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Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Chapter 07


Managing Systems

Development

Slide 07.
1

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Learning outcomes

After reading this chapter, you will be able to:


Identify the typical stages in an information
systems project;


Identify the risks associated with typical
phases of a project;


Understand approaches used by project
managers to control projects.


Slide 07.
2

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Management issues

Typical questions facing managers related to

this topic:


How can we avoid the high reported failure
rates for IS implementations?


Which specific risks are related to
management of information management
projects?

Slide 07.
3

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Project failure examples

Project

Application

Project issue

Inland
-
Revenue


EDS IT
outsourcing

IT services
originally
provided by IT
department of
2,250 employees,
and an annual
budget of some
£250 million

Ten year outsourcing contract started in 1994. In 2000,
estimated that new work will account for about a quarter
of the forecast £2 billion revenue spend on the EDS
contract

New NHS
Number

Consistent access
to patient records
across the country

The NHS Executive originally set a target for all NHS
systems to use the New NHS Number from April 1995.
Still not in universal use 8 years later. £26 million budget
not fully spent. A £2.3 billion project including NHS
patients’ numbers was announced in 2003

National Air
Traffic Services
Ltd (NATS)

Air traffic control
centre, Swanwick

Originally due to open in late 1996, but eventually opened
only in January 2002, some £150 million over the £475m
budget

Slide 07.
4

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Public project ‘failures’ 2

Project

Application

Project issue

Passport agency

Computerised
passport
processing
system

Large backlogs of up to 50 days in issuing passports.
£12 million additional costs due to resolving
failures. (See Case study 7.2).

Libra

Infrastructure
and application
to support
magistrates
courts.

Initial contract was for £184 million over 10.5 years.
In 2001, the contract costs escalated to of the current
proposal

£557 million over 14.5 years.

Inland Revenue

Online tax
submission
service

Only 39,000 taxpayers used the service for 1999
-
2000, compared to a target of 315,000. Will not
reach 50% submission target by 2005.

Slide 07.
5

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Project success rates


applications development

Figure 7.1
Application project success rates from Standish Group CHAOS
research


Source:
Standish Group (2001)

Slide 07.
6

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Types of IS project

1.
Operational applications
. The ‘mission critical’ systems needed to support
the manufacture, sale and servicing of products. The ticketing system of
the
Lo
-
cost Airline Company

is an example of an operational application.

2.
Information and knowledge management applications
. Systems used to
capture, store and disseminate information within an organization. These
typically include decision support systems for tactical or strategic
decision making, but they could be operational. The employee intranet at
the
Lo
-
cost Airline Company

is an example of an information.

3.
Infrastructure development
. These are projects or elements of projects
where the technology supporting applications is developed. This could
include introducing new hardware, upgrading network communications or
deployment of a new office suite. If the
Lo
-
cost Airline Company

moved
to installing Linux on all its server machines with an open source version
of its office applications such as Word processing, this would be an
example of an infrastructure development.

Slide 07.
7

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Constraints on IS project management


Figure 7.2
Constraints on IS project management

Source:

BIM

Slide 07.
8

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Success measures

A KPMG (2002) survey showed that the most

important measures of success were:


Meeting business case requirements (46%)


On
-
time delivery (21%)


Within budget delivery (9%)


Equal weighting to all three measures (24%)


Slide 07.
9

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

FAST, GOOD, CHEAP



According to product design gurus Richard Seymour
and Dick Powell, it is impossible to design a product
as clients require it i.e.


You can’t have Fast, Good and Cheap


it’s
impossible


you have to start early



You can have it




Fast and Cheap


Good and Cheap



It’s similar with projects


something or someone has
to give.

Slide 07.
10

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Different interpretations of requirements during a
systems development project


Figure 7.3
Different interpretations of requirements during a systems development
project


Source:

BIM

Slide 07.
11

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Requirements sub
-
tasks


Sub
-
tasks such as those making up a requirements
gathering phase can be ‘nested’ or ‘rolled
-
up’ to
summarise the main high
-
level tasks in the project
such as analysis and design


Slide 07.
12

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

System development options

1.
Bespoke development
. With a
bespoke development
, the
application is developed from scratch through programming of a
solution.

2.
Off
-
the
-
shelf
. In a
packaged implementation

a standard existing
system is purchased from a solution vendor and installed on
servers and clients located within an organization. Alternatively
free or low
-
cost open
-
source software (Chapter 2) may be used.
An office application or a simple accounting package is an
example of an off
-
the
-
shelf packaged implementation.

