tangibleassistantSoftware and s/w Development

Dec 3, 2013 (4 years and 7 months ago)





The Exam
: Section B

LECTURE 2: 3.45

5.00 pm

Ross Smith

(I would like to acknowledge the help of Elizabeth Morgan in preparing these
notes for examination revision)

“Down with the eagle”
Ivan Vladimirov



second lecture for Revolutions focuses on Section B of the examination paper. This will
include the Area of Study 1: Revolutionary Ideas, Leaders, Movements and Events document
exercise and the Area of Study 2: Creating a New Society. The session will rev
ise the content
and students will also be given advice on exam technique.

Why we are here today

VCE History Revolutions Examination

Friday 8th November 3:00 pm

5:15 pm

15 minutes reading time

2 hours writing time

Section A includes two extended responses

and an analysis of a document/graphic

Section B includes an analysis of a document/graphic and an essay

Sections A and B must discuss different revolutions

On the day





tool to
stop silly mistakes



Section B (Second Revolution Studied)

Revolutionary ideas,
leaders, movements and events

Russian Revolution 1905 to October 1917

Question 1 Document/graphic analysis

(20 marks)


Extract from Steve A Smith, ‘Petrograd in 1917: the view from below’ in Rex A Wade’s Revolutionary

Routledge, 2004, pp. 20 and 21

Originally published in ‘Petrograd in 1917: The View from Below’ in Daniel H Kaiser’s The Worker’s
Revolution in Russia: The View from Below, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987

At the time of the February Revolution t
he Bolshevik party had been in considerable disarray.
Its most able leaders were abroad or in exile; its membership had dwindled as a result of

wartime persecution by the authorities; and the party organization was fragmented, both
geographically . . . and

politically . . . The February Revolution took the Bolsheviks by
surprise, and they divided in their attitude to the Prov
isional Government. It was only
Lenin returned from Switzerland on April 4 that a meaningful degree of political unity was
red in the party. Lenin’s April Theses represented an extreme but perspicacious

analysis of the political situation in Russia, which broke sharply with the orthodox Social
Democratic conception of a two
stage revolution. Lenin considered that the “old Bol
formula that the “bourgeois revolution is not yet completed” was “obsolete.”

. . . there must be absolutely no support for the capitalist Provisional Government: power
must pass instead into the hands of the proletariat and poor peasantry via a rep
ublic of
soviets. Meanwhile, Lenin argued, the war remained one of “imperialist banditry,” which the
Bolsheviks must unbendingly

oppose. The party accepted these new strategic perspectives
at its April Conference only after considerable opposition had bee
n overcome; the new views
were concretized

in the slogans “All Power to the Soviets!” and “Down with the War!”

1 perspicacious

intelligent understanding 2 unbendingly

with no flexibility

3 concretized

made real

(VCAA Examination 2011)


Identify tw
o reasons why the Bolshevik party was in disarray.

2 marks


Identify two actions proposed by Lenin.

2 marks


By quoting from the extract and using your own knowledge, explain the role of the Bolshevik P
in advancing a revolutionary situation to October 1917.

6 marks


Evaluate how useful this extract is as evidence of the issues confronting the Provisional
Government in Russia.

In your response quote parts

of the extract and refer to different views of the Revolution.

10 marks

Document and graphic analysis

Directly refer to the extract or graphic and use key words from it

Make use of the captions provided with graphics

Use own knowledge

Question D must cont
ain historians’ viewpoints

Successful answers started with the ideas raised in the extract or graphic


Place the events mentioned within their historical background

Avoid paraphrasing or describing the content

Use signposting e.g “as seen in the graphic”

Don’t just mention views

compare them

Do not just label the views e.g. “Marxist”, “Revisionist”

Students need to be able to recognise key figures/groups e.g. Russia

single figure was a


“by starting with an evaluative statement the
answer is focused on the rep”

Structure moves “into the source and out to viewpoints and other evidence or knowledge”

Achieve a balance between own knowledge and extracted information in C

Look for inferences

Do not rely on summarising the content in detai

Read the question carefully to ensure you know what is being asked of you

Examine the graphic or document as evidence of the event or period given in the question

Avoid acceptance of the view; evaluate its merit

Link historical views with specific detail
s about the event portrayed

Avoid generalised comments about “historians’ schools” or labels such as “Liberal
historians” without any kink to the representation

Discuss the intended function of the graphic/document and it affects the view given

