Grid Architecture for eLearning

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Dec 8, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Grid Architecture for eLearning

Eric Yen

Computing Centre, Academia Sinica

Jan. 22th, 2003


APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Outline


Emergence of eLearning


Why using Grid for eLearning?


Related Work in the World


Our Approaches


Future Development and Conclusion



APAN Fukuoka, 2003

The Unprecedented Ten Years


Networking from 100Kbps to Gbps


Computing from 100MFLOPS to TeraFLOPS


Storage from 100GigaBytes to PetaBytes


We are producing 3 x 10
18

Bytes of data each year


Most business processes, research, learning, commerce,
socialising, etc. may be conducted on the Internet


Internet and Digital Technology together bring in
revolutionary ways to communicate, deal with information
and collaborate

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

What is eLearning


Definition


Internet
-
based learning, for simplicity


Refers to the use of IT to create, deliver, manage and support
learning and training, anytime, anywhere


Used for enhancing quality and improving accessibility to
education and training


IT fosters the opening of schools to other resources of
learning, such as multimedia libraries, museums, local
community resources, research centers, and transnational
cooperation


IT may also foster new relationships and new roles for
students acting as researchers, creators, designers, etc.


Toward open learning environments and virtual teaching


APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Emergence of eLearning
1


Survey of accessibility to eLearning for people with disabilities by
Electronic Training Village(ETV), over 320 respondents across
Europe


54.8% think it will open up new and innovative opportunities for
communities of learners with disabilities


Only 1.5% consider eLearning is inappropriate for most learners with
disabilities


eLearning plays an important role in developing a more
convergent system of higher education for mobility, employability
and competitiveness


To be effective, the lifelong education and training strategy should,
as a priority, tackle problems such as the lack of interest shown by
individuals, time constraints, the cost of training, and the lack of
information on training possibilities
--
> demands for eLearning


Data from “What’s new in eLearning”,
europa.eu.int/comm/education/elearning/wn2001_09/what2.htm

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Emergence of eLerning
2


Adaptation of education and training systems to meet the
challenge: making Europe “the most competitive and dynamic
knowledge
-
based economy in the world, capable of sustainable
economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social
cohesion”
--
> eLearning: Designing Tomorrow’s Education


APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Challenge and Goals of eLearning


Challenge


Building Knowledge Society


Ubiquitous Learning


Emergence of New Learning Models
--
> Workflow
Analysis


The most efficient implementation


Adaptation to technology changes


Goals


Learning how to learn


Helping people with disabilities more easier to learn


Life Long Learning and Life Long Teaching


Training at All Levels


Formation of Learning Society

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Essence of eLearning


Taking advantage of “Virtual Environment”


Requirements


Demand Driven: use case
-
based


Users need a service rather than a product


Adaptability: need to evolve continually by integrating
different services, adding new tools and adapting to specific
learning scenarios


Compatibility: quick development of a course site, and
compatible to open and standard format, e.g., the SCORM,
IEEE, etc.


Low Cost


Outreach and Collaboration


APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Basic Requirements of eLearning

1.
Combination of either Learner Centric or Teacher Centric, for making
the most outcome

2.
Diversified, Large Amount, Distributed and better accessed Learning
Resources

3.
Well Organized and Complete Content Description

4.
Integration of heterogeneous Information Resources

5.
On Demand and Ubiquitous Learning for anyone

6.
Toward Effective Knowledge Discovery and Well Knowledge
Organization & Management

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Demands for What?



Open Source Model


Foster the activities for using variant tools to solve problems


Active learning and learn how to learn


Facilitate free and rapid exchange of knowledge and ideas


Open Source eLearning Platform


Enhance quality of learning experience


Ubiquitous learning: Learning
-
on
-
Demand and Learning everywhere


Notes: Learners have much greater choice in how their learning is
delivered, enabling them to interact easily with teachers and access
appropriate levels of administrative, educational and technical support.


Make education accessible for whom choose not to or cannot attend classes on
campus


Notes: Ensuring that online resources and assessment are of equivalent
or superior quality to those available in a traditional learning
environment.


Facilitate Realization of Life Long Learning


Bridging the Digital Divide


Knowledge
-
based Resource Discovery, Sharing, Accumulation, and Creation


National eLearning Strategy

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

How to Get There?