3.
Hosted solution (packaged)
. With a
hosted solution
, a standard
system is used, but it is not managed within the company, but
using a third party applications service provider or web services
approach (Chapter 2).

4.
Tailored development
. In a
tailored development
, an off
-
the
-
shelf
system or hosted solution is tailored according to an organization’s
needs. This form of project is often based on integrating
components from one or several vendors.


Slide 07.
13

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Systems development options


The Standish Group (2001) survey showed the
following breakdown amongst participants in relatively
small projects of less than six months and around 6
people:


Developed from scratch using traditional languages and
methods (33%)


Purchased application and modified (15%)


Developed from scratch using an object model (13%)


Developed some components and purchased others
(13%)


Purchased application and modified extensively (12%)


Purchased components and assembled the application
(9%)


Purchased application and performed no modifications
(5%)


Slide 07.
14

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Key project management activities

1.
Estimation
.
What

work is involved?

2.
Resource allocation. Who
will complete the work?

3.
Schedule/plan. When

will the work be completed? Following resource
allocation, the amount of time for each task can be determined
according to the availability and skills of the people assigned to the
tasks. There are two different concepts.
Effort time

is the total amount
of work that needs to occur to complete a task.
Elapsed time

indicates
how long in time (such as calendar days) the task will take and is
dependent on the number of people working on a task, and their skills.
Scheduling also involves identifying
milestones
, which mark the end
of significant stages in the project such as agreeing the requirements
specification or signoff of the complete project. Milestones usually have
clearly defined
deliverables

associated with them which are assessed
for suitability.

4.
Budgeting
.
What

is the project cost? Based on tasks and resource
allocation

5.
Monitoring and control
.
How
is the project progressing?


monitoring
involves assessing whether the project is going to plan once it has
started. Control is taking corrective action as the project deviates from
the plan.

Slide 07.
15

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Gantt chart view

Figure 7.4
A Gantt chart from Microsoft
®

project showing the task breakdown for a
simple project


Source:

Reprinted by permission from Microsoft Corporation

Slide 07.
16

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Network diagram view

Figure 7.5
A network diagram from Microsoft
®

Project

Source:

Reprinted by permission from Microsoft Corporation

Slide 07.
17

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Resource view

Figure 7.6
Resource view from Microsoft
®

Project


Source:

Reprinted by permission from Microsoft Corporation

Slide 07.
18

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

The PRINCE2 methodology process model


Figure 7.7
The PRINCE2 methodology process model


Source:

BIM

Slide 07.
19

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Soft systems methodology (SSM)


Emphasises the human involvement in
systems and models their behaviour as part of
systems analysis in a way that is
understandable by non
-
technical experts.



This technique is particularly useful for
identifying requirements from a system and
also anticipating reactions to change.


Slide 07.
20

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

7 Stages in SSM

1.
Determining the problem situation
.

2.
Defining the problem situation through Rich Pictures
.

3.
Defining the problem situation through root definitions
. CATWOE refers to:


Clients or Customers



the person(s) who benefit, or are affected by the outputs of the
system and its activities that are under consideration. The root definition also expresses the
purpose of the system for its customers.


Actors


those who carry out the activities within the system.


Transformation


the changes which take place either within or because of the system (this
lies at the heart of the root definition).


Weltanschauung or Worldview



this refers to how the system is viewed from different
individuals’ viewpoint; sometimes this term is described as assumptions made about the
system.


Owner


the person(s) to whom the system is answerable; the sponsor, controller or
someone who could cause the system to cease.


Environment


that which surrounds and influences the operation of the system but which
has no control over it.

4.
Build conceptual models
.

5.
Comparison of the conceptual models with the real world
.

6.
Identify feasible and desirable changes
.

7.
Recommendations

for taking action to improve the problem situation are defined which
suggest how the changes from step 6 will be implemented.


Slide 07.
21

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

The waterfall model of systems development

Figure 7.8
The traditional ‘waterfall model’ of information systems development


Source:

BIM

Slide 07.
22

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Problems with the waterfall development approach

1.
Limited flexibility for changed requirements
.

2.

Disconnect between development team and
users in the business
.

