MovieWhat is chem?

tanktherapistBiotechnology

Oct 23, 2013 (3 years and 5 months ago)

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Movie

What is
chem
?

2

Chemistry

is the science that investigates and
explains


the
structure

and


properties

of
matter.

What is Chemistry?

3

What are Matter?

Matter

is anything that


takes up space and


has mass.


stuff that’s all around you.



energy is not a matter

4

Look for Clues of Chemistry



Look around in your surroundings and your body
to find out clues of chemistry.


Hair gel,


detergents



plastics



clothes

5

Chemistry Related Professions


Medicine, pharmacy, dentistry,



Biochemistry, chemical engineering, marine
biology, genetic engineering, biophysics,



Forensic science, food science, textile industry,
mechanical engineering (automobiles, construction,
furniture, electrical appliance manufacturing etc.),
cleaning/detergent industry, personal hygiene
industry, cosmetics industry.



Many more.

6

Mass

:


the measure of the
amt

of matter that an object
contains.


How many atoms/ molecules …?

What are Matters?

7

What are Matters?

The
structure

of matter refers to its


composition


how its organized.


8

What are Matters?

The
properties

of matter
describe


the
characteristics

and


behavior

of matter
(
changes

that matter
undergoes).


9

Branches of Chemistry

Branch

Area of Emphasis

Examples

Organic
chemistry

most C
-
containing chemicals

pharmaceuticals,
plastics

Inorganic
chemistry

in general, matter that does not contain
C

minerals, metals and
nonmetals, semi
-
conductors

Physical
chemistry

the behavior and changes of matter
and the related energy changes

reaction rates, rxn
mechanisms

Analytical
chemistry

components and composition of subs

food nutrients, quality
control

Biochemistry

matter and processes of living
organisms

metabolism,
fermentation

Nuclear
chemistry

Reactions taking place in the nuclei of
radioactive elements

nuclear weapons,
nuclear energy

10



the study of
all chemicals
containing
carbon
except..
.

Organic Chemistry

11


the study of
chemicals that
do
not

contain C
except carbonates
...

1.1

12



study the
processes that
take place in
organisms
.

Biochemistry

13


focuses
on
composition
of matter.

Analytical Chemistry

14


deals with the
structure,
mechanism
, the
rate
, and the
energy

transfer that occurs
when matter
undergoes a change.

Physical Chemistry

15

Nuclear Chemistry

Reaction inside nuclei
of radioactive
elements e.g. U

16

Pure & Applied Chemistry

Pure Chemistry



to gain knowledge for the sake of knowledge
itself.


No immediate practical use


e.g. how e
-

are involved in a
rxn

17

Pure & Applied Chemist
ry

Applied Chemistry




to attain a specific goal or solve a specific
problem.


Technology


e.g. aspirin, condom, mold resistant paint,
optic fibers, artificial joints, …


18

Why Study Chemistry?


Daily life
: food, drinks, shampoos, cosmetics,
textiles, paints, fuel …



Environment
: global warning, conserve energy,
water quality, pollution…



Materials
: building, plastics, bullet
-
proof vests, non
-
stick materials for pans, fiber
-
glass, computer case, …



Medical:
artificial joints
, artificial heart,

19

Energy

Chemists play an essential role in finding ways to




conserve energy,



produce energy, and



store energy.

20

Energy

Conservation




insulation
.




acts as a barrier to
heat flow from the
inside to the outside of a
house or from the
outside to the inside of a
freezer.


21

Energy

Production



The burning of coal, petroleum, and natural gas


is a major source of energy
--

fossil fuels.




Oil from the soybeans/corns is used to make


biodiesel.


22

Energy

Storage





Batteries

:devices that use chemicals to store
energy that will be released as electric current.





Rechargeable batteries
: Digital cameras, wireless
phones, and laptop computers...


23

Medicine and Biotechnology



Chemistry supplies the medicines, materials


(artificial joints …) and technology

(chemotherapy) that doctors use to treat their

patients




Gene therapy




Chemotherapy




Synthetic hormones

24

Medicine and Biotechnology

Medicines


over 2000 prescription drugs.



effective because they
interact
in
a specific way with chemicals in
cells.




