Q 22/5 "Setting up a low cost sustainable

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Dec 10, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Q 23/5 “Using ICTs to enable countries to adapt to
climate change”



Q 22/5 "Setting up a low cost sustainable
telecommunication infrastructure for rural
communications in developing countries"

Ahmed Zeddam (Chair)

Dave Faulkner

(Climate Associates Ltd, UK)

Franz Zichy (US Department of State)

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Note to Japanese Colleagues


We would like to add our sympathy to you
and your families as you experience
various hardships arising from the recent
earthquake


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Agenda


Introduction to the meeting
-
Ahmed Zeddam


Introduction to the new Question 23/5 "Using ICTs
to enable countries to adapt to climate change"
-
Dave Faulkner


Introduction to the new Question 22/5 "Setting up a
low cost sustainable telecommunication
infrastructure for rural communications in
developing countries"
-
Franz Zichy


Coordination and contributions
-
Ahmed Zeddam


Future meetings (SG5 and this JCA)
-
Ahmed
Zeddam


AOB


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Introduction to this online meeting,




SG5 (and this JCA) Chairman


Ahmed Zeddam (France Telecom
-
Orange)

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What are the aims of this
meeting?


Introduce new Questions 22 and 23


Provide stimulation for contributions on
the new topics


Especially where gaps in standards are
identified

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Motivation for the new Questions


The Conference of the Parties of the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in
December 2007 (COP
-
13) developed the Bali Action Plan.


Among its actions it calls for
-


enhanced action on adaptation, taking into account the needs of
developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the
adverse effects of climate change;


The ITU is well placed to help countries to implement the
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
(UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol through the use of ICTs


It is proposed to work with UNFCCC to ensure that the right policy and
technical frameworks are in place to move towards a low carbon
economy and so that ICT’s potential to adapt to climate change is
maximised.


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What is in the new Question 23/5?


“Using ICTs to enable countries to adapt
to climate change”



Acting Rapporteur
-


Dave Faulkner (Climate Associates Ltd)

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Aims

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The aim of the new Question is to address this area of the Bali Action
Plan: ‘
enhanced action on adaptation’



This will provide
handbooks

on best practices and recommendations, if
necessary, to help developing countries to deal with the issues
concerned with adaptation to climate change.


It will work closely with Q18/5 activity on methodology and
standardise
the technologies

themselves in the appropriate SGs and with new
question ITU
-
D Q24/2.

http://www.itu.int/ITU
-
T/studygroups/com05/sg5
-
q23.html

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Study Items include but are not limited to
#1


What are the standardisation requirements for ICTs to enable
adaptation to climate change?


How can ICTs, in particular fibre submarine cable networks, be
used more effectively to monitor the global
environment/ecosystem and what new standards are required?


How can ICT standards be used and adapted to more effectively
disseminate information on both natural and man
-
made
disasters (early warning) to communities (e.g. supporting
GDACS under the UN framework?

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http://www.itu.int/ITU
-
T/studygroups/com05/sg5
-
q23.html

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Study Items include but are not limited to
#2


Identifying if new ICT standards are needed to address food
security, water transportation and supply, in close collaboration
with D sector.


How can ICT standards better enable water management under
accelerating climate change conditions to improve the overall
efficiency of water use, leading to a more sustainable use of
water resources?


What ICT standards need to be used or developed to
disseminate information to enable farmers to better forecast
crop yields and production?

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http://www.itu.int/ITU
-
T/studygroups/com05/sg5
-
q23.html

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Study Items include but are not limited to
#3


How can ICTs be used to monitor deforestation and forest degradation
and what standards are available or need development?


How can ICTs be used to reduce CO2e emissions by better waste
management through a ‘cradle to cradle’, i.e. ‘closed loop’, approach
whereby more efficient recycling means fewer raw materials need to be
mined?


What standards are needed for ICTs to be used to increase energy
supply efficiency and maximize the use of renewable sources?


How can ICTs be used in education and to raise awareness on climate
change and what standards development is required?


What e
-
health standards are needed for more effective healthcare, as
diseases spread due to changing climatic conditions, and to ensure
interoperability?

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http://www.itu.int/ITU
-
T/studygroups/com05/sg5
-
q23.html

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Tasks


Establish handbooks on practical examples and
best practices of ICT standards, and if necessary
Recommendations, to support adaptation to
climate change.


