1. TELEMATIKK - Department of Telematics - NTNU

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Dec 3, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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TELEMATIKK


Projects at Department of Telematics Autumn 2013 (v2 16.05.2013)

The project proposals are classified due to which main profile they belong to.
These terms are used:
NT = Nett og Tjenestekvalitet (Networks and Quality of Service)
TS = Tjenester og Systemutvikling (Services and System Engineering)
IS = Informasjonssikkerhet (Information Security)
TØ = Teleøkonomi (Tele-economics)
TSA = Telematikk og samfunn (Telematics and society)

Some of the proposals are related to several main profiles.

The students can choose the project they want as long as they have the proper scientific basis. Consult
a professor if there are any doubts.

Please choose at least 5 proposals in preferred order dispersed on several professors by registering
name, e-mail address and project numbers via the registration link here:
http://www.item.ntnu.no/student/project


The Department will allocate the project on a fair basis. We seek to distribute the responsibility of
supervision equally among the professors. If one professor gets many students, we might allocate a
chosen topic to another professor.

If conflicts occur, we have the opportunity to use a variety of methods to solve the problem. Drawing
lots may be one way to go. Grades are not criteria for allocation. Empirical, most students get one of
their 3 top-most priorities.

Timeschedule
16 May: Project proposals announced on web, first version
10 June: Deadline for choosing project
17 June: Allocated projects announced on web
19 August: Project start-up
19 September: Submit final project description on It’s learning
16 December: Submission of project on It’s learning


Further practical information will be announced here:
http://www.item.ntnu.no/student/project








TELEMATIKK


1. (TØ) Long tail markets
The long tail principle has changed the way business has been done in several industries. As the
marginal cost of providing e-products is close to 0, less popular content can also be provided to
consumers, without reduced profit. This assignment will look into the long-tail principle and develop
a simulation model in DEMOS demonstrating the temporal evolution of products in the long tail.
In particular, the student will study the following:

Background study on the long tail principle

Study different approaches to model the long tail business

Develop a DEMOS simulation model capturing the long tail process

Evaluate long tail markets using the developed DEMOS model, and compare with empirical
data
This assignment is open for 1 student only.
Professor: Harald Øverby (haraldov@item.ntnu.no)


2. (TØ,NT,IS). Coded networks for optical packet switching
Network coding is a concept utilizing packet redundancy in order to increase performance in
communication networks. Network coding has been extensively studied as, among others, an
effective approach to provide multicast in communication networks. However, network coding may
also be used in a wider context, as a new approach to provide packet transport in the Internet - Coded
networks. In this assignment, the student will look into how network coding can be used to provide
secure, reliable and cost-efficient packet transport with high performance in optical packet switched
networks. An analytical model and/or simulation model demonstrating the effects of network coding
should be developed.
In particular, the student will study the following:

Background study of network coding and optical packet switching

Develop an analytical model or a simulation model of the considered scenario, focusing on
performance, dependability, security, or a combination of these

Assess a realistic network scenario using the developed model
This assignment is open for 1 student.
Professors: Harald Øverby (haraldov@item.ntnu.no), Danilo Gligoroski
(danilo.gligoroski@item.ntnu.no)

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3. (TØ) A simulation model of economic markets
Economic markets for digital products have certain special characteristics making them unique
compared to general economic markets. In order to better understand markets for digital products, it is
important to have a deep understanding of the interaction of these effects. In this assignment, the
student shall develop a DEMOS simulation model of economic markets for digital products. The
model shall include user behavior and temporal evolution of such markets.
In particular, the student will study the following:

Background study of markets for digital products

Develop a simulation model in DEMOS

Analyze digital markets using the developed DEMOS model
This assignment is open for 1 student only.
Professor: Harald Øverby (haraldov@item.ntnu.no)


4. (TØ) Cost advantages of 1+1 path protection using erasure codes
Erasure codes has been proven as an efficient approach to reduce the cost of providing 1+1 path
protection in networks. However, the efficiency of erasure coding is tightly connected to the network
topology. In this assignment, the student shall evaluate the cost advantages of 1+1 path protection
using erasure coding in different network topologies, e.g. ring networks, mesh network, star networks.
In particular, the student will study the following:

Background study on 1+1 path protection and erasure coding

Develop a cost framework for analyzing 1+1 path protection

Analyze the cost of 1+1 path protection in different network topologies
This assignment is open for 1 student only.
Professor: Harald Øverby (haraldov@item.ntnu.no)

