both Dispatcher and Server nodes is automatic
start. So you do not need to change it.
Note: If for any reason the Keystorage service (Dispatcher and Server) and SSL Provider Service
(Server) and not running, please proceed with the same steps. You should have both services
Keystorage and SSL Provider “always” up and running on all Dispatcher and Server nodes you
want to enable for SSL usage.
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1. SSL Provider Service in running mode 2/2

This Window should appear after restarting the J2EE engine when the startup mode of the SSL
Provider Service is changed to “always”, or just after starting the SSL Provider Service under the
Dispatcher node.

There are 3 active sockets
 5<xx>01 is used for the HTTPS – SSL
 5<xx>03 is used for the IIOP – SSL
 5<xx>06 is used for P4 – SSL
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2. Creation of a Server’s Public-Private Key Pair 1/2

To create the Public-Private-Key Pair go to Server Services Key Storage and click on the
view “service_ssl”

The available views appear. Entries corresponding to the selected view appear in the “Entries” pane.
An entry may be either a public-key certificate only or the complete key pair. The type of entry is
shown in the information pane with the indicator PRIVATE KEY or CERTIFICATE along with the
rest of the information pertaining to the entry.

Press the button “Create” (under Entry) and proceed on the new opened “Key and Certificate
Generation” window. (Next slide)
Note: Per default, the SAP J2EE Engine uses the “ssl-credentials” entry for SSL, which contains a
public-key certificate that has been signed by a test CA. Although this certificate can be used for
testing purposes, a certificate that has been signed by a well-known, productive CA should be used
when in production mode.
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3. Creation of a Server’s Public-Private Key Pair 2/2

To create the Public-Private-Key Pair go to Server Services Key Storage and click on the
view “service_ssl”

Press the button “Create” (under Entry) and you will see the screen depicted on the Slide

Fill out the subject properties. Important is the Common Name, which must be the fully qualified
domain name which will be used in the HTTP-Requests (e.g. if your J2EE engine will be accessed
via https://sapwas123.sap.corp:50001/.. then you must use sapwas123.sap.corp as the Common
Name). Otherwise, certain Web browsers will produce a warning if the host name that users use to
access the server does not match the host name found in the server’s public-key certificate.

You can add more properties after clicking on the empty field.

The Entry Name is just a name for identifying the key pair in the key store.

Specify Validity period; Select “RSA” as secure algorithm to use; Select “1024” as Key Length

Choose “Store Certificate”, to generate a Certificate as well.

Press “Generate”
Note: During the Installation of the SAP J2EE Engine a private key and a certificate issued by a test
CA for the Common Name localhost (entry names “ssl_credentials” and
“ssl_credentials_certificate”) are created. These entries should be used only for testing purposes.
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3. Generate, Sign, Import – CSR

In the Key Storage Service, choose Runtime Contents tab.

Select your entry, choose “Generate CSR Request” and save it to a file.

Send the Certificate Signing Request to a CA to be signed.

The exact procedure to use depends on the CA that you use. For the SAP CA, follow the
instructions provided by the SAP Trust Center Service at http://service.sap.com/tcs

Save the certificate request response to a file in the file system. Use the extension .crt (DER-
encoded or Base-64 encoded) or .cert (Base-64 encoded).

Import the corresponding certificate request response. Choose Import CSR Response and load the
response from the file system.

To verify that the import was successful, select the entry. Now the certificate should contain the
name of the CA as the issuer.
Note: If you want to load the public-key certificate as a separate entry, then rename the file before
loading. Otherwise, the SAP J2EE Engine will replace the existing PRIVATE KEY entry with a
CERTIFICATE entry and the private key will be lost since it uses the file name as the alias when
loading.
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3. View after Import of the Certificate
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4. Bind the key pair to specific SSL Port – 1/2

In the next step you have to bind the key pair and certificate to a port.

Go to the Server Service SSL Provider, select the appropriate dispatcher; the available sockets
and their corresponding ports appear in the Configuration pane

Select the socket that corresponds to the SSL port you want to configure; click on “Server Identity”
tab and choose the Button “Add”. Then you see the potential entries in the key store which might be
used. Choose the correspondent entry (available under the service_ssl view in the Keystorage).
Press OK.