3.
Protracted development times
.

Slide 07.
23

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Prototyping is…


Rapid



Prototyping is part of a systems development approach
known as
RAD


Rapid Application Development



Simple



Skeleton applications are produced as prototypes that do
not contain all the functions of a system but are a framework
which gives a good indication to users of the information available
and the look and feel of an application


Iterative



Prototypes are produced often at a frequency of once
every few days or weeks so that the comments from the last
review can be fed into the evolving system


Incremental


Each prototype incorporates the feedback from the
previous review, so each version of the application has a limited
number of new features


User centred



users are involved at all stages of development, in
describing the existing system, reviewing the prototypes and
testing the system


Slide 07.
24

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Prototyping in an IS development

Figure 7.9
The role of prototyping within an information systems development
project


Source:

Chatley (2004)

Slide 07.
25

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

DSDM



A fundamental assumption of the DSDM approach is
that nothing is built perfectly first time, but that 80% of
the solution can be produced in 20% of the time that
it would take to produce the total solution. A basic
problem with less agile approaches is the expectation
that potential system users can predict what all their
requirements will be at some distant point in time.
This problem is compounded by the fact that the
mere existence of a new system affects the users’
requirements because the methods of working have
changed
.’

Source:

www.dsdm.org


Slide 07.
26

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

The DSDM framework for systems development


Figure 7.10
The DSDM Framework for systems development


Source:

www.dsdm.org


Slide 07.
27

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

DSDM principles

I. Active user involvement is imperative.

II.The team must be empowered to make decisions.

III. The focus is on frequent delivery of products.

IV. Fitness for business purpose is the essential
criterion for acceptance of deliverables.

V. Iterative and incremental development is necessary
to converge on an accurate business solution.

VI. All changes during development are reversible.

VII. Requirements are baselined at a high level.

VIII. Testing is integrated throughout the life
-
cycle.

IX. Collaboration and cooperation between all
stakeholders is essential.

Slide 07.
28

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Using MOSCOW for control

M
ust Haves


fundamental to the project’s success
(Priority 1)

O

S
hould Haves


important but the projects success
does not rely on these (Priority 2)

C
ould Haves


can easily be left out without impacting
on the project (Priority 3)

O

W
on't Have this time round


can be left out this time
and done at a later date (Priority 4)

Slide 07.
29

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Phases and review controls within a DSDM Timebox


Figure 7.11
Phases and review controls within a DSDM Timebox


Source:

BIM

Slide 07.
30

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Categories of project risk


Figure 7.12
Categories of project risk

Source:

BIM

Slide 07.
31

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Typical risks for IS projects and recommended
solutions


Figure 7.13
Typical risks for IS projects and recommended solutions


Source:

UK Office of Government Commerce ‘Why projects fail guide’. www.ogc.gov.uk/sdtoolkit/reference/

ogc
-
library/bpbriefings/it
-
projects.pdf

Slide 07.
32
a

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Typical risks for IS projects and recommended
solutions


Figure 7.13
Typical risks for IS projects and recommended solutions


Source:

UK Office of Government Commerce ‘Why projects fail guide’. www.ogc.gov.uk/sdtoolkit/reference/

ogc
-
library/bpbriefings/it
-
projects.pdf

Slide 07.32b

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Example of risk management in practice


Risk: Lack of co
-
operation and buy
-
in by clinicians and other
stakeholders to objectives of investment


Solution
: Ensure full involvement of interested parties. Also the
Department of Health will provide clear leadership



Risk: Services are not affordable


Solution
: Scope the programme accordingly



Risk: Individual organizations within the NHS act unilaterally


Solution
: Clear leadership and set targets through performance
management



Risk: Shortage of required local skills


Solution
: Minimise by transferring risk to private sector partners,
identifying high
-
calibre staff within the NHS and ring
-
fence
required staff and skills

Slide 07.33

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Factors in successful projects

Success factor

Ranking

Executive support

18

User involvement

16

Experienced project manager

14

Clear business objectives

12

Minimized scope

10

Standard software infrastructure

8

Firm basic requirements

6

Formal methodology

6

Reliable estimates

5

Other criteria

5

Slide 07.34

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

The initiation phase


The
initiation

or
startup phase

is the first
phase in an information systems development
project.



Its aims are to evaluate whether the project is
feasible and prepare a project plan.

Slide 07.35

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Initiation


feasibility analysis

Feasibility type

Purpose

Issues considered

Economic

Costs of benefits of
different solutions

Cost
-
benefit analysis

Technical

Outline the best
technical solution

Make or buy decision

Produce shortlist of software,
suppliers and systems integrators.