5. (TØ/NT) B.A.T.M.A.N. and CATWOMAN in network coding
Network coding can boost Wi-Fi speed by a factor of 10 or 20 or more. In
this assignment, the student should implement network coding on wireless
routers. In the project CATWOMAN network coding is combined with the
routing scheme B.A.T.M.A.N.. Simple XOR coding schemes are implemented and
this simple approach has been adopted already by the B.A.T.M.A.N. group.
In order to let students try out the network coding with CATWOMAN, the
CATWOMAN approach is downloadable. Every laptop turns in a network coding
enabled node by booting a LINUX system from a USB stick.
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In particular, the student will study the following:
- Background study of implementation of network coding in wireless meshed
networks
- Try out network coding with CATWOMAN
- Analyze the performance

Supervisor: Katina Kralevska (katinak@item.ntnu.no)
Professor: Harald Øverby (haraldov@item.ntnu.no)

6. (TØ, NT). Google and Sony do the Internet: are content providers becoming ISPs?
There was a time when Internet Service Providers (ISPs) entered the online content market to get
extra revenues. Recently, however, this process has been reversed: content giants like Google and
Sony have become ISPs themselves. This assignment will look into the connection between the online
connectivity and content market.

In particular, the student will do the following:

- Background study on the Internet ecosystem with special regard to ISPs and content providers (CPs)
- Develop a market model encompassing both ISP turning CP and vice versa
- Use the model for analysis of potential future scenarios

This assignment is open for 1-2 students.

Supervisor: Gergely Biczok (gbiczok@item.ntnu.no)
Professor: Harald Øverby (haraldov@item.ntnu.no)

7. (TØ, IS). Interdependent privacy: are your friends for real?
Users of today's online services share massive amounts of personal information and opinion with each
other and the respective services every day. In such an interconnected setting, the privacy of
individual users is bound to be affected by the decisions of others, giving rise to the phenomenon
which we term as interdependent privacy. The prospective student will conduct a case study on a real
ecosystem (e.g., Android, cloud service, social network services, blogs, etc.), show the presence of
interdependent privacy, and build a model to quantify its impact. This topic enables the student to
contribute to cutting-edge research in the intersection of economics, social networks and privacy.

This assignment is open for 1 student.

Supervisor: Gergely Biczok (gbiczok@item.ntnu.no), Pern Hui Chia (Google)
Professor: Harald Øverby (haraldov@item.ntnu.no)




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8. (IS/NT) Simulating a secure OLSR ad hoc network protocol

The project assignment is suitable for 1-2 students.

SINTEF has developed a secure extension to the OLSR protocol for crisis situations [1]. A very
simple simulation was performed at the time, but since then there have been published other
simulation models that take the specific nature of disaster and rescue operations into account [2][3].
The task is to analyse the Secure OLSR protocol [1], and implement a new simulation using a suitable
framework such as ns-3, taking the new simulation scenarios [2][3] into account, and proposing
improvements based on the simulation results.

The candidates may also want to consult a previous similar assignment for a different protocol [4].

References:
[1] Information security for field workers in crisis situations, OASIS Deliverable D-SP 2_10,
2008
http://sintef.org/upload/IKT/9013/security/OASIS_SP2_DDD_253_SIN_security.pdf

[2] N. Aschenbruck, E. Gerhaps-Padilla, M. Gerharz, M. Frank, P. Martini, "Modelling mobility
in disaster area scenarios", in: The 10th ACM international symposium on modeling,
analysis and simulation of wireless and mobile systems, 2010.
[3] Ram G. Lakshmi Narayanan, Oliver C. Ibe, "A joint network for disaster recovery and
search and rescue operations", Computer Networks, Volume 56, Issue 14, 28 September
2012, Pages 3347-3373, ISSN 1389-1286, 10.1016/j.comnet.2012.05.012.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1389128612002022
)
[4] Anne G. Bowitz: "Simulation of a Secure Ad Hoc Network", MSc thesis, Norwegian
University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 2011 http://sislab.no/batcave


Supervisor: Martin Gilje Jaatun (martin.g.jaatun at sintef.no), SINTEF ICT
Professor: Danilo Gligoroski (danilog@item.ntnu.no)



9. (TS) IPTV App for Samsung Smart TV
Broadband operators are delivering IPTV services to their customers today using
a Set-Top-Box (STB) connected to any type of TV set. As Smart TV's are becoming
quite popular and these devices have embedded networking and processing capabilities
it is interesting to move the STB functionality into the Smart TV. This can be done by making an App
with the appropriate functionality for the Smart TV.
The key capabilities of such an app is to present a list of available TV channels based on a EPG
(Electronic Program Guide) source and to enable the TV to join the respective multicast groups
carrying each TV channel. The student will be provided with the required TV set and also TV
channels available in multicast on ethernet.