If the server process is to accept the use of client certificates for authentication, then set this option
in the Client Authentication tab page. (Described in the next chapter)
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4. Bind the key pair to specific SSL Port – 2/2

This is the final view. The J2EE Engine will use the specified key pair for SSL connections to the
designated host and port.
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Add or Remove Cipher Suites (optional)

If the client has the same cipher suites as the ones included in the SSL Provider, you can use it
during the handshake phase. On the Cipher Suite tab you can add or remove such suites. Also you
can set their priority, that is, you can define the order in which the cipher suites are used.
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Testing the SSL Connection
Test the SSL connection with https
://<servername>:<SSL port>

If a HTTP 403 error code appears the client does not support the required ciphers as chosen in the
SSL Provider Service cipher suites (for example: SAP J2EE demands 128 bit RC4 but the Client
only supports only 40 bit).

If SSL is configured correctly, then the SAP J2EE Engine’s start page appears in your Web
browser. Many Web browsers also display a lock in their footer. Select the lock with a double-click
to view the server’s certificate.

You may receive a warning “Security Alert” in the following cases:
 The SSL server certificate has expired or is invalid.
 You do not trust the CA that issued the server its certificate. (The CA’s root certificate is not
contained in your Web browser’s list of trusted CAs.)
 The host name contained in the server’s Distinguished Name does not match the host name you
used in the URL. (Like on the screenshot)

If you do receive a warning, confirm it and continue. Nevertheless, SSL still works properly.
However, we recommend correcting the problem that caused the warning. For example, if the CA’s
root certificate is not considered trusted, but you do trust this CA, then import the CA’s root
certificate into your Web browser.
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SAP J2EE Engine – SSL Scenarios
Client Certificates for Authentication
Key Storage and SSL Provider Services
Enabling SSL on SAP J2EE Engine
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Configuring the Use of Client Certificates
 Prerequisite
 The SAP J2EE Engine is enabled for SSL
 Steps for Configuring the Use of Client Certificates
1.Set the UME property ume.logon.allow_cert to true.
2.Create client key pair and certificate; Generate, Sign, and Import
CSR
3.Specify request for client certificate for specific SSL socket –
Managing Client Authentication
4.Map Client Certificate to UME User
5.Adjust the login module stacks for those applications that will
be accepting client certificates
6.Export of the generated Private Key to file (password protected)
7.Import of the Private Key to the browser personal certificates.
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1. ume.logon.allow_cert = true
Set the UME property ume.logon.allow_cert to true

Navigate to Server -> Services -> UME Provider Service

Choose ume.logon.allow_cert property and change the value to true.

Restart Web AS.
Note: You can use ConfigTool for changing the property as well.
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2. Create client key pair and certificate; handle CSR
 Check “Store Certificate”
 Create Client Certificate
and Key-Pair under
TrustedCAs View

To create the Public-Private-Key Pair go to Server Services Key Storage and click on the
view “TrustedCAs”

Press the button “Create” (under Entry)

Fill out the subject properties. You can add more properties after clicking on the empty field.

Common Name suppose to be the name or ID of the user you are creating a key-pair of (In this
case User1)

The Entry Name is just a name for identifying the key pair in the key store.

Specify Validity period; Select “RSA” as secure algorithm to use; Select “1024” as Key Length

Choose “Store Certificate” check box.

Press “Generate”

Sign the generated client key pair by a CA, to do so proceed in the same way as for signing server
certificate from CA

Choose the client Private Key -> click on “Generate CSR Request” -> export the request to a file -
> Send the file to your CA -> Import the signed response to the Key Pair
Note: You can also load a user public-key certificate, if the key is stored with either the extension .crt
(DER encoded or Base-64 encoded) or .cert (Base 64 encoded).
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4. Managing Client Authentication – 1/2

Navigate to the SSL Provider Service

Choose the Dispatcher

Select the socket that you want to configure for client certificates

Navigate to the Client Authentication tab

Choose between the options: Do not request client certificate; Request client certificate; Require
client certificate (See the next slide)

Choose the certificate from the TrustedCAs.
Note: SSL should already be activate, and the Root Server certificate installed under the Server
Identity tab
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4. Managing Client Authentication – 2/2
The server requests a certificate and the client
must send one. Also, the certificate that the
client sends must have been issued by a
trusted CA.
Require client
certificate
The server requests a certificate but the
certificate is not required. If the client has a
certificate it is sent with the request;
otherwise, the system reverts to Basic
Authentication. The server only accepts
certificates that have been issued by a trusted
CA.
Request client
certificate
The system does not require the client to give
a client certificate during the handshake,
although the client can provide it.
Do not request
client certificate
DescriptionOption
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4. Map Client Certificate to UME user – 1/2
The generated Client certificate should be bound to UME user.