Integration with existing systems

Operational

Determine impact on
business processes

Assess how well processes are
supported by new system. Identify
outline requirements.

organizational

Assess fit with
organizational structure
and culture

Outline approach for introducing
new system into organization.

Slide 07.36

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Typical problems of the initiation phase



A common problem with the initiation phase is that
insufficient time is devoted to it since team members
are keen to proceed with the work; they are swept up
with enthusiasm for the project. Goals for the project
and plans to achieve them are likely to be unrealistic.
This may mean that the costs of the project may
exceed its budget. If insufficient gathering of
requirements occurs, then this means the activities
and so budget and timescale are under
-
estimated.
organizational, operational and technical risks may
also not be identified which will all cause problems at
later stages in the project.

Slide 07.37

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Systems analysis phase


Systems analysis

determines the business and user
requirements of an information system. Fact
-
finding
techniques are used to ascertain the user’s needs
and these are summarised using a range of
documentation and diagramming methods



Systems analysis

Determination of information system requirements



Defines
-

‘What the system should do’


Output


Requirements specification

Slide 07.38

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Systems analysis


key activities

1.
Focus groups

2.
Document review

3.
Surveys

4.
Observation

5.
Interviews

6.
Prototyping

7.
Producing the requirements specification

Slide 07.39

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Systems analysis


typical problems


Assuming requirements for a new system
without conducting sufficient analysis is a
common problem, particularly for small
-
scale
systems.


It is important to use the full range of
techniques described above and involve a
representative range of people to ensure this
phase produces realistic estimates.

Slide 07.40

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Systems design phase


The design phase defines how the system will function. A ‘divide
and conquer’ approach to design is used. Design is broken down
into two phases.


The first is a
systems design

which defines the overall structure
of the system


which modules will be created to deliver the
system requirements. System design involves breaking down the
whole information system into sub
-
systems and how they will
interact with other subsystem. The second phase is the
module
design

which specifies how each sub
-
system will work and how it
in turn will be divided into further sub
-
systems or objects.



Systems Design phase

Defines how the completed system will operate



Output


Design specification

Slide 07.41

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Systems design activities


Software architecture



defines how different modules will work at
the level of program code. System modules or objects will be
broken down further into individual program functions or methods.


Hardware architecture



defines the need for different hardware
components or infrastructure of the system.


Information architecture



this specifies the data inputs and
information outputs of the system and defines the most efficient
methods for capturing, storing and modifying the data. Database
design is part of the information architecture.


Security design


defines how the information will be protected.
This relates to information architecture in that certain data items
will usually have access to different classes of users.


User interface design


Defines the different screens that users
will interact with including menu options, data entry forms and
other navigation elements.


Slide 07.42

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Typical problems of system design


Although the design phase is based on the requirements
specification document, there is a lot of overlap between analysis
and design phases.


Designers may find that the requirements specification does not
prescribe in enough detail what is needed from the system, or they
will make additional suggestions for improvements. At this point, it
will be necessary to consult the users of the system for
clarification.


This may cause major delays if the channels of communication
between the designers, the analysts and the users are not
established. One of the benefits of prototyping and methods such
as DSDM is that they recognise and enable the need for continued
consulting with the users.


As with many of the phases of the system development lifecycle,
insufficient time may be spent on the design phase. This may
require more re
-
work at a later stage.


Slide 07.43

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Systems development phase


At the
systems development phase

the physical
system is created by technical staff



Systems development involves creation of the
system through programming, database
management and configuration



Systems development phase

Creation of the system through programming,
database management and configuration

Slide 07.44

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Systems development activities

1. Programming individual system modules and fixing
errors or ‘bugs’ in the system.

2. Creating the database structures and data
manipulation functions such as database triggers and
stored procedures.

3. Creating the user interface for access through web
browsers.

4. Testing the database, programmes and interface.

5. Writing system documentation for the users and
future developers.

Slide 07.45

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Systems development problems


The main difficulty with the development
phase is the introduction of bugs or errors into
the system by developers. The problem is that
developing a major system requires tens or
hundreds or millions of lines of code. Each line
represents an opportunity to include an error
which can potentially ‘bring the system down’.
Even experienced programmers may produce
around 10 defects per thousand lines of code.


Changes to specification is also a major issue.