Open Source eLearning Platform


Web
-
based virtual learning, teaching and informing


Robust, distributed collaborated and ubiquitous computing environment as the
infrastructure
--
> demands for Grid Infrastructure !


Standardization


Well
-
defined specification


Interoperability Mechanism for conversion, transformation, and exchange, etc.


Integration


Building Community for


Developing Common tools


Technical Study & Support


Requirements Collection


Planning


Suggestions to National Strategy


Grid Infrastructure


Learning Resources


eLearning Services

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

The Best Solution from Grid


Support sharing and coordinated use of diverse resources in
dynamic “virtual organizations”


Grid !


Good technical solutions for key problems, such as


Security enhancement like authentication and authorization


Resource discovery and monitoring


Reliable remote service invocation


High
-
performance remote data access



--

Grid !


Good quality reference implementation, multi
-
lingual support,
interfaces to many systems, large user base, industrial support,
etc.


Grid !


Persistent Web Services


Grid !


APAN Fukuoka, 2003

What Grid can do ?

1.
Coordinating the sharing of distributed resources and flexible
collaboration thru

virtual organization



2.
Effective management of distributed heterogeneous resources

3.
Solving larger scale problem which is beyond the provision of any
single institute/supercomputer in the world

4.
Construction of a secure, reliable, efficient, and scalable mass
storage system environment

5.
Optimize the Usage of Resources

6.
Facilitate better Sharing and Integration of Information Resources

7.
Demands of IT for scientific researches in the new millennium


Management of PetaByte scale storage system


Collaborative processing


Sharing and collaborating distributed resources

8.
Summary

Grid is the mainstream for IT infrastructure

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Related Work in the World


Learning GRID of Excellence Working Group (LeGE
-
WG): Towards a European Learning GRID Infrastructure


NGfL


eScience, IST


ADL (DoD Advanced Distributed Learning), US


EOE (Apple Computer’s Educational Object Economy)


GEM (Gateway to Education Materials) Project


GESTALT (Getting Educational Systems Talking Across
Leading
-
Edge Technologies)


eLearning in Taiwan
--
> eTAIWAN




APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Progress of eLearning in Taiwan


Master Plan of Information Technology in
Education for Primary and Secondary Schools


Ministry of Education, 2001
--
2005


20% of curriculum time of using IT


600 seed schools


Training teacher teams


Equipping teachers with notebook computers


Program of Science and Technology for e
-
Learning (2003)


Cross Ministry initiative


130 million US$ for 5 years


Led by the President Liu of NCU

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Sample of an eLearning Project in Taiwan

Courtesy by
Tak
-
Wai Chan, NCU, Taiwan, PNC 2002 Conf

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Learning Flow in Classroom


Step 1. Preparation before class (teacher)


Step 2. Introductory discussion (teacher)


Step 3. Group working on projects (students)


Step 4. Group working on reports (students)


Step 5. Presentations (students)


Step 6. Peer evaluations among groups (students)


Step 7. Discussion and conclusion (teacher)


Step 8. Praising individual or team (teacher)



Courtesy by
Tak
-
Wai Chan, NCU, Taiwan, PNC 2002 Conf

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Learning Flow in Classroom

Courtesy by
Tak
-
Wai Chan, NCU, Taiwan, PNC 2002 Conf

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Scope of e
-
Learning
1


Person


instructor, and learner


Platform


a content management system for e
-
Learning (LCMS)


Content


Curriculum


Course


Lesson


Learning objects


Information objects


Raw content items

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Scope of e
-
Learning
2

L

C

M

S

PERSON

Leaning

Content

I

N

S

T

R

U

C

T

O

R

L

E

A

R

N

E

R

Curriculum

Course

Lesson

Learning Obj.

Infor. Obj.

Raw Content Obj.

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Scope of e
-
Learning
4


Generic Metadata Attributes

object

person

space

time

content

event

event

event

event

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

DA for Learning Contents





Serving as sources of learning materials


Content management for DA paves the
framework for knowledge
-
based persistent
archive


Value added program for building up sustainable
business of digital contents


Links to
samples

in NDAP



APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Scope of Digital Archives

General

Knowledge Base

Enterprise

Intelligence

e
-
Learning

e
-
Research

Digital

Archives

Culture and

Knowledge Background

Domain Expertise

Being

Digitised

Born

Digital

Business Process and Lifecycle

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Content Management
Challenges
1


Separating content from presentation


Versioning, Roll
-
back


Data/Information re
-
use


Re
-
purposing of Information, flexible
Output


Workflow, submit, review, approve, store

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Digital Information Lifecycle

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Typical Process Corresponds to Lifecycle

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Content Management
Challenges
2


Integrating diversified contents and external
sources


System and roles
-
based security


Metadata Management


Compute and Storage resources on demand


Reliability and Scalability

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Basic Functions of a CMS


A CMS manages the path from authoring
through to publishing using a scheme of
workflow and by providing a system for
content storage and integration.


