Presented by: Vikram Karnik

tansygoobertownInternet and Web Development

Dec 8, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Authors: Qing Li


Rynson W. H. Lau


Timothy k. Shih


Frederick W. B. Li


Presented by: Vikram Karnik







Distributed learning is an instructional model
that allows instructor, students, and content to
be located in different, noncentralized locations
so that instruction and learning occur
independent of time and place.



Collaborative learning is an educational
approach to teaching and learning that
involves groups of learners working together
to solve a problem, complete a task, or create a
product. Collaborative learning is based on the
idea that learning is a naturally social act in
which the participants talk among themselves.
It is through the talk that learning occurs .


Asynchronous and web
-
based learning


Synchronous and real
-
time distance learning


Mobile learning and Situated learning


Multimodal interaction and augmented devices for
learning


Content management system and repository


SCORM

Sharable Content Object Reference Model


Specification for standardizing the reusability and
interoperability of learning materials.


It was developed by the Advanced Distributed
Learning (ADL) .


SCORM focuses on defining a model for packaging
learning content to facilitate content delivery.


It defines a standard way for e
-
learning systems to
communicate with each other.


It requires the inclusion of metadata to describe the
course content, facilitating efficient and effective
identification of appropriate course materials


System hosting:



Typical e
-
learning system needs to maintain and
deliver course materials, track student progress,
and support student collaboration.


Substantial workload with increase in number of
users. One solution to this problem is use of
distributed system technology.


Security control.


Solution is digital rights management by using
certification of hardware or software, digital
watermarking.



System support for content delivery:


Contents may be requested dynamically through a
variety of e
-
learning activities.


Delivery problems arise when multimedia data
needs to be delivered.


From the content perspective, to accommodate the
diversity of e
-
learning users, adaptation in content
delivery must be taken to provide satisfactory
services.



Support for asynchronous learning mode:


Asynchronous learning mode provides students
with great flexibility as they may choose to learn
according to their own schedule.


users can set up collaboration areas and group the
conversations based on date/time stamping or
discussion topics, but as the conversation get
larger in volume, it becomes much more difficult
to extract relevant context.


Solution is using web mining techniques to trace
the content, link structure, and usage of domain
being searched.




Support for synchronous learning mode:


Synchronous learning mode allows e
-
learning users to
conduct collaborative learning in a shared workplace at
the same time with interactive communication and
instantaneous responses in learning tasks.


DVEs are the most demanding in terms of data
transmission and interactivity requirements and due to
lack of standardization One problem is how to identify
and deliver relevant 3D objects while retaining system
interactivity.


Solution is to adopt an on
-
demand distribution
approach and a synchronization mechanism.


The First
-
Generation CMS
:

Centralized collection of
applications, and data stored on large mainframes. Most
content in this approach was stored in diverse,
noncompatible formats specific to the tools that generated it,
even if that diverse content was managed on the same
server.


The Second
-
Generation CMS
:
IBM was among the first to
begin integrating data storage and data presentation
technologies. The idea was to put all types of content into a
single homogeneous environment on a central server and
grant authorized personnel with controlled access to read or
edit it.


The Third
-
Generation (3G) CMS: I
nformation is no longer
stored in a centralized mainframe, but fragmented across a
number of personal computers located in different places.


Content partitioning:


Content replication and allocation:


Distributed content retrieval:


Distributed content maintenance:



Architectures for Mobile Learning.


Middleware for Mobile Learning.


Performance Considérations on Mobile Devices.


Adaptation of Learning Resources and User
Interaction.


Content Reflow and Media Adaptation.



Location
-
Based Services.


Situated Learning via Mobile Learning.


RFID for e
-
Learning Management.


Interactions can be achieved using gesture, speech,
pointing devices, and even brain waves.


Advanced interactions usually need sophisticated
devices, which are typically not mobile.


Multimodality can be implemented by binding and
usage of different interface devices like speech
recognition, keypad, and dedicated keys.


Augmented paper
enhances ordinary hardcopy papers
by adding hyper links to audio, video, and even Web
sites.


uTable
is a new approach for implementing a pen
-
based interaction table. An off
-
the
-
shelf projector with
large viewing angle, hiding under the table, provides
the rear
-
projection display content. A specially
designed pen with a laser emitter at the nib serves as
the interaction tool.


Wearable computer
system typically contains a small
computer, a helmet like device with a see through
display, a microphone, and an earphone. The devices
can be used in training and support mobile factory
personnel.


Ubiquitous learning


Web 2.0


Security challenges on the Internet


Structuring shared content and repositories


Applying structure while creating content



Distance learning on grid


P2P and online learning community


Intelligent tutoring and adaptive testing.


Further development in distance learning
standards


Game
-
based learning.


Technologies and systems in this survey can be
considered state
-
of
-
the
-
art, but it is anticipated
that many new ones will emerge in time as the
technologies evolve.


While most of the emerging technologies are
Internet and Web dependent, there are also
some issues/techniques which are orthogonal
to the Internet and Web but pertinent to
developing more “intelligent” and attractive
distance learning systems.