PRESENTATION NAME - eGurukul

tanktherapistBiotechnology

Oct 23, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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BIO TECHNOLOGY

10th Grade
-

Biology

BIOTECHNOLOGY

Land, Air, Water & Minerals

Land, Air, Water & Minerals

Definition :

The application of technology utilizing the characteristics of living organization

to obtain useful products is termed as biotechnology
.


The
science of applying biological processes is called biotechnology.


The
application of biological organisms, systems or processes to manufacturing

and service industries is called biotechnology.

BIOTECHNOLOGY PROCESSES

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Land, Air, Water & Minerals

Genetic Engineering

The technique of effecting
desirable changes in the

genetic material (DNA) of an
organism is known as
genetic engineering.


The process involved in
manipulating genes in the
laboratory is called
recombinant DNA
technology.



By this technique, it is
possible to separate the
desirable or useful gene
from a cell and introduce it
into another cell where the
gene can undergo further
replication.

DNA Finger Print Technology

This is another useful
technique in
biotechnology used for
identifying individuals by
determining the genetic
relationships. DNA finger
printing technique
basically involves
breaking down the DNA
sample of an individual
using specific enzymes
into short Fragments and
then separating the
fragments using gel
electrophoresis.


The fragments get
separated based on their
size and net electrical
Charge. Larger fragments
move more slowly
compared to smaller
fragments. As a result, a
series of bands are
obtained in the form of a
finger print. This is called
DNA finger print. This
characteristic pattern is
unique to each
individual.

Tissue Culture

It is the method of
producing plants using a
portion of a plant tissue or
cells in a suitable nutrient
medium under controlled
aseptic conditions.

Generally plant cells have
the capacity to produce
plants of their own kind.

Tissue culture is developed
on the basis of this
principle.


From a bit of a plant stem
placed in a suitable culture
medium, an entire plant can
be obtained.

Sophisticated laboratory is
required for tissue culture.
Such a laboratory will have
mainly three separate
rooms, one to prepare the
nutrient medium, another
for culturing and one more
for infections. Each of these
rooms will have
sophesticated equipments,
air conditioning, aseptic
conditions and other
necessary facilities.

Cloning

A population of
identical molecules
(genes) or cells or
organisms all of
which are
derived
from the same
parent
, by an asexual
process, is called as
a ‘
clone
’.


The
process of
producing
genetically
similar molecules,
cells or organisms
from a
common
precursor ‘
invitro
’ or

invivo
’, is known as
cloning
.


Cloning of organisms
is now a rapidly
developing
aspect of
biotechnology
.

GENETIC ENGINEERING

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Land, Air, Water & Minerals

TISSUE CULTURE

Land, Air, Water & Minerals

Land, Air, Water & Minerals

DNA

FINGER
PRINT

TECHNOLOGY

Land, Air, Water & Minerals

Land, Air, Water & Minerals

BIOTECHNOLOGY PROCESSES


Cloning


Land, Air, Water & Minerals

Land, Air, Water & Minerals

APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

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Land, Air, Water & Minerals


1.
Biotechnology
has significant application in agriculture. Its action ranges
from
improvement
of plant and animal breeds to pest control and
pathogen control.


2.
Biotechnology
is used in the food processing industry in the production of



acceptable
additives
.


3
. Several techniques of biotechnology are employed in the synthesis
of biocatalysts


and
biopolymers
.


4. Biotechnological processes are employed in the control of pollution
and treatment


of
polluted water
.


5. The most significant contribution of biotechnology is in the field of
health care;


several
vaccines, drugs, hormones (like insulin) are being
produced on
a large


scale
using genetic engineering techniques.

LIMITATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

Land, Air, Water & Minerals

I
t is beyond any doubt that biotechnology has come as a boon to mankind, by providing
products of importance in the fields of industries, food technology, healthcare,
environmental engineering and so on. However, some of the procedures and processes
that are being adapted in biotechnology have been against nature and natural laws
.


Creation of new varities of plants by using the technology of genetic engineering and tissue
culture, has resulted in certain advantages. However, closely associated with these
advantages are certain disadvantages like seed sterility
.


Genetically modified foods have slowly started threatening the human health. Moreover,
such attempts have upset the delicate balance existing in nature.


Cloning in particular has raised serious social, moral and ethical
questions.There have been protests in many countries against attempts for
human
cloning
it is necessary that the tools of biotechnology should be used
properly and only for beneficial purposes; and not for destructive activities.