The tasks to be conducted will be a combination of theoretical and practical work.
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1.) http://developer.samsung.com/smarttv



Supervisor: Bjørn J. Villa, PhD Candidate (bv@item.ntnu.no)
Professor: Poul E Heegaard (poul.heegaard@item.ntnu.no)


10. (NT) Improving the RUDE & CRUDE IP Packet Generator
IP traffic generators can be used for different purposes, such as performance testing, verification of
network element functionality, troubleshooting and also network probing.
Depending on the specific use, different requirements will apply for the generator. In the domain of
performance testing it is important to be able to generate high traffic loads, while in the domain of
network probing - accuracy in the range of microseconds /nanoseconds are desirable. The scope of the
project is to investigate an existing tool for UDP traffic generation (RUDE & CRUDE) for which
source code is available and make an assessment of its timing accuracy. The student should also
identify potential changes to the tool, maybe the use of new libraries / functions which could improve
it.
If possible, some of the suggested improvements should be implemented. The student should
have knowledge and interest in using C/C++ and Linux.

1.) RUDE & CRUDE tool - http://rude.sourceforge.net/


Supervisor: Bjørn J. Villa, PhD Candidate (bv@item.ntnu.no)
Professor: Poul E Heegaard (poul.heegaard@item.ntnu.no)


11. (TS) iPhone App for Controlling Wireless Access Point
The scope of the project is to develop an iPhone app which is able to control a wireless access point
through a central management system. The fucntionality of the App is to facilitate simple parental
control of childrens Internet usage while home alone.The central management system is
an existing system developed as part of an earlier master thesis assigment, and the access point is
based on the Raspberry PI Model platform. The student should have interest and knowledge about
SW development in Java, Linux and iOS platforms. It may also be beneficial to have some interest
and knowledge about mySQL.

1.) Raspberry PI -
http://www.element14.com/community/groups/raspberry-pi?ICID=hp_raspberry

2.) iOS App development -
https://developer.apple.com/devcenter/ios/index.action



Supervisor: Bjørn J. Villa, PhD Candidate (bv@item.ntnu.no)
Professor: Poul E Heegaard (poul.heegaard@item.ntnu.no)



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Joint information for the next
3 topics

In the converged telecom, IT and media industries, traditionally dominated by a Quality of Service
and technology-centered discourse, there has heen a growing awareness over the last decade that
users, their experiences and the broader socio-economic context in which these experiences take
place, cannot be ignored any longer. Not the technological excellence and optimized QoS, but
pleasureable and positive experience, meeting users' expectations (= what really matters from the user
perspective) have become the key differentiators. In the literature, the concept Quality of Experience
has been introduced in this respect. A good introduction to QoE with reference to its definition,
features and influencing factors and examples of application domains can be found here:
http://www.qualinet.eu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=45&Itemid=52
The project proposals focus on Quality of Experience in the context of different application domains.

12. (TSA/TS) QoE of (personal storage) cloud services and applications (mobile and/or fixed)
(Available for 2 students)
The domain of cloud computing has boomed tremendously over the last couple of years. Both the
offer and the use of personal cloud services and applications such as Dropbox, Google Drive and
iCloud are strongly on the rise in what is sometimes referred to as the ‘cloud-connected and multiple
device’ era. Cloud computing potentially offers important advantages to users in terms of centralizing
services, computation and data in a ‘location-transparent’ way. Moreover, the migration of services to
the cloud is associated with new affordances for users to share and access their own data in a much
more flexible way and to collaborate amongst multiple users. However, the growing use of cloud
services and applications in different contexts and on multiple devices also goes hand in hand with
technical challenges. In order to handle the available resources and deal with the specific network
conditions in the most efficient way so as to minimize the associated costs, while at the same time
ensuring user delight, there is a need to investigate QoE-related issues from a real user point of view.
Tasks include:
- overview state of the art QoE in the context of cloud applications and services
- study existing solutions for mobile QoE measurement such as
http://www.awareframework.com/home/
- development and implementation of measurement tool that can be used to investigate QoE of cloud
applications or services (e.g., personal storage cloud services) in a real-life, living lab setting
- setting up and conducting an empirical study using the implemented tool

Supervisor: Katrien De Moor (katrien.demoor@item.ntnu.no)
Professor: Poul Heegaard (poul.heegaard@item.ntnu.no)


Quality of Experience in the context of Adaptive Video Streaming ,
information for the next 2 topics
)
Context:
In a mature broadband market there is a growing interest in delivering content over Internet to end
users. The type of service delivery model followed by content providers which do not have a close
relationship with network operators, fall into the Over-The-Top category. This means that they apply
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intelligence on the application layer to make their services as good as possible during any
network/traffic situation. Examples of this includes the TV2sumo service (www.tv2sumo.no)
provided by the main commercial TV channel in Norway. Technologies for implementing the requires
intelligence at application layer for video services are developed by different companies, some of
which are: Microsoft’s Smooth Streaming, Adobe’s Dynamic Streaming, Apple’s HTTP Live
Streaming and Move Network’s Adaptive Stream. Although several services are already available,
very little research so far has focused on Quality of Experience in the context of existing adaptive
video streaming services.

