Network Protocols

tastefulsaintregisNetworking and Communications

Oct 27, 2013 (4 years and 12 days ago)

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Network Protocols

IP History

In May 1974, the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers or the IEEE
published a paper entitled "A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication.”

It involved a inter networking protocol for sharing resources using packet
switching among network nodes.

It used a center control component which was the Transmission Control Program. That
was later divided into a modular consisting of the Transmission Control Protocol or TCP at
the transport layer and the Internet Protocol at the network layer. It became known as
Internet protocol suite and informally as TCP/IP.

Historically, IP was the connectionless datagram service in the original
Transmission Control Program introduced by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn.

IP How it works

An Internet Protocol address or IP address, is a numerical label assigned to each device
participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.

IP, as the primary protocol in the Internet layer of the Internet protocol suite, has the task
of delivering packets from the source host to the destination host solely based on the IP
addresses.

The Internet Protocol defines the format of packets and provides an addressing system
that has two functions. 1) identifying hosts 2) providing a logical location service.

Each packet has two components a header and a payload. The IP header is tagged with the
source IP address, the destination IP address, and other meta
-
data needed to route and
deliver the packet. The payload is the data that is transported.

IP How it Works

IP addressing entails the assignment of IP addresses and associated parameters to
host interfaces.

The space is divided into networks and subnetworks, involving the designation of
network or routing prefixes.

IP routing is performed by routers, which transport packets across network boundaries.
Routers communicate with one another via specially designed routing protocols.

IPX Brief History

The IPX/SPXM protocol stack is supported by Novell's NetWare network operating
system. Because of Netware's popularity through the late 1980s into the mid
-
1990s, IPX became a popular internetworking protocol. Novell derived IPX from
Xerox Network Systems' IDP.

IPX did not scale enough for large networks such as the internet and IPX usage
decreased as the boom of the Internet made TCP/IP nearly universal.

Computers and networks can run multiple network protocols, so almost all IPX sites will be
running TCP/IP as well to allow for Internet connectivity.

IPX


Logical networks are assigned a unique 32
-
bit address


Hosts have a 48
-
bit node address which by default is set to the network interface card's
MAC address. The node address is appended to the network address to create a unique
identifier for the host on the network.


Network number 00:00:00:00 means current
network

NetBEUI History

In 1985, IBM went forward with the token ring network scheme and a NetBIOS emulator
was produced to allow NetBIOS
-
aware applications from the PC
-
Network era to work
over this new design.

This emulator, named NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI), expanded the base
NetBIOS API with, among other things, the ability to deal with the greater node capacity of
token ring.

There is a lot of confusion between the names NetBIOS and NetBEUI. NetBEUI originated
strictly as the nickname for IBM's enhanced 1985 NetBIOS emulator for token ring.

The name NetBEUI should have died there, considering that at the time, the NetBIOS
efforts by other companies were known simply as NetBIOS regardless of whether they
incorporated the API extensions found in that emulator.

NetBEUI

NetBEUI came installed with the earlier versions of Windows, such as Windows 98 and 95,
Windows ME and Windows 2000. Before home networks became advanced enough to use
routers, computers connected together using hubs. NetBEUI allowed a user to enter a user
-
friendly computer name into the Windows browser and map network drives and view shared
folders.


NetBEUI does not route across the network. NetBEUI broadcasts a signal to all computers
on the network. This is inefficient, since it takes up more bandwidth than using a router to
direct the signal to the right computer. For this reason, some administrators remove the
NetBEUI protocol from internal network computers to free up network bandwidth
resources.


Network Protocols List

Bluetooth protocols

Fibre Channel network protocols

Internet Protocol Suite or TCP/IP model or TCP/IP stack

OSI protocols

Routing protocols

List of IP protocol numbers

Yahoo! Messenger Protocol, underlying protocol used by the Yahoo messenger

RTPS protocol, an interoperability protocol

SSH Secure Shell

FTP File Transfer Protocol

SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

Telnet Telephone Network

HTTP Hyper Text Transfer Protocol

HTTPS Secure Hyper Text Transfer Protocol

SFTP Secure File Transfer Protocol

SSL Secure Socket Layer

TLS Transport Layer Security

POP post office protocol

E6 Ethernet globalization protocols

Network Protocol Stacks

ARCNET

AppleTalk

ATM

Bluetooth

DECnet

Ethernet

FDDI

Frame relay

HIPPI

IEEE 1394 aka FireWire, iLink

IEEE 802.11 aka Wireless LAN (Wi
-
Fi
certification)

IEEE
-
488

Internet protocol suite

IPX

Myrinet

OSI protocol suite

QsNet

RS
-
232

SPX

System Network Architecture

Token ring

USB

X.25 protocol suite

E6

Internet protocol suite:

Application layer

DHCP DHCPv6 DNS FTP HTTP IMAP IRC LDAP MGCP NNTP BGP NTP
POP RPC RTP RTSP RIP SIP SMTP SNMP SOCKS SSH Telnet TLS/SSL
XMPP

Transport layer

TCP UDP DCCP SCTP RSVP

Internet layer

IP IPv4 IPv6 ICMP ICMPv6 ECN IGMP IPsec

Link layer

ARP/InARP NDP OSPF Tunnels L2TP PPP Media access control (Ethernet DSL
ISDN FDDI)