Knowledge of the structure and functions of
these target chemicals helps a chemist design safe
and effective drugs.


25

Medicine and Biotechnology

Materials




supply materials to repair or replace
body
parts

such as knee caps, pelvic girdle, artificial
heart



Artificial hips and knees made from metals
and

plastics can replace worn
-
out joints and
allow people to walk again without pain.



For
plastic surgeries



artificial blood, skin, blood vessels,

26

Medicine and Biotechnology

Diagnostic equipments



X
-
ray



MRI

Radiotherapy



cancers

Chemotherapy



cancers

27

Agriculture

Agriculture




help to develop more
productive crops

and safer, more

effective ways to protect
crops.


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Agriculture

Productivity


One way to
track productivity

is to measure the amt

of edible food that is grown on a given unit of

land.




test soil to see if it contains the
right chemicals

to
grow a particular crop and recommend ways to
improve the soil.


29

Scientific Methods (1)

A
scientific method



is a systematic approach to answer a question or
study a situation.



a way for scientists

to
verify

the work

of other

scientists.




an
organized

way

for scientists to

do research.

30

Scientific Methods (2)

A typical scientific method includes:



making
observations/asking a question
,



forming a
hypothesis
,



performing an
experiment
,



analyzing the result/data


drawing a conclusion

31

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and ask a
question

33

O

34



Steps in the Scientific Method

The Scientific Method

35

Scientific Methods (7)


Over time, data from many expts can be used
to form a visual, verbal, and/or mathematical
explanation
of

the phenomenon being
studied
(
model
)



A
theory

is an explanation that has been
supported by many expts.



Theories are always subject to new
experimental data and are modified to include
new data.

36

Solving Numeric Problems

37

The steps for solving a
numeric word
problem
are analyze, calculate, and evaluate.

Law and Theory

A
scientific law


a
fact

of nature that is observed so often that
it becomes accepted as truth.


used to make predictions


does not explain

why something happens.


Theories

explain laws
.

38

Scientific Methods

Independent variable
:




variable that is changed by
the experimenter.

Dependent variable



variable that changes as a
result of the changes of the
independent variable.

39

Scientific Methods

Control


a standard for comparison in an experiment

A
conclusion


a judgment based on the data obtained in the
expt.


40

Scientific Methods (8)


A
scientific law

describes a relationship
in nature that is
supported by many
expts

and for which
no
exception

has been
found.

41

Scientific Research


Pure research

is done to gain knowledge for the
sake of knowledge itself.


Applied research

is undertaken to solve a specific
problem or attain a specific goal.


42

CST problem 1

Matter is made of atoms that have +ve centers of
neutrons and protons surrounded by a cloud of
-
vely charged e
-
. This statement is


A

a theory


B

a hypothesis


C

an inference


D


an observation

43

CST problem 2

In order to advance to the level of a theory, a
hypothesis should be


A

obviously accepted by most people


B

a fully functional expt


C

in alignment with past theories


D

repeatedly confirmed by experimentation

44

CST problem 3

Electrical fires cannot be safely put out by dousing
them with water. However, fire extinguishers that
spray solid CO
2

on the fire work very effectively.
This method works because CO
2


A

displaces the oxygen.


B

renders the fire’s fuel non
-
flammable.


C

forms water vapor.


D

blows the fire out with strong wind currents.

45

Scientific Methods (3)


Often, a scientist will begin with
qualitative

data

info that describes color, odor, shape,
or some other physical characteristic that
relates to the
five senses
.



Chemists also use numerical
quantitative
data
.


A
hypothesis

is a possible explanation for
what has been observed.


An
experiment

is a set of controlled
observations that test a hypothesis.


46

Scientific Methods (5)

Control


a
std for comparison.

A
conclusion


a
judgment based on the data obtained in the
expt.


Hypotheses



never proven


always
subject to additional research.


47

Theory
vs

Law

Theory



well
-
tested
explanation

for a broad set of
observation


can
never be proven
(leave them open …;
new observations)


can be modified


allow us to predict the behavior of matter


e.g. Dalton Atomic Theory

48

Theory
vs

Law

Law


A concise statement that
summarizes

the result
of many observation and experiments


e.g. Boyle’s Law: the volume of gas is
inversely proportional to the pressure.

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