Avoid gener
al descriptions of ideas

use accurate and precise facts

Do not use “the extract states”

this encourages students to simply retell or summarise



Frame answer by starting with representation or document

Move out and offer own kn

Discuss the source and identifying features


“this propaganda poster…….idea……”

Historians support/refute and supply evidence

What is there/not there (useful/not useful)

Evaluation needs to be throughout the answer

Start with source as basis
for discussion

Identify strengths and weaknesses

Quote from the source

Use factual evidence and compare/contrast views to the view shown in the source

Focus on the whole question



Soviet interpretation (class conflict)

Liberal interpretation


t interpretation (social/cultural

Libertarian interpretation (freedom)

Only use with Document & Graphic analysis

Section A: A.O.S. 2, November 1917

Section B: A.O.S. 1, 1905
October 1917

Helpful for revision?

‘Historian speak’

Class, class consciousness, rigidity, out
dated, political, social, economic, institution, causation,
ideology, cultural, traditional order, utopian, new order, rising expectations tension, crises, conflict,
consensus, stability, radicalisation, foreign in
tervention, consolidation of revolution, betrayal,
insular, persuasive, unconvincing

Section B (Second Revolution Studied)

Creating a new society

Russian Revolution November 1917 to 1924

Question 2 Essay

One topic (20 marks)

Question 2

Essay response

Creating a new society

Russian Revolution November 1917 to 1924

The revolutionaries of 1917 promised ‘power to the working class’, but instead the revolution
brought only terror to the people of Russia. To what extent do you agree with this assessment of

Revolution in Russia from 1917 to 1924?

Provide evidence to support your answer.

20 marks

(VCAA Examination 2012)

The following is an extract from an excellent response. The essay covers a wide range of factual
information and considers all parts of
the question.

Upon seizing power in October 1917, the Bolsheviks promised to usher in a classless utopia
with a dictatorship of the proletariat. Despite carrying through some elements of their
promises, the new regime brought chiefly terror to the people of Russia. Elem
ents of the
classless utopia were visible in the advancements of education, women’s rights and
electrification but they were ultimately lost amidst the violence and authoritarianism that
prevailed under the ‘Red Terror’… The establishment of the Cheka in 1
917 under Felix

Derzhinsky would see 140,000 people killed in the space of three years. This is staggering
when compared to the 14,000 people killed over fifty years under the Tsaris Okhrana.
Articles 57 and 58 of the 1921 Soviet Law Code contained an ‘omn
ibus clause’ that could be
used to prosecute anyone with little justification. Hence there was certainly no sphere of life
exempt from Cheka coverage. It is this oppressive and terrible violence that prompted
Volkogenov to say ‘the Cheka gunned its way thr
ough the population’. The 1918 Kulak Laws
exhibited a bloodthirsty and murderous ambition of the new regime as Lenin gave the order
to ‘kill, (kill without fail so the people can see) no fewer than one hundred known kulaks, rich
men bloodsuckers…find some
truly hard people’.


Must refer to key terms offered it the question

Introductions must contain an outline of your viewpoint

Avoid simply agreeing or disagreeing

Engage in debate

Stick to either the Julian or Gregorian calendar throughout the essay

nsider the prompt and engage with it in the context of the question asked

Structure essay using paragraphs each beginning with a valid topic sentence

Define groups if mentioned (who involved)

Stay within appropriate time frame

No pre
learnt essays

No pre
earned paragraphs re historians

“do not use historians’ views in place of evidence….use them only to confirm your evidence”

AREA OF STUDY 1 (edited)

Revolutionary ideas, leaders, movements and events

Russian Revolution 1905 to October 1917 (Bloody Sunday

to the Bolshevik Revolution)

Key knowledge

This knowledge includes

• the chronology of key events and factors which contributed to the revolution;

• the causes of tensions and conflicts generated in the old regime that many historians see as
to the revolution; for example, rising and unfulfilled class expectations; fluctuations in
economic activity; failed attempts at economic, social or political reform; perceived social or
economic inequality or lack of political voice; the impact of war or
economic crisis that contributed
to revolution … the social and economic impact of World War I on Tsarist Russia;


• the ideas and ideologies utilised in revolutionary struggle; for example, ideas of liberty, equality,
fraternity, Marxist ideas, nationalism

• the role of revolutionary individuals and groups in bringing about change; for example, … in Russia,
Kerensky, Trotsky, Lenin, the Socialist Revolutionaries, Mensheviks and Bolsheviks …

