Genetic Engineering-Chp

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Dec 11, 2012 (4 years and 6 months ago)

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CP Biology

Pratt


1

Genetic Engineering Test Review (Chp. 9)


Test Information



50 questions worth ______ pts



Diagrams: cloning, Recombinant DNA technology, gel electrophoresis, DNA fingerprinting
patterns, mitosis and/or meiosis


Section 9.1 & 9.3

1.

What is a function of gel e
lectrophoresis?

2.

What does analyzing DNA by gel electrophoresis allow
scientist to do?

3.

Enzymes that cut DNA into fragments also create exposed
nucleotides in the DNA fragment called
___________________

4.

Why does DNA finger printing work and why is used in
f
orensics?

5.

If two DNA samples showed an identical pattern and thickness of bands produced by gel electrophoresis, what
does this tell you about the samples?

6.

Study the process of producing a DNA fingerprint. Analyze the diagram below. What is occurring in e
ach
lettered phase and what is each phase called is applicable?

7.

What do the bands in letter B consist of?

8.

Why are the bands moving toward the positive side of the gel?


9.

On an electrophoresis gel, band B is closer to the positive end of the gel than is band

A. What does that mean
about the 2 samples? How are they different?

10.

Explain the size/mass of the DNA fragments in “C”

11.

Explain the size/mass of the DNA fragments in “D” and how compare/contrast with “C”

12.

Be able to read a fingerprint and example the differ
ences in the bands (i.e. size, mass of the fragments, etc.)



Section 9.2

13.

What is PCR? What does it stand for, and how is it used and why?

14.

How much DNA is needed to perform PCR?

15.

How is PCR like the “S” phase of Interphase or DNA synthesis?

16.

List the follo
wing ingredients that are needed in PCR techniques:


Section 9.4


17.

The process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms is
called ______________________ (2 words)

18.

A DNA molecule produced by combining DNA from different sources is
known as
________________________

19.

Enzymes that cut DNA into fragments also create exposed nucleotides in the
DNA fragment called ___________________

20.

Bacteria often contain small circular molecules known as ___________

21.

What are sticky ends? How are

they created?

22.

Discuss how these terms are related to one another and which one does not
belong? (plasmid, transformed bacterium, foreign gene, recombinant DNA)

23.

What is a transgenic organism?

24.

Study the diagram of recombinant technology on the right. Disc
uss what is
occurring in each numbered event (1
-
5):…see warm
-
up


CP Biology

Pratt


2

25.

Study the diagram:

When is restriction enzyme used? Which step produces a recombinant plasmid? When
does transformation occur?

26.

A gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that ca
rry a plasmid containing foreign DNA from those that
don’t is called a(an) ____________________________

27.

What is a plasmid?

28.

What is recombinant DNA?

29.

List some uses of genetic engineering:

30.

What does it involve??

31.

What have been some advantages of using genet
ic engineering in agriculture?

32.

What have been some advantages of using genetic engineering in livestock?

33.

What have been some advantages of using genetic engineering in microorganisms?

34.

What is an advantage of using transgenic bacteria to produce human prote
ins such as insulin and Human Growth
Hormone?

35.

Who is Ian Wilmut and what did he do?

36.

Explain why Dolly was a clone?

37.

What kind of techniques do scientists use to make
transgenic organisms?

38.

List the steps taken to produce transgenic bacteria that
produce hum
an insulin:

39.

Study the cloning diagram to the right. Be able to
identify each event and the final results. Which sheep
are identical? Which one is the clone? Etc.







Section 9.5 & 9.6

40.

What is the purpose of gene therapy?

41.

What is a genome?

42.

What are the

goals of the Human Genome Project?

43.

How many of these goals have been completed?

44.

What is genetic screening and what is the purpose

45.

Be able to read a DNA profile of a child and determine which DNA sample comes from his parents. (50/50
banding patterns)…1/2

of the child’s bands must come from mom and the other bands must come from dad.


Review Material:

46.

Monhybrid genetics crosses

47.

Draw a cell in prophase. Metaphase, anaphase and telophase

48.

What is the function of the nucleus?

49.

A germ cell contains 4 chromosomes
, how many cells would the gamete contain?

50.

Which organelle converts sugars into energy?

51.

Living cells are continuously making a variety of proteins. This process occurs on what organelle?

52.

A plant cell is placed in a hypotonic solution. What will happen to
the plant cell?

53.

Review the differences and similarities between mitosis and meiosis?

54.

Explain the structure of DNA…What is on the outside, and what is found on the inside?