Biotechnology! - Teacher

tanktherapistBiotechnology

Oct 23, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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BY: L I L Y
K AT Z E F F
, GABRI E L L E
K AT Z E NE L S ON
,
GRI F F I N
T OK UHARA
,
S ABRY N

T ROMBACCO

BIOTECHNOLOGY!

VOCABULARY


Biotechnology
: the exploitation of biological processes for industrial and other
purposes


Selective Breeding
: method of breeding that allows only those individual
organisms with desired characteristics to produce the next generation (Humans use
selective breeding)


Hybridization
: breeding technique that involves crossing dissimilar individuals to
bring together the best traits of both organisms


Inbreeding
: continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics to
maintain the desired characteristics of a line of organisms (Dog breeders use this
technique)


Genetic Engineering
: process of making changes in the DNA code of living
organisms


Restriction Enzymes
: enzymes that cut DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides


Gel Electrophoresis
: procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by
placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of the porous gel and applying an
electrical voltage to the gel

VOCABULARY


Recombinant DNA
: DNA produced by combining DNA from
different sources


Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
: technique that allows
molecular biologists to make any copies of a particular gene


Plasmid
: small circular piece of DNA


Genetic Marker
: A gene that makes it possible to distinguish
bacteria that carry a plasmid with foreign DNA from those that don’t


Transgenic
: term used to refer to an organism that contains genes
from other organisms


Clone
: member of a population of genetically identical cells
produced from a single cells


Genetically Manipulated Organism (GMO)
: organisms that have
had genetic materials moved and/or inserted in order to change one
or more particular traits of an organism

Cloning

Wilmut

and his colleagues transplanted a
nucleus from a mammary gland cell of a Finn
Dorsett sheep into the enucleated egg of a
Scottish blackface ewe. The nucleus
-
egg
combination was stimulated with
electricity

to fuse the two and to stimulate cell division.
The new cell divided and was placed in the
uterus of a blackface ewe to develop. Dolly
was born months later.

Dolly was shown to be genetically identical
to the Finn Dorsett mammary cells and not to
the blackface ewe, which clearly
demonstrated that she was a successful
clone (it took
276 attempts

before the
experiment was successful). Dolly has since
grown and reproduced several offspring of
her own through normal sexual means.
Therefore, Dolly is a viable, healthy clone.


In 1996, cloning was revolutionized when
Ian
Wilmut

and his
colleagues at the
Roslin

Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland,
successfully cloned a sheep named
Dolly
. Dolly was the first
cloned mammal.

STEM CELLS


Stem cells are biological cells found in all multicellular organisms, that can divide
(through
miosis
) and differentiate into diverse specialized cell types and can self
-
renew to produce more stem cells.


Stem cells can
be
taken from the umbilical cord, just after
birth


The primitive stem cells located in the organs of fetuses are referred to as fetal stem
cells


Also known as somatic stem cells and
germline

stem cells, they can be found in
children, as well as adults


There are 3 accessible sources autologous adult stem cells in humans:

1.
Bone Marrow

2.
Adipose Tissue (lipid cells)

3.
Blood


GEL ELECTROPHORESIS

Gel Electrophoresis is
used to separate DNA
fragments. First restriction
enzymes cut DNA into
fragments. The DNA
fragments are then poured
into wells on a gel, which
is similar to a thick piece
of gelatin. An electric
voltage moves the DNA
fragments across the gel.
Because longer fragments
of DNA move slower than
shorter fragments. Based
on the size the DNA
fragments make a pattern
of bands on the gel.

GENE THERAPY


Gene Therapy is the use of DNA as a pharmaceutical agent to treat disease


KEY CONCEPTS


Humans use selective breeding which takes advantage
of naturally occurring genetic variation in plants,
animals, and other organisms, to pass desired traits on to
the next generation of organisms


Breeders can increase the genetic variation in a
population by inducing mutations, which are the
ultimate source of genetic variability


Scientist use their knowledge of the structure of DNA and
its chemical properties to study and change DNA
molecules. Different techniques are used to extract DNA
from cells, to cut DNA into smaller pieces, to identify the
sequence of bases in a DNA molecule, and to make
unlimited copies of DNA.


KEY CONCEPTS CONTINUED


During transformation, a cell takes in DNA from
outside the cell. This external DNA becomes a
component of the cell’s DNA.


If transformation is successful, the recombinant DNA
is integrated into one of the chromosomes of the
cell.


Genetic engineering has spurred the growth of
biotechnology, which is a new industry that is
changing the way we interact with the living world.

QUESTION 1

1.
____________ is a cross between dissimilar individuals to bring together their
best characteristics.



A.
Genetic Engineering


B.
Hybridization


C.
Sequencing


D.
In breeding


QUESTION 2

Breeding
New
Organisms

Can be accomplished through

1

2

including

3

I nbreeding

using

Recombinant
DNA

QUESTION 3

3. Crossing individuals with similar characteristics so
that those characteristics will appear in the offspring


A.
Inbreeding


B.
Electrophoresis


C.
Hybridization


D.
Genetic Engineering

QUESTION 4

Varieties of pure bred dogs are maintained by


A.
Selective Breeding


B.
Hybridization


C.
Inbreeding


D.
Genetic Engineering

QUESTION 5

Changing the DNA of an organism is called:


A.
Genetic Engineering


B.
Hybridization


C.
Selective Breeding


D.
Inbreeding

QUESTION 6

Organisms that have genes of other organisms are
called:


A.
Transgenic


B.
Mutagenic


C.
Donor organisms


D.
Cloned organisms

QUESTION 7

A member of a population of genetically identical
cells produced of a single cell is called:


A.
Clone


B.
Plasmid


C.
Mutant


D.
Sequence

QUESTION 8

Bacteria often contains small circular molecule of
DNA known as:


A.
Clones


B.
Restriction Enzyme


C.
Plasmids


D.
Hybrids

QUESTION 9

When a cell transformation is successful the
recombinant DNA


A.
Undergoes Mutation


B.
Treated with Antibiotics


C.
Becomes part of the transformed cells Genome


D.
Becomes a nucleus


QUESTION 10

DNA can be cut into short sequences by proteins
known as


A.
Restriction Enzymes


B.
Plasmids


C.
Mutagens


D.
Clones

ANSWERS TO THE QUIZ QUESTIONS

1.
B


2.
Visual Thinking

I.
Selective Breeding

II.
Transgenic

III.
Mutations

3. A

4.C

5.A

6.A

7.A

8.C

9.C

10.A