Lecture 1 Libya (pptx, 1.74MB) - University of Bradford

tanktherapistBiotechnology

Oct 23, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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National Series

Lecture 1

Introduction

Libya

Bradford Disarmament Research Centre

Division of Peace Studies, University of Bradford, UK

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Outline

1.
Where we are in the early 21
st

century


2.
Outline of the following lectures


a)
What we should
know


(learning outcome)


b)
What we can
do


(policy contribution)

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What is “Life Science”?


“Any field of science that is leading to or has the potential to lead to
an enhanced understanding of living organisms, especially human
life.”



E.g. Biology, proteomics, genetic engineering, nanotechnology,
aerosol technology, chemistry and mathematics





(National Research Council, 2006: 27)




Applied in:

Public health, Medicine, Agriculture, Energy, Environment and
National security studies

Biotechnology:

An integral part of national strategy

in the 21
st

Century

Region

Annual Worth

Share

North America

$204 Billion

51%

Europe

$102 Billion

25%

Japan

$47 Billion

12%

Asia, Africa, Australia

$32 Billion

8%

Latin America

$17 Billion

4%


A growing
market in Biotechnology:
the
pharmaceutical
market



(National Research Council, 2006: 85)




Similar results in number of researchers and the amount of private

investment for R&D in the life sciences





Rapid growth in the Asia
-
Pacific and the Middle East


(
Ernst&Young

2011,
Frost&Sullivan

2010)

Libya
: Science outlook


“Libya
is still in the first phase of biotechnology development.
Existing
activities
are on improved crop and animal organisms using conventional
methods of

breeding
. Research in the field of modern biotechnology
(especially at the DNA level) is
limited
to institutional activities by
researchers and graduate students.



Biotechnology
applications in Libya started only at the end of the nineties
the public
sector
has not been able during the past three decades to
carry out its role in the
introduction
and application of modern
biotechnology”

(Environment General
Authority Libya, 2008)

Libya
: Science outlook


“Individual
initiatives in certain
research
centers

such as the
Center

for
Industrial Research,
Center

for Agricultural
Research
, and some colleges
of the universities of
Elfatih

and Gar
younis
, failed to
establish
a strong
foundation for the advancement in this new area of
modern
biotechnology
.



The
private sector had not been present and demonstrated its inability to
5 accommodate
various areas of traditional and modern Biotechnology.
This might be due
to
the lack of full understanding of this type of
technologies and the lack of desire to
invest
in areas by the private
sector.”

(Environment General Authority Libya, 2008)


Libya
: Science outlook


“The
establishment of the Research Centre for Biotechnology in 2000
was the starting
point
for the transfer and adoption of modern
Biotechnology in Libya. This was
subsequently
followed by the
emergence of related activities gradually in other Research
Centers

and
Universities.



This
led to the state recognition of the importance of modern
Biotechnology
in various sectors of the economy especially with regard
to food security,
medicine
, but the safety measures and the risk
assessment mechanisms are still at a very
modest
level
.”

(
Environment General Authority Libya, 2008)


Libya
: Science outlook

The Libyan Funds
-
in
-
Trust is a self
-
funding activity implemented with funds
provided by the Government of the Libyan Arab
Jamahirya

for the establishment
of a
Libyan Cell and Molecular Biology
Centre.


Main
objectives of the project are
:



Capacity
-
building: strengthening of training and research in contemporary
cell and molecular biology in Libya through linkage with other networks of
selected existing institutions and specialized international bodies such as the
International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
(ICGEB);


Organization of training courses;


Exchange of personnel, fellowships, expert services and research teams;


Acquisition of equipment as support facilities and exchange of information.

(UNESCO 2012)

Libya
: Setting National Priorities in Biotech

National priorities for the use of modern biotechnology include:



Capacity
building to provide technically skilled human resources in the field
of
modern
biotechnology.


Development
of policies and programs for modern biotechnology and its safe
applications
in the fields of agriculture, health and environmental protection.


Enactment
of laws, regulations and legislation related to the use of
biotechnology.


Cooperation
with international and global organizations such as UNEP, UNESCO
and
FAO to develop training programmers in the field of cells and molecular
biology
and improvement of plant production and protection of the environment
.