Produce a ‘roadmap’ to identify the types of ICT
technologies and standards available, propose
improvements and facilitate more effective use of
these


Coordinate with other SGs, ITU
-
R, ITU
-
D and other
bodies on a regular basis to collaborate effectively

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http://www.itu.int/ITU
-
T/studygroups/com05/sg5
-
q23.html

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Next


The following slides illustrate aspects of
adaptation which could lead to contributions


Monitoring and climate forecasts


Adaptation


Service Types


Fixed v mobile benefits


Which Wireless Systems are we interested in?


Which Devices are we interested in?


GDACS
-
Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System


Identification of gaps in standards is a key
consideration


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Climate change adaptation
Definition


“Climate change adaptation is acting to tolerate the effects
of global warming”[1]


It consists of initiatives and measures to reduce the
vulnerability of natural and human systems against actual or
expected climate change effects



However the capacity and potential for human systems to
adapt (called adaptive capacity) is unevenly distributed
across different regions and populations [2]


Adaptation will be more difficult for larger extremes and higher
rates of climate change

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[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_change_mitigation

[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adaptation_to_global_warming


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Climate Monitoring


Provides climate data to enable scientific
theories to be verified and allows predictions
to be made by climate modellers


Often linked with data gathering for
weather
forecasting
and air traffic control

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http://www.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/star/meeting_CMS2010.php

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What is the predicted

temperature change?

-
varies with region and location


One example cited
here
-
West Africa


The bars at the end
of the orange
envelope represent
the range of
projected changes
for 2091 to 2100


Circa 2007 (always
check for latest
results from
climate modellers)

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http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment
-
report/ar4/wg1/ar4
-
wg1
-
chapter11.pdf

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Sea Level Rise This
Century


IPCC 4
th

assessment report
prediction [1]


0.18
-
0.59m


“Models of glacier mass balance
(the difference between melting and
accumulation of snow and ice on a
glacier) give a theoretical maximum
value for sea level rise in the
current century of 2 metres (and a
"more plausible" one of 0.8 metres),
based on limitations on how quickly
glaciers can melt [2,3].

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[1] http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment
-
report/ar4/wg2/ar4
-
wg2
-
chapter6.pdf

[2] http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/321/5894/1340

[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Current_sea_level_rise

[4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:NOAA_sea_level_trend_1993_2010.png

[4]

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Sea Level Fluctuations


Combinations of factors can lead


to flood disaster


Land mass sink


Low atmospheric pressure*


Storm surge*


Wave and tidal peak*


Earthquake and tsunami


Storm run off*


*

= increased risk with global
warming

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sea_level

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Climate Monitoring:
Examples


Satellite observations [1,2,3]


Visible and in infrared



Ground based


Remote Automated Weather Stations [4,5]


May be added to cellphone base stations



Submarine systems


How can we adapt telecommunications
systems for this?


See ITU
-
T Technology Watch Report [6]


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[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weather_satellite

[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Current_sea_level_rise

[3] http://www.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/star/meeting_CMS2010.php

[4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Remote_Automated_Weather_Station

[5] http://raws.fam.nwcg.gov/raws101.html

[6] http://www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu
-
t/oth/23/01/T23010000110001PDFE.pdf

commons.wikimedia.org/.../File:GOES
-
12_satellite_image_of_Hurricane_Katrina.jpg

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Climate Monitoring

Where are improvements needed?
Example
-

Africa


Africa has a network eight times below the WMO minimum
recommended standard, and less than 200 automatic weather
stations that meet WMO observation requirements


Mobile networks provide the necessary connectivity, power and
security to sustain the weather equipment.


Up to 5,000 automatic weather stations are to be deployed at cellular sites across
Africa, where less than 300 are reporting today.


This will increase dissemination of weather information via mobile phones to
users and communities, including remote farmers and fishermen


The initial deployment, already begun in Zain networks, focuses on the area
around Lake Victoria in Kenya, United Republic of Tanzania and Uganda. The first
19 automatic weather stations installed will double the weather monitoring
capacity of the Lake region

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www.wmo.int/pages/mediacentre/press_releases/pr_855_en.html

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Priorities for Adaptation #1

Will climate change put these more at risk?