Authoring/Capturing


Workflow


Integration and Storage


Publishing/Dissemination

APAN Fukuoka, 2003


The CMS Feature List

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Grid Architecture for eLearning

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Grid Applications in AS


High Energy Physics:
Computational Grid
,
Data Grid,
Access Grid


BioGrid:
Computational Grid
,
Data Grid,
Access Grid


In charge of coordination of National Genomic … Project


Bio
-
Computing


Bio
-
Informatics


Bio
-
Diversity


Bio
-
Portal


Computational Chemistry and Computational Physics:
Computational Grid,
Access
Grid


National Digital Archives:
Data Grid,
Access Grid


In charge of coordination of National Digital Archive Project


Earth Science and Astronomy Research:
Computational Grid,
Data Grid


Earthquake Data Center


BATS


Geospatial Information Science & Applications:
Data Grid
,
Access Grid


NSDI


Web
-
based Space, Time and Language Content Architecture


eLearning:
Access Grid
,
Data Grid

and less
Computational Grid

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Pilot Projects for eLearning in AS





Social University for Adults Learning


Community University for Minority, e.g., Indigenous
People


Parallel Programming and Computing Applications


Survey of the standardization of metadata for
eLearning

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Access Grid for Collaborative Env.





Multi
-
point Video Conference Facilities


MCU
-
based : 24 concurrent sessions


VRVS


H.320/H.323


WhiteBoard


Video Server


Web
-
based Content Retrieval and Dissemination

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Access Grid for Collaborative Env.





Voice, video and data conferencing over multiple networks (IP
and ISDN) using one platform.



MULTIPOINT VIDEO SOLUTIONS JUST FOR IP


IP Continuous Presence


IP QoS


and deliver enhanced support for IP conferencing.


Benefits:


Improved conference connection rates with optimal capabilities


Improved audio quality standard with your system


Customize your meetings like face
-
to
-
face meetings


Reservationless/Adhoc conferencing capabilities


T.120 Data Conferencing across mixed ISDN and IP networks


Easy Management: To suit your individual needs, choose from browser
based or Windows based scheduling and management

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Introduction to Digital Archive


Digital Archive is a collection of digital objects.


A digital object is defined as something (
e.g.
, an image, an audio
recording, a text document, a movie, a map) that has been
digitally encoded and integrated with metadata

to support
discovery, use, and storage of those objects.


Goals for Digital Archive (functional point of view)


Protection of the original


Duplication for safety


Search and Retrieval


Easy Access


Resource Sharing


Lower cost of maintenance and dissemination


Max. flexibility for integration of heterogeneous/homogeneous
information resources


Providing abundant resources for knowledge discovery and knowledge
construction

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Why Knowledge
-
based Approach for
Digital Archives


Passive Requirements: for long
-
term scalable
and persistent archives while the technology
evolves


Active Requirements: for generation of new
knowledge (for easily discover new and
unexpected patterns, trends and relationships
that can be hidden deep within very large and
diverse datasets)

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Clarification of Concepts


Collection
-
based Persistent Archives


Organization of the collection is archived simultaneously with the
digital objects that comprise the collection.


Focus


Development of infrastructure independent representations for the
information content of the collection,


Interoperability mechanisms to support migration of the collection
onto new SW & HW systems,


Use of a standard markup language to annotate the information
content


Purpose: maintain not only the bits associated with the original data,
but also the context that permits the data to be interpreted


Knowledge
-
based Archives


Archival description of a collection includes not only contextual
information about the digital objects, but also knowledge about the
relationships used to derive the contextual information.