13. (TSA/NT)Investigating QoE in context of adaptive video streaming services in a controlled
lab setting
(available for 2 students)
Tasks include:
- overview state of the art of adaptive video streaming protocols and main principles and look into the
literature on QoE in the context of adaptive video streaming
- identify QoE features and factors that might influence QoE
- investigate selected features and factors through one or several empirical controlled lab studies

Supervisors: Katrien De Moor katrien.demoor@item.ntnu.no , Bjørn Villa bvilla@item.ntnu.no
Professor: Poul Heegaard (poul.heegaard@item.ntnu.no)


14. (TSA/TS) Investigating QoE related to adaptive video streaming services in a real-life,
living lab setting
(available for 2 students)
- overview state of the art of adaptive video streaming protocols and main principles and look into the
literature on QoE in the context of adaptive video streaming
- study existing solutions for QoE measurement in real-life settings (such as
http://www.awareframework.com/home/ )
- based on this study, development and implementation of measurement tool (or refinement of
existing tool)
- setting up and conducting an empirical study using the implemented tool

Supervisors: Katrien De Moor katrien.demoor@item.ntnu.no , Bjørn Villa bvilla@item.ntnu.no
Professor: Poul Heegaard (poul.heegaard@item.ntnu.no)


15. (IS) Measuring information security
(Ønskelig med norsk-språklig student/student who speak Norwegian is preferred)

Measuring information security is a challenge. Several metrics exist; suggested from different
organizations, like ISO/IEC and NIST, and researchers, but they are not all easily adaptable for use in
a company. However, metrics would be a powerful tool in evaluating performance and effects of
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investments in security countermeasures, and hence the motivation for implementing metrics should
be obvious.

The objective of this assignment is to investigate which metrics could be feasible to implement in an
organization.This work should be performed by collecting and using real-life experiences, by e.g.
performing interviews and/or arranging workshops.

Supervisor: Maria B. Line (mariabli@item.ntnu.no)
Professor: Karin Bernsmed (karin.bernsmed@item.ntnu.no)



16. (IS) Smart Grids: Privacy preservation vs added value to the DSOs
Smart Grids is the long-term vision for development of power automation systems. Communication
will be added to the distribution network for monitoring and management purposes, and the first step
in the direction of Smart Grids is the implementation of smart meters. The power consumption
will then be measured automatically on an hourly basis and sent to the utility company for billing and
grid management purposes.

This frequent measuring generates large amounts of data, which could be used for performing
profiling on neighborhoods and even single households. Such large-scale collection of personal
information may be considered an invasion of privacy. On the other hand, detailed power
consumption data can be of great value to the distribution system operators and possibly
for other stakeholders in the power industry as well.

The needs of the different stakeholders for collecting and storing data related to individuals should be
balanced against the requirements of the Personal Data Act. The student should investigate these
issues and design requirements to the storing and processing of data collected from the
smart meters.

Some background information:
Datatilsynet - the Data Inspectorate:
http://datatilsynet.no/Teknologi/Stromavlesing/


Personopplysningsloven - The Personal Data Act:
http://www.lovdata.no/all/hl-20000414-031.html
(in Norw)
http://www.ub.uio.no/ujur/ulovdata/lov-20000414-031-eng.pdf
(in Eng)

Supervisor: Maria B. Line (mariabli@item.ntnu.no)
Professor: Karin Bernsmed (karin.bernsmed@item.ntnu.no)

17. (IS) A comparison of security standards for IT systems and industrial control systems
Several standards exist related to information security in IT systems. Some concern administrative
issues, while others address technical issues. Also, several standards, recommendations and
guidelines exist that address information security industrial control systems as well.
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The power industry is currently planning for, and implementing, smart grids, where IT systems and
industrial control systems (ICS) will be tighter integrated than today. Also, a larger degree of
commercial-off-the-shelf products will be used for ICS purposes than before. This opens up for new
threats and challenges that used to be relevant only for the traditional IT systems.

In this exercise the student should investigate the different standards, recommendations and
guidelines addressing information security in both IT and ICS systems. Similarities and differences
should be discussed. The purpose is to see whether the existing material seems sufficient for the
future smart grids.