Slide 07.46

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Systems implementation


Systems implementation

involves introducing the
system into the business. This starts with providing
test versions of the system and then once test results
are satisfactory rolling out the system to business
users and managing the
changeover

from the old
system to the new system.


Migration or changeover from a previous information
system to a new system is particularly important for
mission
-
critical e
-
business systems where errors in
management of changeover will result in a negative
customer experience or disruption to the supply
chain.


Slide 07.47

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Systems implemention activities

1.
Changeover

2.
Data migration

3.
Testing


Slide 07.48

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Systems changeover options

Option

Main advantages

Main disadvantages

1. Immediate cutover
. Straight
from old system to new system
on a single date

Rapid, lowest cost

High risk. Major disruption if
serious errors with system

2. Parallel running
. Old
system and new system run
side
-
by
-
side for a period

Lower risk than immediate
cutover

Slower and higher cost than
immediate cutover

3. Phased implementation
.
Different modules of the system
are introduced sequentially

Good compromise between
methods 1 and 2

Difficult to achieve technically
due to interdependencies
between modules

4. Pilot system
. Trial
implementation occurs before
widespread deployment

Essential for multinational or
national rollouts

Has to be used in combination
with the other methods

Slide 07.49

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Systems implementation problems


There are many cases of systems failing at
the changeover phase (see for example, Case
study 7.2).


Failure at this stage may be due to
unexpected problems when the system goes
live which were not tested in the test
environment. For example, the load on a live
system could be higher than that in the test
environment. A further problem is that there is
a reluctance to delay the live date despite the
system not being fully tested.

Slide 07.50

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Systems maintenance


Systems maintenance

involves managing
the system once it is live. Problems with the
system must be fixed. Since there is also time
to reflect on the project overall, some
organizations will look to learn from their
experiences on the project through a project
closedown review.

Slide 07.51

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Systems maintenance
-

activities


A key activity is responding to errors as they are
found. If serious, the problems will have to be solved
immediately through issuing a ‘patch’ release to the
system; otherwise they will be recorded for a later
release. A system is required for promptly reporting
and reviewing errors.


A formal review may occur after the end of projects,
this is the post
-
implementation review. This assesses
the success of the systems development project and
lessons are recorded for future projects.

Slide 07.52

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Systems maintenance problems


Problems with the maintenance phase tend to be a
consequence of maintenance not being part of the
overall project, so processes for reporting, reviewing,
fixing and notifying problems may not be in place.



A project closedown review is often omitted in
organizations that do not have a project quality
management system in place since it all too easy to
move on to the next project and put problems with
the project ‘under the carpet’.


Slide 07.53

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Specific issues of Internet
-
content projects 1


Initiation



Education to explain the purpose of the intranet and the
importance of updating it is particularly important. Care must taken
in calculating the return on investment with information
-
based
projects.


Analysis

and design


Specialist methods of mapping the
information requirements are used as described in Chapter 9 on
information architectures.


Development



the design phase is relatively limited compared to
most bespoke applications since a content management system,
existing CRM application or e
-
commerce server will be used to
setup structures for data storage. Development of the web
-
based
user interface needs specific skills which differ somewhat from
non web
-
based applications. These issues are also covered in
Chapter 9.

Slide 07.54

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Specific issues of Internet
-
content projects 2


Implementation



A lot of work will be required to populate the
system with information. Since much of the information will already
be available, methods of integrating with other systems such as
exporting the information from other systems and then importing
this information may be necessary.


Maintenance



The maintenance phase is particularly important in
these types of projects since content needs to be kept up
-
to
-
date.
Responsibilities and update mechanisms for this are required. The
usage of different information types in web
-
based systems can be
readily tracked and evaluated to check the relevance of
information. Controls need to be in place to maintain the quality of
information and these controls are referred to in Chapter 10 which
is devoted to managing information quality.



Slide 07.55

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Tracking Gantt chart for the

Passport Office project showing the original
baseline plan against the actual timing


Figure 7.14
Tracking Gantt chart for the Passport Office project showing the
original baseline plan against the actual timing


Source:

National Audit Office (www.nao.gov.uk/publications/nao_reports/9899812.pdf)

Slide 07.56

Chaffey and Wood
Business Information Management

© Pearson Education Limited 2005

Changeover for Passport Office Project


Figure 7.15
Changeover for Passport Office Project

Source:

National Audit Office (www.nao.gov.uk/publications/nao_reports/9899812.pdf)

Slide 07.57