AREA OF STUDY 2 (edited)

Creating a new society

Russian Revoluti
on November 1917 to 1924 (Initial decrees to the death of Lenin)

Key knowledge

This knowledge includes

• the contribution of individuals and groups to the creation of the new society; for example, in
Russia, Trotsky and Lenin;

• the cause of difficulties o
r crises faced by the revolutionary groups or governments as a new state
was consolidated; for example, the Civil War and Foreign Intervention in Russia;

• the response of the key revolutionary individuals, groups, governments or parties to the difficultie
that they encountered as the new state was consolidated; for example, the Red Guard in Russia; Civil
War, and War Communism in Russia

•the compromise of revolutionary ideals; for example, the NEP in Russia and the Red Guard and the
Civil War in Russia;

the changes and continuities that the revolution brought about in the structure of government, the
organisation of society, and its values, and the distribution of wealth and conditions of everyday life.

A.O.S. 1
Revolutionary ideas, leaders, movements an

1905 to October 1917

ey events and factors which contributed to the revolution

Tsarist autocracy

Relative lack of economic development

Tiny bourgeoisie, small working class and huge peasantry

Fear of military defeat and revolution led to some
efforts to reform the economy

Debate between ‘Westernisers’ and ‘Slavophiles’

Attempts at reform

Witte, Minister of Finance 1892
1903 promotes industrialization

Government invests in heavy industry


Government builds railways to improve trade

Raises tariffs

for taxes and to protect industry

Huge foreign loans for investment

Rapid industrial growth, “Great Spurt” leads to:

Growth of urban areas, esp. St Petersburg and Moscow, overcrowding in cities, very poor
wages and conditions for workers, when there is a
recession thousands of unemployed
wander the streets

Economic growth leads to demands for political change c.f. China today

Witte forced to resign by suspicious conservatives (1906)

Attempts at reform: 1905 Revolution

Defeat by Japan and revolution (1905)
leads to political humiliation

Bloody Sunday Massacre (Jan.22, 1905) sets off wave of strikes and rebellions

Setting up of St. Petersburg Soviet

Tsar survives by splitting opponents

Peasants given some land reforms

Middle class given some political reforms

“October Manifesto” (1905) grants elections for Duma

Stolypin’s agrarian reforms (1906)

Tries to break individual peasants away from the village collective

Tsar survives by splitting opponents

Peasants given some land reforms

Middle class given some polit
ical reforms

“October Manifesto” (1905) grants elections for Duma

Attempts at reform: Stolypin

Purchasing and consolidating narrow strips of land

Dissolution of the Mir (1906), the traditional village commune

Hopes to create a class of wealthy peasants
(kulaks) who will support regime

Cancels peasants debts to gain support

First Duma (1906) lasts 3 months

Improves education and conditions in army

Introduces ‘Russification.’

Second Duma (1907) lasts 3 months

3000 revolutionaries die by ‘Stolypin’s necktie

Tsar dismisses first two Dumas because too radical; fixes electoral system and results

Third Duma (1907

Assassination of Stolypin (1911) by police agent. Conservatives wary of him b/c of his
support for a duma

Fourth Duma (1912

Dumas have litt
le power and mostly co
operate with government

but provide public forum
for criticism of the Tsarist Government


he social and economic impact of World War I on Tsarist Russia

Russian armies do well at first but are defeated at Tannenberg (August 1914) and


France is

saved but Russian armies begin


Russian forces have more progress against Austrians

St. Petersburg renamed Petrograd because of anti
German feeling

Duma critical of Government’s war effort

Tsar fires some ministers because
they opposed his move to the Front

Allies secretly promise Russia that it will have control of the Turkish Straits

Offensive June 1916 makes gains against Austrians but beaten back by Germans

Miliukov’s inflames opinion in Duma in November 1916 “Is this st
upidity or is this treason?”

Rumours spread of Tsar’s removal following many ministers being removed by the Tsarina
and the growing influence of Rasputin

15 million men mobilised for war

but most of
Army at front

Disrupted industrial and food productio

Loss of Poland reduced Russia’s industrial capacity

Russia’s Government did not forcefully expand its powers, unlike other European

Working hours increased in factories

Wages did not keep up with prices e.g. salt price increased 500%


unwilling to sell crops because few consumer goods available for purchase

to shortages

Railways breakdown under pressure and unable to make deliveries of food and fuel to major

A.O.S. 2
Creating a new society

November 1917 to 1924

Key indiv
iduals & groups

Lenin’s role in creating the new soviet state was crucial all decisions inc. setting up
Sovnarkom, closing Constituent Assembly, signing Brest
Litovsk, War Communism, Cheka,
Kronstadt, ending factionalism & Workers’ Opposition, est. N.E.P.,


Trotsky important in building Red Army & winning the Civil War


Who governs?