Supervisor: Maria B. Line (mariabli@item.ntnu.no)
Professor: Karin Bernsmed (karin.bernsmed@item.ntnu.no)


18. (TS/NT) Experimentation with sparse aperture cameras and luminance layering
Study and describe the use of separate color (RGB) and luminance (L)
sensors, and the sparse aperture technique in video shooting. Carry out
experiments where the frame rates of L- and RGB cameras are varied when
shooting objects move (controlled, repeatable) at varying speed. Vary the
exposure time, the aperture and the position of cameras to simulate sparse
apertures and luminance layering. Use PointGrey SDKs, Matlab,
Premiere/After Effects/Photoshop or other, for processing and off-line
editing before the final video is shown on a high-quality 3D display.
Apply mixed qualitative and quantitative methods to evaluate the perceived
quality of the videos. Theme TTM5 gives the necessary background for
carrying out this assignment. See also
http://www.item.ntnu.no/people/personalpages/fac/leifarne/collaborationspaces


Supervisor: Leif Arne Rønningen, Item
Professor: Leif Arne Rønningen (leifarne at item.ntnu.no)


19. (NT) Simulation and analysis of a routing protocol for heterogeneous mobile ad hoc
networks
Mobile ad hoc networks are of particular interest to the military for areas where no infrastructure
exists or can be established. FFI has run multiple experiments with MANET in a tactical setting.

Currently we have an ongoing project in close cooperation with the University Graduate Centre
(UNIK) where we study routing for very heterogeneous MANETs. With a heterogeneous MANET we
mean a network built of radio-links with very different characteristics (data-rate, jitter, delay, etc.). In
this project we have proposed an overlay routing protocol for this challenging environment.

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We are looking for master students that are interested in working with us on simulation and analysis
of a routing protocol for this scenario. We are using state of the art in open source network simulation
environment
(http://www.nsnam.org/) and will also use ns3’s interface to the
Click

Modular
Router (http://www.read.cs.ucla.edu/click/click
) for implementation of the protocol in a test
bed.

In this activity we can offer a short project topic, a master topic or a combination of both. If this
sounds interesting, don’t hesitate to contact us for more information.

Supervisors: Mariann Hauge, +47 63807269, (Mariann.Hauge at ffi.no),
Lars Landmark,
+47 63807376, (Lars.Landmark at ffi.no )
Professor:Øivind Kure (oivind.kure@item.ntnu.no)


20. (NT) Implementation of admission control and resource management for mobile ad hoc
networks
Mobile ad hoc networks for military use might consist of several different radio links with varying
capacity. A network route from source to destination might for example include HF, VHF, and UHF
radio links. These radio links might vary considerably in bandwidth (e.g., several kb/s to several
hundred kb/s) and other QoS characteristics. Topology based routing with separate routing tables for
selected QoS characteristics are advantageous in such a setting.

At FFI we have an experimental Linux router that supports Multi Topology (MT) routing. The router
makes its routing decisions based on static “typical” QoS characteristics of the links that make up the
route. The router does not have any knowledge about the traffic load on the route. We want to build
an admission control mechanism that use the routes calculated by the MT router and do explicit load
measurements on the provided route before traffic is admitted to the network. One option is to use the
techniques described in 21 for load measurements. This should improve the admission control
decision for the system.

The student work can f.eks. include a state of the art study of measurement techniques to identify
traffic load on a path, implementation of “the best” available technique on the Linux based MT
router and a performance analysis of the system in a test bed at FFI, Kjeller.

In this activity we can offer a short project topic, a master topic or a combination of both. If this
sounds interesting, don’t hesitate to contact us for more information.

The work must be done in close cooperation with the network communications group at FFI, Kjeller.
Since the student’s work requires repeated access to our test bed at FFI, the student will need a
security clearance.

[1] Libak, B.; Hauge, M.; Landmark, L.; Kure, O., "Admission control and flow termination in mobile ad-hoc
networks with Pre-congestion Notification," MILCOM 2012 , Oct2012

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Supervisors: Mariann Hauge, +47 63807269, (Mariann.Hauge at ffi.no),Bjørnar Libæk, +47
63807611, (Bjornar.Libak at ffi.no)
Professor:Øivind Kure (oivind.kure@item.ntnu.no)



21. (NT) Interdomain multicast
Multicast routing protocols has been an active research topic for more than two decades. The purpose
of multicast routing is to minimize the network resources needed to distribute information to a group.
Live TV-streaming over the Internet of popular events such as World Championship in cross country
skiing is an example where multicast routing can be useful. Multicast ensure that only one copy of the
data is transmitted over the sections of a routing path that is common to one or more destinations, the
data is replicated as needed in routers on the way to the destinations.

In military wireless networks multicast is perceived to be a very important network service. These
networks have much lower data rate than most civilian networks, thus network resource optimization
is a key element. A large portion of the communication in the low data-rate networks in a military
operation is group communication.

At FFI we have an ongoing activity that study multicast in single domain low data-rate networks.
However we see the need for Interdomain multicast in many scenarios. This is a topic that has
received little research attention. We are looking for students that want to work with us on this topic.
Possible activities can be to build an interdomain testbed for multicast based on available open source
SW, or to modify existing multicast protocols to better support interdomain multicast. Modification
can be done for SW running on a testbed (f.eks. in the
Click Modular Router
(http://www.read.cs.ucla.edu/click/click) ) or for the network simulation environment

(
http://www.nsnam.org/
).