Drinking water supply


Food supply


Shelter


Health (diseases)


Transport infrastructure (boat, rail, road, air)



Robust communications services are vital to
maintain these services

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Priorities for Adaptation #2

Ubiquitous ICT can reduce the risk to local populations


Food and water preparedness for possible disaster [1]


Availability of advice online


Drinking water supply


Control of water levels (close/open sluice gates etc)


Blocked drains (alert and action to unblock)


Food supply


Monitoring and control of agricultural land and processes


Flood/drought: request to send to food from nearest store to remote
locations


Shelter


Disaster: request to provide tents and other necessities


Health (diseases)


Request advice/medications by phone, text or email


Transport infrastructure (boat, rail, road, air)


Updates on state of roads, bridges, railways during flood run off

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[1] http://www.state.nj.us/njoem/preparedness_foodwater.html

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ICT and Food Security

Example of a wireless network scheme to
monitor agricultural parameters

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[1] ITU
-
T Technology Watch Report “ICTs and Food Security”

http://www.itu.int/oth/T230100000B/en

[2] http://commonsense.epfl.ch/

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Next


Establishing the ICT service requirements
for Adaptation to Climate Change..


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Adaptation with Broadcast Services



Radio and TV services



Early warning and Emergency advice


Severe weather


Flood risk


Evacuation procedure


Education


Advantage


Cheap country
-
wide coverage


Big limitation


No signalling or alerts


Limited use at night


One way communication



(except with private mobile radio, citizen’s band, etc)


Revert to sirens or loud hailers etc


Broadcast text messages would be better

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Establishing the ICT requirements for Adaptation to Climate Change

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Adaptation with Voice Services



Interactive voice services (network may be fixed or
mobile)


Passing on local conditions (to broadcaster)


Request for help


Planning movement of water, food, people


Advantage


Specific actions can be coordinated


Big limitation


Coverage and powering


Infrastructure build required

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Establishing the ICT requirements for Adaptation to Climate Change

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Adaptation with Text Services



Mobile networks (mostly)


Passing on local conditions (to broadcaster)


Request for help


Planning movement of water, food, people


Advantages


Cheaper services (than voice and broadband)


Message can be re
-
read


Non intrusive (does not disrupt recipient)


Alert signal is sent


Limitations


Coverage


Powering


Infrastructure build required

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Establishing the ICT requirements for Adaptation to Climate Change

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Adaptation with Broadband Services



Fixed or Mobile Networks can be broadband enabled


Access to very detailed information from internet


Access to email etc


Video services via Skype etc


Applications include


Passing on local conditions (to broadcaster)


Request for help


Planning movement of water, food, people


New applications can be quickly devised


Advantages


Can be always on


Messages can be stored, re
-
read and forwarded


Non intrusive (does not disrupt recipient)


Alert signal possible


Laptops or PDAs may be used for access


Limitations


Cost of service


Coverage (may require broadband enabling)


Powering


Infrastructure build required

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Establishing the ICT requirements for Adaptation to Climate Change

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Are special requirements

needed for adaptation to CC?


Adaptation builds on ‘intended use’ of
telecommunications networks which is to enable
business and social communications


Adaptation is an ‘extra consideration’ to the basic services


Text, voice and broadband


Some services may need to be designed and built to
operate in different modes when disaster strikes


Saving power


Preventing overload


Increasing security


Increased resilience to outage


Broadcasting text or voice services


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Establishing the ICT requirements for Adaptation to Climate Change

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Fixed versus mobile

Fixed


Exchange power for
telephony provided


ADSL may be added to
existing lines


Unlimited bandwidth
with fibre


Costly infrastructure
needed to each user


Cannot be everywhere



Flood and wind risk

Mobile


Local power (batteries)
needed to make calls


2/3G compatible systems
available


Bandwidth limited by cell
size /spectrum availability


Infrastructure requires
less trenching (cheaper)


Can be anywhere (subject
to radio coverage)


Less Flood and wind risk

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Establishing the ICT requirements for Adaptation to Climate Change

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What needs to be done at project
level
-
(Pre Standards)?


Run feasibility projects to serve your local or
national community to help minimise the risks due
to climate change


This should (preferably) include an ICT aspect and a
business case


A small project with scaling
-
up potential is preferred


Multiply up the benefits


Communicate your results worldwide


Input to
international standards
where possible

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Establishing the ICT requirements for Adaptation to Climate Change

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Adaptation to Climate Change

Which wireless systems are we interested in?


Satellite


Monitoring weather/climate on national or international scale and early
warning of extent of disasters


Interactive: providing ubiquitous coverage for news media


Land based interactive


Private Mobile Radio (
PMR
) to mobilise emergency services


Land based broadcast


News updates


Land based monitoring


Weather stations


Cellular: providing detailed information (internet/websites)


Person to person (text and voice calls)


Implementing community action plans


This is the topic identified in Question 22/5….