In the Visual Administrator, choose Security Provider.

Choose the User Management tab and navigate to the user you want to bind certificate. (Or just
create new one in the desired user group - in this case User1 created with Administrator role under
the Administrators group)
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4. Map Client Certificate to UME user – 2/2
The generated Client certificate should be bound to UME user.

In the Visual Administrator, choose Security Provider.

Choose the User Management tab and navigate to the user you want to bind certificate. (Or just
create new one in the desired user group - in this case User1 created with Administrator role under
the Administrators group)

Press the pencil icon (for activating edit mode)

Press the Add button under the Certificates section, a new window Add Certificates appear.

Navigate to the TrustedCAs store, and choose the client certificate.
Note: You can add more than one certificate with different privileges to one and same user.
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5. Adjust the applications’ login module stacks – 1/3

In the Visual Administrator, choose Security Provider.

Choose the User Management tab and choose Policy Configurations.

Navigate to the component you want to enable for accepting Client Certificates (In this case: the
System Information application – with Basic Authentication Login Module by default)

Choose the Authentication tab

Press the Pencil icon to activate edit mode.

Click on Add New icon…
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5. Adjust the applications’ login module stacks – 2/3

In the Visual Administrator, choose Security Provider.

Choose the User Management tab and choose Policy Configurations.

Navigate to the component you want to enable for accepting Client Certificates (In this case: the
System Information application – with Basic Authentication Login Module by default)

Choose the Authentication tab

Press the Pencil icon to activate edit mode.

Click on Add New icon

On the new opened window “Available Login Modules” choose the “ClientCertLoginModule” and
click OK, The Client Certificate Login Module appear in the Component Login Modules.

Choose the ClientCErtLoginModule and press Modify button.

Specify the Login Module Position and the Flag Priority.

Minimize the priority of the default login module – BasicPassword

You can also use the predefined Authentication Templates.
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5. Adjust the applications’ login module stacks – 3/3

Choose the Security roles tab and manage the users, roles, groups allowed to access this application.

Programmatic secure roles, credentials may required.
Note: In this case this is no need to maintain security roles as User1 belongs to the Administrator
group.
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6. Export of the generated Private Key to file

To export the Client Public-Private-Key Pair go to Server Services Key Storage and click on
the view “TrustedCAs”

Navigate to the generated and signed from a CA private key pair -> Click ‘Export” -> choose
PKCS#12 (p12) as cryptography standard -> specify “password” -> press “OK”

The exported key, the password used to generate the key, and the public CA certificate used for
signing the client certificate (if available) should be provided to the user in secure manner.
Note: The server can export Private Key in Information Syntax Standard (PKCS) #8 and #12, please
consider that different Web Browsers support different cryptography standards.
 PKCS #12 - Personal Information Exchange: specifies a portable format for storing or
transporting a user's private keys, certificates, miscellaneous secrets, etc. (This format preserves
the chain of certification authorities)
 PKCS #8 - describes a format for private key information. This information includes a private key
for some public-key algorithm, and optionally a set of attributes. (Doesn’t preserve the chain of
CAs, you’ll need to provide all chained X.509 CAs certificates during export)
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7. Import private key into browser – 1/2

The described process is for MS Internet Explorer.

Go to: Tools -> Internet Options -> Content -> Certificates -> Personal -> Import -> Navigate to the
PKCS#12 file -> Provide the password (Specified during key export)
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7. Import private key into browser – 2/2 optional
(If provided) Install the trusted public
certificate under the
Trusted Root Certification Authorities store

To enable trust to this client certificate you can install the “root” certificate (if provided from your
CA) used to sign the client certificate under the “Trusted Root Certification Authorities” store

If the client certificate is self signed, just install it again in the trusted certificates store.
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Objectives
You should now be able to:
 Understand the different SAP J2EE Engine SSL
scenarios
 Use the Key Storage and the SSL Provider Services
 Configure SAP J2EE Engine for using SSL
 Configure the use of client certificates for
authentication
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Information sources
http://service.sap.com/security
http://sdn.sap.corp
-> Web AS -> Security