Power taken in name of Soviets

Setting up government structures based on soviets with Sovnarkom the peak body

In coalition with Left SRs at first

Not expected that

Party would rule?

Constituent Assembly

Closed down by arms after one day


One key event in setting off Civil War

Crisis & response: Land

Peasants take land & rob houses of gentry

Lenin opposed ideologically to peasants (petit capitalists)

Lenin needs
peasant support so he decrees land belongs to those who work it i.e. not
nobles, Tsar or Church. Takes policy of the SRs. It will help Bolsheviks win peasant support in
the Civil War

Crisis & response: Peace

Bolsheviks determined to stop their ‘imperialist
ic war’

Germans drive a hard bargain

Trotsky tries to delay but exasperated Germans invade and Lenin forces party to accept even
harsher terms at the Treaty of Brest

Trotsky refuses to sign Treaty

Let SRs leave coalition government

Bolsheviks now rule Sovnarkom alone

Many in the Party disagree strongly only later is Lenin vindicated

Crises and response

Civil War and Foreign Intervention by several powers e.g. Britain threatens existence of

Bolsheviks create Red Army and us
e Cheka to crush opposition

Bolsheviks create decrees of War Communism to feed & supply Red Army and half

Peasant rebellions later as result of requisitions and famine e.g. Tambov

Eventually drop requisitioning and evolve military tactics to
defeat peasant


Tries class war in village using Poor Peasant Committees against rich

Famine 1920
1 due to requisitions, war and poor weather

Forced to ask USA for immediate help to feed starving masses

Civil War & foreign intervention confirm
ed Bolshevik ideas of class conflict and capitalist

Bolsheviks continue class war within Soviet State against enemies e.g. kulaks, bourgeoisie

In part, led to policies of War Communism which was a crisis in its own right because of

of grain and militarisation of the workplace & famine

Kronstadt rebellion in response to political and social conditions in cities & countryside
crushed by Red Army

Economic collapse (e.g. strikes, shortages, rebellions) forces Lenin to drop War Communism

in favour of N.E.P.

N.E.P. means building socialism will have to wait

Crisis & response: Party control Tenth Party Congress 1921


Workers’ Opposition wants workers to control and run factories

Democratic Centralists urge more democracy within the Part

Banning of factionalism at Tenth Party Congress 1921 used to stop all opposition after
Lenin’s death esp. by Stalin

Workers’ Opposition condemned by Lenin

Workers forced into Trade Unions which are more easily controlled by State

The compromise of

Bolsheviks had fought & won a war to create a socialist society and through the NEP they
saw a return to capitalism

Methods used by Red Army, Cheka during after the Civil War were barbaric and seemed to
the compromise their ideals e.g. shooting host

Terror campaigns seen as a virtue by Bolsheviks, not just a necessary evil

Accusation enough for execution without even a trial

Fellow socialists persecuted: SRs, Mensheviks, Kronstadt sailors

State stifled early democracy in soviets, trade unions, fa
ctories and within the Bolshevik
Party itself

Changes and continuities

Education had become much more widespread opening up avenues for careers and personal

Electrification and slow modernisation offered hope of economic improvement

Entrance of

millions into the Party and government administration aided social mobility for
lower classes in society

Working class social background valued c.f. bourgeois or intelligentsia condemned

Role of women had improved re divorce & careers

Peasants still own
and work land in much the same way as their ancestors

Church still exists but marginal influence

U.S.S.R. almost same size as Russian Empire despite promise were nationalities were free to

By 1924 USSR had a constitution, unlike Tsarist Empire but ho
w much was it worth?

Constitution does not even mention Communist Party which rules in reality

Soviet Legal Code in reality gave no protection to individual rights c.f. Tsarist system

USSR not an autocracy but Lenin does rule

Is Lenin a dictator?

Cheka and

later GPU & OGPU are similar to old Okhrana but much more powerful

In Tsarist Empire before 1905, political parties were illegal. There is only one legal party in