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Establishing the ICT requirements for Adaptation to Climate Change

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Adaptation to Climate change

Which ICT devices are we interested in?


Mainframes


Providing ever more sophisticated climate models


Computing power has doubled every 18 months


Data centres


Acting as host servers to allow information to be exchanged


Personal Computers


Accessing internet to gain information about climate change and forecasts


Collecting, managing and uploading local environmental data


Handheld devices (e.g. based on mobile phones)


Primary voice communications and text messages


Global positioning system is included in latest generation


Photographs and video streaming/upload possible


Allow a multiplicity of new software applications to be downloaded


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Establishing the ICT requirements for Adaptation to Climate Change

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Adaptation to Climate Change

Software platforms


Ideally a single platform for mobile broadband would be
standardised so that all mobiles could receive and
transmit equally via the internet


E.g. Android may be an example of this [1]


a Linux
-
based platform from the Open Handset Alliance


Application programming is primarily done in Java.


Performance critical code can be written in C, C++ or other native code
languages

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[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_application_development

Establishing the ICT requirements for Adaptation to Climate Change

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The Global Disaster Alert and
Coordination System (GDACS)


“A cooperation framework under the United Nations umbrella to


consolidate and strengthen the network of providers and users of disaster
information worldwide


provide reliable and accurate alerts and impact estimations after sudden
-
onset
disasters and to


improve the cooperation of international responders in the immediate
aftermath..


To date, GDACS has more than 9000 and has become an integral part of
international disaster response to sudden
-
onset disasters.


“Provides near real
-
time alerts about natural disasters around the world and
tools to facilitate response coordination, including media monitoring, map
catalogues..”


Flood, earthquake, cyclone, tsunami, volcano


Receive instant email, SMS or fax alerts in case an earthquake or tsunami
occurs with a potential for humanitarian disaster.


Has already standardised the communications protocols RSS and
GLIDE


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Next


Franz Zichy will introduce the new
Question 22/5

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New Question 22/5


“Setting up a low cost sustainable
telecommunication infrastructure for rural
communications in developing countries”



Acting Rapporteur


Franz Zichy (US Department of State)


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Motivation


Current mobile network systems do not meet the
requirements for rural/remote deployment in
developing countries


Current mobile network systems designed for
urban area deployment


Infrastructure


Power


Shelter


Accessibility


Manpower skills to operate


Logistics

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http://www.itu.int/ITU
-
T/studygroups/com05/sg5
-
q22.html

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Challenges


Challenges to deploying Telecommunication infrastructure
in rural/remote areas in developing nations are:


Access to electricity.


Expense of power backup.


Terrain.


Accessibility and transportation.


Lack of skilled manpower.


Installation and maintenance of networks.


Operating costs high.


Average revenue per user low.


Population sparse and scattered.


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http://www.itu.int/ITU
-
T/studygroups/com05/sg5
-
q22.html

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Study Items Include:


Collect, assess, and combine the challenges faced by developing
countries in setting up a low cost sustainable telecommunication
infrastructure in rural areas.


Develop requirements for rural mobile network system specifically
addressing such identified challenges of rural deployment, to
include


Planning, Analysis, Design, implement, maintenance (SDLC)


Study the generic system requirements (independent of chosen
Radio transmission technology) for rural mobile networks systems


An outlook towards deployment architecture, power
consumption, power source, packaging, operation &
maintenance etc.

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http://www.itu.int/ITU
-
T/studygroups/com05/sg5
-
q22.html

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Tasks


Develop guidance:


To set up sustainable telecommunication infrastructure in
rural/remote areas of developing countries.


With the objective to finding energy efficient means to
power mobile network systems for deployment of
telecommunication infrastructure in areas without access
to electricity.


To improve resilience of mobile networks during a
disaster (e.g. hurricane, tropical storm, etc).


Guidance in the form of a Handbook would contain best
practices and recommendations.


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Understand Needs


Establishing the requirements for Rural
Communications


Understand the needs of rural areas in
developing countries


Taking into consideration:


National, regional and global standards and policies


Available financial and manpower resources


Prevailing material and labor costs


The purchasing power of the targeted consumer


The capability of potential users, the 'information
culture' of the society, and topography and weather of
these countries


Action plans needed with partnerships at community
level to support roll
-
out and educational aspects



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Technical Requirements


Understanding technical requirements


Base stations may be remotely located


May require wind, solar, or other alternative green energy
source.


