PLAYING WITH TECHNOLOGY

tansygoobertownInternet and Web Development

Dec 8, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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HOW DOES IT ALL WORK:

PLAYING WITH TECHNOLOGY

Rosina Smith Ph.D.,

Executive Director,

Alberta Online Consortium

smitr@ucalgary.ca

Learning Management
Systems (LMS)


A learning management system (LMS) is a software
application or Web
-
based technology used to plan,
implement, and assess a specific learning process.
Typically, a learning management system provides an
instructor with a way to create and deliver content,
monitor student participation, and assess student
performance. A learning management system may
also provide students with the ability to use
interactive features such as threaded discussions,
video conferencing, and discussion forums.

Content Management System


A content management system (CMS) is a
system used to manage the content of a Web
site. Typically, a CMS consists of two
elements: the content management
application (CMA) and the content delivery
application (CDA). The CMA element allows
the content manager or author, who may not
know Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), to
manage the creation, modification, and
removal of content from a Web site without
needing the expertise of a Webmaster

Frequently Used LMS in K
-
12


Blackboard




http://www.blackboard.com/us/index.aspx



Desire2Learn (D2L)



http://www.desire2learn.com/



WebCT




http://www.webct.com/



Moodle




http://moodle.com/



Angel




http://www.cyberlearninglabs.com/Products/



ATutor




http://www.atutor.ca/



LMS Functionality Should
Include:

1.
Integration

with other departments
within school districts/institutions (i.e.
human resources, accounting) to
streamline administrative tasks and so
the overall cost of e
-
learning can be
tracked and quantified

LMS Functionality Should
Include:

2.
Support a Collaborative Learning
Community
:


offering multiple modes of learning

from
self
-
paced coursework (Web
-
based
seminars and classes, downloadable, CD
-
ROM and video content)


to scheduled classes (live instruction in
classroom settings or online)


to group learning (online forums and chats).

LMS Functionality Should
Include:

3. Consolidate training initiatives on a scalable, low
-
cost Web
-



based platform.


4. Assemble and deliver learning content rapidly in multiple languages.


5. Measure the effectiveness of training initiatives.


6. Mix classroom and online learning.


7. Integrate with other enterprise application solutions.


8. Centralize and automate administration.


9. Use self
-
service and self
-
guided services as much as possible.


10. Support portability and standards: AICC, IMS and SCORM.


11. Personalize content and enable knowledge re
-
use.


Evaluating Learning
Management Systems


High availability
: The LMS must be robust enough to serve
the diverse needs of thousands of learners, administrators,
content builders and instructors simultaneously.



Scalability:

The infrastructure should be able to expand

or
“scale”

to meet future growth, both in terms of the volume of
instruction and the size of the student body.



Usability:

To support a host of automated and personalized
services, such as self
-
paced and role
-
specific learning, the
access, delivery and presentation of material must be easy
-
to
-
use and highly intuitive

like surfing on the Web or shopping on
Amazon.com.

Evaluating Learning
Management Systems


Interoperability:

To support content from different sources
and multiple vendors’ hardware/software solutions, the LMS
should be based on open industry standards for Web
deployments (XML, SOAP or AQ) and support the major learning
standards (AICC, SCORM, IMS and IEEE).



Stability:

The LMS infrastructure can reliably and effectively
manage a large enterprise implementation running 24x7.



Security:

As with any outward
-
facing collaborative solution, the
LMS can selectively limit and control access to online content,
resources and back
-
end functions, both internally and
externally, for its diverse user community.



Licensing and Purchasing
Options


Learning management systems can be complex and
costly in terms of implementation.


Learning management systems require IT expertise
and ongoing support. While corporate (for
-
profit)
companies might opt to purchase, plan and
implement an LMS, many companies and school
ditricts are moving toward the ASP model. With this
outsourcing model, a third party, often the LMS
vendor, manages the IT infrastructure, either at the
customer site or remotely. While outsourcing
eliminates the need for IT staff and maintenance,
keep in mind that the LMS must be designed for this
kind of deployment.

