Biotechnology and the Human Genome Project

tanktherapistBiotechnology

Oct 23, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Biotechnology and the

Human Genome Project

Week 11

Breeding


Selective breeding
-

allowing only those
animals with desired characteristics to
produce the next generation


Humans use selective breeding with
plants, animals and other organisms.


Hybridizations
-

crossing dissimilar
individuals to bring together the best of
both organisms

Inbreeding


Inbreeding is the continued breeding of
individuals with similar characteristics.
Inbreeding does have risks, such as recessive
alleles for genetic defects. (blindness/joint
deformities in German shepherds and golden
retrievers)


Breeders can increase the genetic variation in a
population by inducing mutations, which are the
ultimate source of genetic variability.

Genetic Engineering


Scientists use their knowledge of the structure of
DNA and its chemical properties to study and
change DNA molecules.


Genetic engineering is making changes in the
DNA code of a living organism.


Restriction enzymes
-

cuts DNA molecules into
smaller fragments; each enzyme will only fit one
sequence


Gel electrophoresis
-

a mixture of DNA fragments
is placed at one end of a porous gel, and an
electric voltage is applied. It separates
fragments by size.

Sequences


Short sequences can be assembled in
laboratories. “Synthetic” sequences can be
spliced with “natural” sequences. These new
strands are called recombinant DNA.


Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
-

making
many copies of a gene


During transformation, a cell takes in DNA from
outside the cell. This external DNA becomes a
component of the cell’s DNA.

Transformations


Plasmid
-

a small, circular DNA molecule


Genetic marker
-

a gene that makes it
possible to distinguish bacteria that carry
the plasmid from the ones that don’t.


If transformation is successful, the
recombinant DNA is integrated into one of
the chromosomes of the cell.

Biotechnology


Transgenic
-

constructing organisms that contain
genes from other species.


Genetic engineering has spurred the growth of
biotechnology.


Transgenic animals are made with growth
hormones, immune systems, etc.


Transgenic plants produce natural insecticides,
resistance to weed
-
killing chemicals, etc.


Cloning is making exact DNA replicas, then
making copies of the animal or plant itself.

Human Genome Project


There are now tests that make it possible to
detect many genetic disorders.


DNA fingerprinting analyzes sections of DNA
that have little or no known function but vary
widely from one individual to another. (CSI)


The Human Genome Project is an ongoing effort
to analyze the human DNA sequence.


In gene therapy, an absent or faulty gene is
replaced by a normal, working gene.

Homework


What are some ethical issues in Human
Genetics?