In this activity we can offer a short project topic, a master topic or a combination of both. If this
sounds interesting, don’t hesitate to contact us for more information.

Supervisors: Mariann Hauge, +47 63807269, (Mariann.Hauge at ffi.no),
Lars Landmark, +47
63807376, (Lars.Landmark at ffi.no
)

Professor:Øivind Kure (oivind.kure@item.ntnu.no)


22. (TS) Smart Call Handling
The proliferation of the smart devices and gadgets has been changing our lives recently. Nowadays
using smart phones, tablets (phablets), and PCs individually or combined is becoming a commodity.
Using these devices improves the way how we interact with and react to our applications. Actually,
smart devices are deriving smart applications. These applications change the end-user behavior, and
there is an ever increasing level of expectation from end-users on how smart and intuitive these
applications must be.
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The scope of this project is to investigate how smart devices can improve the capabilities of call
handling. The focus will be on the telephone receptionist who handles many calls every day. The
prospect student will also propose innovative ways to interact with the smart devices regarding call
handling.
To experiment this concept the student will make a prototype of a smart app running on smartphones
and tablets that provides the user with intuitive ways of handling phone calls and messaging. For
instance making use of the gestures available on multi-touch screens to transfer calls, manipulate
contact information, send group SMSs, mute calls, park calls, initiate multiple calls simultaneously,
etc.

Professor: Mazen Shiaa (malek@item.ntnu.no)



23. (TS/NT) Seamless Mobile IP Telephony: GSM/3G WiFi handover
Making telephony calls is one of the most fundamental activities we do every day. Typically mobile
calls are more expensive than VoIP calls. But of course people would prefer mobile calls as it gives
them flexibility and mobility. Let alone people prefer to use one single device and single application
to make their calls. The question is, is it possible to seamlessly switch between a mobile call and an
IP call whenever reliable internet connectivity is available? Could this be done while you are in the
middle of an ongoing call without interruption? Will you make savings? The answer to all these
questions is Yes.
The scope of this project is to study various algorithms that predict the quality of the internet
connectivity with regard to voice quality, delay, and other key performance indicators. These
algorithms will be used to work out certain mechanisms that ensure the seamless handover of calls
among the mobile network and the internet. Furthermore, the project will also involve the
development of certain improvements to an available soft client that can partially perform such
functionality.

Professor: Mazen Shiaa (malek@item.ntnu.no)


24. (TS) Implementation of a policy-based reasoning machine
A policy is a set of rules and actions. Policy-based reasoning is a method used to decide actions based
on the constraints and some data. It can be used for decision support and management systems such as
network management system and energy management system. The advantage of policy-based
reasoning is the ability to cope with changes in variables and logic as a result of new researched
solutions. However, the disadvantage of this method is the tendency to give lower performance in
comparison to algorithmic systems. This comes from the processing required to read/parse policies
and match rules. In this master project, the student will study current methods in implementing a
policy-based reasoning machine, discuss performance issues, suggest implementation techniques to
improve the performance, and implement a prototype of the reasoning machine.

Supervisor: Kornschnok Dittawit (kornschd@item.ntnu.no)
Professor: Finn Arve Aagesen (finnarve@item.ntnu.no)
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25. (TS) Generation of user interfaces for home devices in Smart Houses
There are many ongoing researches and high commercial activities in Smart Houses’ related domains.
These domains include Smart Home (for elders and disabled people), Home Automation (which
increases the convenience of household inhabitants), and Home Energy Management System (which
helps inhabitants save energy and lower electricity bills). These systems are constituted of a large
array of home devices. Although peer-to-peer collaboration among devices has been proposed by
some, the most common proposals and solutions involve a central system that coordinates all
networked devices. The ideal central system needs to be able to manage any plugged-in devices and
also render the graphical user interface (GUI) for users to indirectly control devices via personal
computers and mobile phones. In this master project, the student will devise a method to generate
generic GUI for home devices based on their registered information. The GUI needs to provide device
information and allows the users to execute device operations. The method must also allow an
override of GUI in case the device vendors would like to provide a customized version. A prototype
shall be implemented.

Supervisor: Kornschnok Dittawit (kornschd@item.ntnu.no)
Professor: Finn Arve Aagesen (finnarve@item.ntnu.no)


26. (NT) IEEE 802.11p network connectivity for smartphones
Cooperative systems, where vehicles communicate with other vehicles and the road infrastructure, is
an area subject to extensive research and development in Europe and the US. The idea is that every
vehicle is equipped with an ITS Station that communicates with similar ITS Stations in other vehicles
or roadside units along the roads. Communication can be by any communication medium. Long range
communication by mobile communication and short range local communication by WiFi IEEE
802.11p are among the commonly used communication media.
In this proposal we will investigate and implement a communication plug-in module to be used with a
smartphone (either full IEEE 802.11p, or simulated using other network types). This plug in can be
based on custom off the shelf components, and the intended use is within R&D on cooperative
systems at NTNU, SINTEF and Norwegian Public Roads Administration.
This way every citizen carrying a smartphone, may become a member of the “cooperative ITS
community”.