(
Environment General Authority Libya, 2008)


Libya
: Bioethics and Biosafety

National Standing Committee for Biological Ethics and Biosafety


The committee is entrusted
with
the following
tasks:


Rating
, follow
-
up and documentation of scientific research and
equipments

used
in
Biotechnology research and direct it into peaceful areas.


Follow
-
up
research in the area of bioethics of cloning and proposal of laws
and
principles
to regulate it.


Defend
the point of view of the Great Jamahiriya with respect to the ethics of
the
scientific
research on cloning in the local and international scientific
forums.


Spreading
of awareness in the area of research ethics in the scientific side of
cloning
, and the preparation and documentation programmes on research
ethics.

(
Environment General Authority Libya, 2008)


PubMed search with “Libya”

0
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2000
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2012
Key word hits in Publication data base

Numbers
Libya
:Promoting Medical Industry

Public Company for Pharmaceuticals and Medical
Supplies



The Company was established for the purpose of medicines production in
addition to
supplies
of different forms of pharmaceutical and medical supplies as
well as different
kinds
of products which may cover commodities needed for
public health in the
Jamahiriya
market and also for export of large
quantities.



The
company has restrictions for dealing with dangerous microorganisms and
very
seriously
focused on what was in the Libyan legislation especially with
respect to health
care
and medical insurance, according to the laws and
resolutions in force.


(
Environment General Authority Libya, 2008)


Libya
: Major Universities in Biotech



University
of
Elfatih
: There are some activities related to biotechnology in
some colleges such as the College of
Science
, agriculture, pharmacy,
veterinary medicine. These colleges teach biotechnology
related
courses
such as microbiology, immunology, genetics and molecular biology,
and
aquaculture
.



University
of Omar
Mukhtar
: The
research unit of biotechnology conducts
Microbiology research in fungi
fingerprinting
protein, as a Master's degree for
postgraduate students. The study have
been
confirmed and adopted as a
new method in fungi taxonomy.



University
of
Sabha
: Biotechnology research was is done at the Faculty of
Sciences and work is focused on
DNA
isolation from organelles (such as
Mitochondria
)

(
Environment General Authority Libya, 2008)


Why do we care?

Should this be an issue for us?

The dual
-
use nature of science and technology:



“Every major technology


metallurgy, explosives, internal
combustion, aviation, electronics, nuclear energy


has been
intensively exploited, not only for peaceful purposes but also for
hostile ones.”






“…Must this also happen with biotechnology, certain to be a
dominant technology of the twenty
-
first century?”


Matthew
Meselson
: Professor of Molecular Biology at Harvard University

(
Meselson
, 2000: 16)

Hostile

Peaceful

Meselson’s

Forecast in 2000

Ability


“Our ability to modify fundamental life processes
continues its rapid advance”




“We will be able not only to devise additional ways to
destroy life but will also become able to manipulate it”



Dilemma


“…[This has a] Vast potential for
beneficial application
and could have
inimical consequences
for the course
of civilization.”



Meselson’s

Forecast in 2000

“At present, we appear to be approaching a crossroads

a time that
will test whether biotechnology…”


Will come to be intensively exploited for hostile purposes,
or


Our species will find the collective wisdom to take a different course.

Biological and Toxin Weapons
Convention (BTWC)

1972

Article I


“Each State Party to this Convention undertakes never in any
circumstances to develop, produce, stockpile or otherwise acquire or
retain:



1. Microbial or other biological agents or toxins whatever their origin or
method of production, of types and in quantities that have no
justification for prophylactic, protective or other peaceful purposes.”



This applies not only to states but also to non
-
state actors

Science and Security: Dual
-
Use

The need for a broader conceptualisation of dual
-
use


Biological agents and toxins can be used for hostile purposes
without

weaponization

and technology is typically diffused globally for peaceful
purposes


Hostile use can take the form of criminal acts or terrorist acts (non
-
state level) in parallel to military application (state level),


The BTWC prohibits the misuse of the life sciences by both states and
non
-
state actors

Dual
-
use: broader concept

Peaceful

Non
-
peaceful

Dual
-
use: traditional concept

Military

Civilian


Libya and international regimes

WMD


In 2003, then Libyan dictator Col. Muammar
Qadhafi

renounced all of his
regime's weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programs, after more than
three decades of extensive efforts to develop nuclear, chemical, and biological
weapons and their delivery systems. agreeing to disclose and dismantle all
WMD programs in 2003,
Qadhafi's

government cooperated with American and
British experts to do so, with dismantlement of the nuclear program completed
and verified by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 2004.