Licensing Models


The software is purchased and installed and managed in
-
house.



The school district buys the software, but it is housed and managed remotely
by a third party. Administrators, content builders, instructors and learners
access the system over the Internet.



The school district buys the software and installs it on its own data platform,
but the maintenance and upgrades are managed by the LMS vendor or
another third party (e.g., a system integrator).



For the cost
-
conscious, there is yet a fourth option. Some LMS vendors
operating their own enterprise e
-
learning system offer to share access to
their system. Basically, you lease “space” on the host data site.



A Collaborative model where a consortium of school districts share or pool
resources to purchase one instance which is capable of supporting several
districts.


more opportunity for content sharing/reusability/delivery.


each
interface can be customized.


Web Conferencing Systems


Web or Audio Conferencing systems use a desktop
sharing system to allow VOIP (voice over IP, think
digital/internet phone calls)
-
based interactivity for
presentations and other learning environments. This
is a great way to complete low
-
cost, low
-
tech "video
conferencing." Most are java
-
based systems that
don’t require a client installation. You can buy a
hosted solution through the company or purchase it
for a local server installation.


Some LMS systems have this built in but the
functionality is rarely as robust as the ‘stand alone’
and are rarely used

Web Conferencing Systems


These systems permit synchronous
collaboration among peers specific to:



-
Professional Development



-
Establishment of a Community of Practice



-
Administrative Meetings



-
Classroom Instruction



-
Tutorials





Learning Object Repositories
(LOR)


Firstly, there is the need to understand how a
‘learning object’ is defined…but nobody really
knows how to define this term


A
learning object

has been defined as a
reusable unit of instruction for teaching and
learning. It can include digital objects; lesson
bundles, courseware


but generally does not
include digital assets.

Learning Object Repositories
(LOR)


Also it has been argued that with smaller
granularity, there's greater potential for reuse of
objects. … By keeping objects smaller, they are
more likely to be able to be reused in different
contexts.


Second, there's the opportunity to allow flexibility
on the part of the learner, or even to support
intelligent processing. If the objects are small
enough, and instructional experiences are
composed of these objects, then different learners
can have different instructional experiences.
(Quinn & Hobbs, 2000)


Learning Object Repositories
(LOR)


A Repository or Digital Library is a ‘one
stop shop’ where content is aggregated,
‘catalogued’ or ‘metatagged’ and
accessed by the learning community.


There are also ‘referatories’ (i.e. Merlot)
which link to other resources

Learning Object Repositories
(LOR)


Present issues include:


1.
What sources and methods are being utilized for the selection of learning
objects?




2.
What assessment activities are being undertaken and tools utilized (website
ratings etc.)?




3.
What issues have been encountered (e.g., copyright/intellectual property
rights)?




4.
What benefits have been derived (ease of access, relevance, quality, costs,
time, etc.)?




5.
What barriers have been encountered (ease of access, relevance, quality,
cost, time, etc.)?





Decisions?

Before a school district/organization/institution

enters the world of content development

whether it be the development of:


digital assets,


learning object,


lesson bundles or


Courseware

Decisions?

And whether the content is related to

Professional development or teaching and

Learning in the K
-
12 or post
-
secondary

Context decisions must be made around:


LMS systems


Licensing and Purchasing Options


Web Conferencing Systems


Learning Object Repository


Decisions?

Research supports a collaborative,

consortium approach to realize:


1.
Cost efficiencies

2.
Time efficiencies

3.
Development of rigorous standards for ease of
access, equity and to encourage effective
pedagogical practice

4.
Collaborative approaches to professional
development and teaching and learning practice

5.
Support of ‘open’ standards in the development,
sharing, repurposing and reuse of existing content

More information???

Contact: Rosina Smith Ph.D.




403
-
241
-
6045


Or by email at:





smitr@ucalgary.ca