Supervisors: Jo Skjermo (jo.skjermo at sintef.no), Erik Olsen (erik_olsen at vegvesen.no) (NPRA)
Professor: Tor Kjetil Moseng (torkjeti@item.ntnu.no)


27. (NT) Content Delivery Network Systems
UNINETT is the national research IP network operator in Norway. UNINETT provides universities,
university colleges and research institutions with access to the global internet as well as access to a
range of online services. UNINETT also offers counselling and act as secretary and coordinator in
collaborative activities between the institutions interconnected by UNINETT.
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As the amount of multimedia content managed by UNINETT's services is increasing ensuring
efficient content delivery over the network becomes critical. UNINETT has currently no content
delivery network (CDN) system in operation (but hosts a rack of commercial CDN nodes), i.e.
content is always delivered from source to destination without caching.
The projects main objective is to analyse UNINETT's content delivery needs and survey potential
CDN solutions. Studying traffic data to understand location and capacity characteristics of media
sources and sinks as well as learning about pros and cons of available CDN solutions will be among
topics to address.

Supervisors: Otto J Wittner (otto.wittner at uninett.no), Simon Skrødal (simon.skrodal at uninett.no)
Professor:Leif Arne Rønningen (leifarne@item.ntnu.no)

28. (IS) Analysis of password management architecture
UNINETT is the national research IP network operator in Norway. UNINETT provides universities,
university colleges and research institutions with access to the global internet as well as access to a
range of online services. UNINETT also offers counselling and act as secretary and coordinator in
collaborative activities between the institutions interconnected by UNINETT.
At UNINETT a team of operational managers manage a large collection of servers, routers and
switches. Each unit typically has a root account and an associated password. Securly managing the
total collection of passwords is a challenge while still ensuring access to them for all relevant
personell and in all relevant situations.
The projects main objective will be to evaluate a password management architecture proposed by
UNINETT. Comparing it to other potential architectures as well as, if possible, quantifying the level
of security the architecture may offer are tasks to be looked into.
Supervisors: Tor Gjerde (tor.gjerde at uninett.no) – UNINETT
Professor: Danilo Gligoroski (danilog@item.ntnu.no)


29. (TS) Session Initiation for Low Delay Video Conferencing
UNINETT is the national research IP network operator in Norway. UNINETT provides universities,
university colleges and research institutions with access to the global internet as well as access to a
range of online services. UNINETT also offers counselling and act as secretary and coordinator in
collaborative activities between the institutions interconnected by UNINETT.
UNINETT is experimenting with low cost video conferencing systems for teaching in disciplines
where delay is critical (e.g. music). Several open source system are available applying very similar
techniques to keep the latency to a minimum. However currently these system do not interoperate.
The projects main objective is to investigate if and suggest how the systems can be enhanced with
session initiation to enable interoperability taking into account that latency is a key parameter.
Investigating if and how these open system may interoperate with more common VC systems is also
of interest.
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Supervisors: Otto J Wittner (otto.wittner at uninett.no), Jardar Leira (jardar.leira at uninett.no) –
UNINETT
Professor:Lill Kristiansen (lillk@item.ntnu.no)

30. (NT/TS) Visualization of Netflow data
Prerequisite: TTM4150 (Internet Network Architecture) or equivalent

UNINETT is the national research IP network operator in Norway. UNINETT provides universities,
university colleges and research institutions with access to the global internet as well as access to a
range of online services. UNINETT also offers counselling and act as secretary and coordinator in
collaborative activities between the institutions interconnected by UNINETT.
Netflow data provides the network operators, like UNINETT, with detailed information about how
the network is being used. It is possible to look at things like who is generating the most traffic, who
is the target of DoS attacks, who is sending out spam etc. Netflow is also commonly used for
automatic anomaly detection. The challenge here is that the amount of Netflow data collected in a
typical backbone network is so large that even the best of anomaly detection algorithms fails by either
not detecting the anomalies or by providing too many false positives.
Another alternative approach to processing Netflow data with anomaly algorithms is to use visual
analytics, i.e. present large amounts of data as pictures and animations such that humans may detect
anomalies by visual inspection. This project's main objective will be to evaluate and compare existing
methods and tools for doing advanced visualization of Netflow data.