Equipment built to sustain extreme weather
(weatherproofing)


Ease of service by non
-
technical personnel


Ubiquitous coverage


Add
-
ons such as climate monitoring


Wide range of mobile, portable and fixed devices
supported


Resilient and robust network design


Low cost

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Options for Resilience


Alternative routing to base stations


E.g. point to point radio (2 links) and/or fibre


Alternative power sources at base station


Grid, diesel, wind, solar, battery, wood gas


Alternative access


Fixed (copper and/or fibre) and wireless


IP routing at nodes


Seeks alternative paths automatically

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Next


Coordination Activities and
Summary of what contributions
are needed



SG5 (and this JCA) Chairman


Ahmed Zeddam (France Telecom
-
Orange)

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Q22 Coordination Requirements

“Setting up a low cost sustainable telecommunication
infrastructure for rural communications in developing
countries”




ITU
-
T SGs 3, 5, 6, 15, 19 and 23/5


ITU
-
D SG 2 and ITU
-
R SGs


Standardization bodies, forums and consortia:


ISO, IEC, ETSI , GSMA,


Others


Need to consider best practice from other entities

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Work underway in ITU
-
D



ITU
-
T SG 5 encouraged to take advantage of resources
produced in ITU
-
D


Case study libraries


http://www.itu.int/ITU
-
D/study_groups/SGP_2006
-
2010/events/Case_Library/index.asp


ITU
-
D Questions


Question 10
-
3/2, Telecommunications/ICT for rural and
remote areas


Question 22
-
1/2, Utilization of telecommunications/ICTs
for disaster preparedness, mitigation and response


Question 25/2, Access technology for broadband
telecommunications including IMT, for developing
countries


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Need for coordination in Q22:

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Q23 Coordination Requirements

“Using ICTs to enable Countries to Adapt to Climate Change”


ITU
-
T SGs 9, 13, 15 and 16


ITU
-
D and ITU
-
R SGs


Standardization bodies, forums and consortia:


ISO, ETSI ,UNFCCC, UNEP, FAO, UN
-
REDD Programme
(avoiding forest degradation), UN
-
Water and UN
-
Habitat on
sustainable water supplies,


Cooperation with UNFCCC


is particularly important for the assessment of the
environmental impacts including ICT projects and the
assessment of the environmental impacts of ICT in countries
or groups of countries


Any Others?


Need to consider best practice from elsewhere

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Work underway in ITU
-
D



ITU
-
T SG 5 encouraged to take advantage of resources
produced in ITU
-
D


ITU
-
D Questions
-

as for Q22 plus


Question 7
-
3/1, Implementation of universal access to
broadband services


Question 19
-
2/1, Implementation of IP telecommunication
services in developing countries


Question 9
-
3/2, Identification of study topics in the
ITU

T
and
ITU
-
R study groups which are of particular interest to
developing countries


Question 24/2, Question on
ICT

and climate change


International standards may be required in some of these
topic areas


These could be produced in Q23/5

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Need for coordination in Q23 (Adaptation):

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Summary of issues to consider in
Contributions to Q22

Rural Communications


Examples of potential new standards (handbooks)


Power supply (affordability and reliability)


Providing power and power backup


Avoiding environmental hazards


How to cope with


Difficult terrain


Access and transportation challenges


Wireless signal transmissions


Lack of skilled manpower to install and maintain networks


Sparsely populated and scattered population clusters


Measures designed to


Reduce cost


Improve availability and reliability


Enable weather monitoring at low additional cost


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Summary of issues to consider in
contributions on Q23 (Adaptation)


What new standards (handbooks) are needed in the areas of


ICTs to enable adaptation to climate change


Submarine cable networks to monitor the global
environment/ecosystem


ICTs to disseminate information on natural and man
-
made
disasters


Food security, water transportation, water management and supply


Dissemination of information to enable farmers to better forecast
crop yields and production


Monitoring deforestation and forest degradation


Waste management reducing raw materials and CO2


Energy supply and use of renewable sources


Education and raising awareness on climate change


E
-
health as diseases spread due climate change




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Final Comments


Next meeting of ITU
-
SG5 is


27 April
-
05 May 2011 Geneva


For ITU
-
T members and invited guests/observers


Will appoint Rapporteurs and Associate Rapporteurs for
Q22 and Q23 at this meeting


Next meeting of this JCA is


10:00
-
13:00, 6 May, Geneva and online


Open to all


Please contribute to the new (and existing)
questions


Consider the gaps in standards as top priority


Deadline 14 April (for 27
th

April meeting)


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