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Knowledge
-
based Archive


Archive Accession Process


Implied knowledge: e.g., interpretation of fields


Structural knowledge: e.g., topology associated with digital line graphs


Domain knowledge: e.g., relationships between domain concepts


Procedural knowledge: e.g., workflow creation steps for digital objects


Presentation kwnoeldge: e.g., support for knowledge
-
based queries


Relationships


Semantic/logical relationships


Procedural/temporal relationships


Structural/spatial relationships


Functional relationships

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Why Knowledge
-
based
Approach for Digital Library ?
1



Providing “Conceptual Infrastructure”


Mapping out the conceptual structure and providing a common language for a field


Providing classification/typology and concept definitions. Clarifying concepts by putting
them into context. Thus providing orientation and serving as a reference tool for individual
researchers and practitioners and thereby


Assisting with the exploration of the conceptual context of a research problem and in
structuring the problem, thereby providing the conceptual basis for the design of good
research, for the consistent definition of variables, and thus the cumulation of research
results.


Providing the conceptual basis for the exploration of the various aspects of a program in
program planning, in the identification of approaches and strategies, and in the
development of evaluation criteria


Assisting users in understanding context


Assisting information providers with conceptualizing a topic and with finding
the proper term


Discovery of high quality resources


Providing frameworks for information exchange and resource interoperability

Dagobert Soergel
,
Evaluation of Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS)

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Geospatial Data Infrastructure

Courtesy by FGDC, USGS

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Examples for Archives of Geospatial Materials in NDAP

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Examples for Archives of Geospatial Materials in NDAP

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Key Issues for eLearning





Coordination and Resource Integration


Just
-
in
-
Time Education and Training


Standards


Enhancing Quality & improve Accessibility


Open Learning Environment & Virtual Teaching


Infrastructure and Equipment


Networking: from connected to better connection & wider
education usage


Quality Contents and Services


Cost Saving


Flexibility


Balance of eLearning & Campus Learning


Ubiquity and Reliability


Multilingual Portals


Sustainable commercial market for eLearning content development

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Future Research Topics





Visual Representations


Collaborative Learning and Behavioral Models


Knowledge Management


Learning Process and Knowledge Discovery


Theoretical Aspects concerning Communities Processes


Identify the Learning and Teaching Needs


Baseline a Grid Architecture Design and Prototype a
Learning Grid


Pedagogy, eContents and user
-
friendly interfaces



APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Computer, Storage & Communication

Grid Middleware

Security & Authentication

HPC/HTC

HC

BioC

CMS

GIST

CA

Metadata

Web
-
based GUI/HCI

Users

Conceptual IT Architecture for
Supporting of Research

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Taipei

GigaPoP

(10G & 2.5G)

MOECC

Academia

Sinica (AS)

Tear 1/2

YMU

NTOU

CGU

TANet

School
s

Taipei City

School Net,
GSN,
ISPs…

NCTU

Taiwan LCG Structures:




Taiwan domestic network. Minimum
bandwidth is 2.5Gbps.



Taipei GigaPoP is a Metropolitan Fiber Ring,
with the capability to upgrade from 10Gbps to
Multi
-
Lambda network.

Taipei

GigaPoP

JP

HK

EU

US

CN

CSTnet

TH

SG

CN

CERnet

AU

1.2G or 2.5G

via StarLight in Ph#1

155M


622M

155M


622M

622M

Taiwan International Connectivity:




Broadband connections to US, Europe, Japan
and Hong Kong are in place and will be
upgraded when necessary.

NCU

Tear 2/3

NTU

Tear 2/3

10G

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

The Infrastructure for Integrating Web
Services & Grid Technology

Web Services & Grid Protocols

Courtesy by IBM Taiwan

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Open Grid Services Architecture


Objectives:


Manage resources across distributed heterogeneous platforms


Deliver seamless QoS


Provide a common base for autonomic management solutions


Define open, published interfaces


Exploit industry
-
standard integration technologies


Web Services, SOAP, XML,...


Integrate with existing IT resources


APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Open Grid Infrastructure (OGSI)

Grid Service Implementation
-

Examples

Courtesy by IBM Taiwan

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Architecture Framework

OGSA Software Evolution

Courtesy by IBM Taiwan

APAN Fukuoka, 2003

Future & Conclusion





Help teachers and learners to open their minds for new
scenarios


Policy and Strategies for Future Development


Functional Requirements for eLearning, from the users
perspectives


Appropriate Grid Architecture to support the
requirements


Practical Models and processes for eLearning


Study of user behaviors and collecting requirements
continuously, by use case analysis