BTWC


Accession (19 Jan 1982)




Tripoli's BW efforts remained limited in size and never progressed beyond the
research and development stages; according to one Libyan official, they never
even progressed beyond the planning stages
.
Following Libya's renunciation
of WMD in 2003, U.S. and UK inspectors found no evidence indicating an
offensive biological weapons program.

(Nuclear Threat Initiative 2012)

Libya and international regimes

CWC


Accession (1 June 2004); Entry into force (2 May 2004)



Libya no longer possesses an offensive chemical weapons program,
but prior to renunciation of its WMD programs, Tripoli possessed a
moderately capable chemical weapons arsenal. In the 1980s, Libya
constructed three chemical weapons research, development, and
production facilities at
Rabta
,
Tarhuna
, and
Sebha
.



Libya
became a party to the CWC in February 2004 and submitted a
report to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
(OPCW) in which it declared 23 metric tons of mustard agent and
1,300 metric tons of nerve agent precursor chemicals


an
inventory miniscule in size compared with prevailing public U.S.
intelligence assessments.

(Nuclear Threat Initiative 2012)


National Series: Lecture Outline

2.

Biosecurity

Threats

3.
The Web of Prevention

4.

National Measures

5.
Responsibility of Scientists

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‘No single focal point’ of threats


Potential actors, material and information, which can be related to dual
-
use issues, exist at
international
, regional, national, local and individual
levels
.


Unpredictable future of the
life sciences

Reviewing threats (Lecture 2)

Manmade threats: warfare,
crime and terrorism

Safety/accidental risks at
laboratories

Natural outbreaks of
infectious disease

To address natural outbreaks of infectious disease


Public health preparedness and response planning


To address safety/accidental risks


Laboratory regulations to safely manage dangerous pathogens and
toxins, to prevent an accidental release into the environment and
unauthorized access


To address manmade threats


Strong international arms control agreements with effective national
implementation


Internationally coordinated export controls


Intelligence


Biodefense


To address the unpredictable future of the life sciences


Oversight: Review of security
-
sensitive science and technology
developments


Responsible conduct in research through education


The Web of Prevention (
WoP
)
(Lecture 3)

Web of
prevention

Public health
measures

Laboratory
measures

International
prohibition
regime

Export
control

Intelligence

Biodefense

Oversight
and review
of
Sci
-
Tech

Responsible
conduct

Natural
threats

Safety risks

Governance
of science

Manmade
threats

National implementation (Lecture 4)

To National Context

National implementation (Lecture 4)

1


International agreements

2


Signature and ratification by states

3


National measures in states


Legislation, regulation, order or other forms
of governance

Worldwide engagement of life scientists with the
WoP

will:


Effectively strengthen
biosecurity

measures by
requiring

the
engagement of practicing scientists


Prevent unnecessary restriction of scientific freedoms





Education of, and capacity building among, scientists on
biosecurity

issues is necessary for successful security


Uninformed scientists = no effective science policy inputs to the
WoP


Engagement of informed life scientists about
biosecurity

issues is key to successful security

The need for responsible conduct in research

(Lecture 5)

Biosecurity
: Definition
issues

The term “
biosecurity
” has been conceptualised differently across
various scientific and professional disciplines



Areas
: The term has been used in ecology, agriculture, food supply,
arms control and public health contexts, with different meanings and
conceptualisations



Policy processes
: these overlap with interdisciplinary areas such as
biosafety
, counter
-
terrorism, agricultural
biosecurity

and biodiversity



Linguistic
: In addition to these conceptual complications,

biosecurity
” has also experienced linguistic complications


(
Fidler

and
Gostin

2007, Sunshine Project 2003,
Barletta 2002)


National Series:

WoP

=
Biosecurity

Education =
Biosecurity

Competency

References


The references cited in this lecture are
viewable in the Notes section of this
presentation.