Supervisors: Arne Øslebø (arne.oslebo at uninett.no)– UNINETT
Professor:Yuming Jiang (jiang@item.ntnu.no)


31. (TS/NT) Open network topology services
UNINETT is the national research IP network operator in Norway. UNINETT provides universities,
university colleges and research institutions with access to the global internet as well as access to a
range of online services. UNINETT also offers counselling and act as secretary and coordinator in
collaborative activities between the institutions interconnected by UNINETT.
UNINETT is a multilevel network that is built from cables, fibers, lambdas, VLANS, IP networks and
VPNs. There is need to solve the problem of documenting the global research network infrastructure
that allows for common tools and for exchange of information between universities and research
networks. There has been several initiatives to address part of these problems like : In Norway with
NAV a network management system for campuses, in the Nordic area at NORDUnet, in Europe with
Geant projects as well as American/Internet2 activities.
The task is to survey state of the art of tools and data models in this area, and recommend an open
system architecture containing data models, exchange protocols and available system components . A
prototype implementation that demonstrates the capabilities of the architecture should be built.
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Supervisor: Olav Kvittem (olav.kvittem at uninett.no) Morten Brekkevoll (morten.brekkevold at
uninett.no) (Nav) and Vidar Faltinsen (vidar.faltinsen at uninett.no) (Europe) – UNINETT
Professor: Finn Arve Aagesen (finnarve@item.ntnu.no)


32. (NT) Quantifying UNINETTs high availability infrastructure
UNINETT is the national research IP network operator in Norway. UNINETT provides universities,
university colleges and research institutions with access to the global internet as well as access to a
range of online services. UNINETT also offers counselling and act as secretary and coordinator in
collaborative activities between the institutions interconnected by UNINETT.
UNINETT is in the process of designing, developing and interconnecting infrastructure components
with the aim to offer a foundation for application services of high availability. Redundancy and
independence of the components have been ensured however so far no formal analysis quantifying the
potential availability of component combinations have been performed.
The projects main objective will be to model a set of sample services and quantify their potential
availability. If possible, a more general framework for analysis of future services should be purposed.
Including factors in the models which quantify the difference between a test installation of a service
and an operational installation are desirable. As UNINETT offers “best effort” services in general, a
metric showing such a difference would be helpful to motive moving services from test to operational
status.

Supervisors: Otto J Wittner (otto.wittner at uninett.no), Roger Skjetlein (roger.skjetlein at
uninett.no), Morten Knutsen (morten.knutsen at uninett.no) UNINETT
Professor: Bjarne Helvik (bjarne@item.ntnu.no)

33. (IS) WiFi hacking using the "WiFi Pineapple Mark IV"
Man-in-the-middle attacks is a serious security threat to many protocols and systems. In recent years,
a number of solutions have emerged on the market which facilitates the sniffing of wireless network
traffic. One such solution is the “WiFi Pineapple”, which is a small device running a trimmed down
version of Linux, and enables tremendously easy and portable capture of data in a WLAN’s.
However, one of it’s most interesting features is the following (quoted from the product’s web page):

“Most wireless devices including laptops, tablets and smartphones have network software that
automatically connects to access points they remember. This convenient feature is what gets you
online without effort when you turn on your computer at home, the office, coffee shops or airports
you frequent. Simply put, when your computer turns on, the wireless radio sends out probe requests.
These requests say “Is such-and-such wireless network around?” The WiFi Pineapple Mark IV,
powered by Jasager -- German for “The Yes Man” -- replies to these requests to say “Sure, I’m such-
and-such wireless access point – let’s get you online!”

In this specialization project, the student will get to do hands-on experiments, using the “WiFi
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Pineapple” gadget, in order to determine its capabilities and potential. Interesting questions can
include:
- What devices and operating systems are vulnerable to the attack of automatically connecting to a
fake access point set up by the WiFi Pineapple? And what are the necessary measures that needs to be
taken in order mitigate this attack?
- The WiFi Pineapple is expandable, including options for adding your own functionality, accessories,
modules and scripts, and also features an active developer community. One task can be to develop
some new functionality for the WiFi Pineapple.


The products homepage:
http://hakshop.myshopify.com/products/wifi-pineapple


Further information and ideas:
http://www.troyhunt.com/2013/04/the-beginners-guide-to-breaking-
website.html


Supervisor: Håkon Jacobsen (hakoja at item.ntnu.no)
Professor:Danilo Gligoroski (danilog@item.ntnu.no)


34. (TS/TSA) Quick Patient Responsibility Handover for Nurses
At a hospital studied a nurse is responsible for a number of patients. However, the responsibility is
often handed over to other nurses during a working shift. In an existing nurse call system, a
cumbersome process is required to update the information about what patients a nurse is responsible
for. The process is therefore rarely carried out in practice. This project will look at solutions on how
these orally made handover agreements could be reflected in the system more easily. Technologies
such as RFID or near-field communication could be utilized. The student should be familiar with
application programming.
Supervisor: Joakim Klemets (joakim@item.ntnu.no)
Professor: Frank Alexander Kraemer (kraemer@item.ntnu.no)

35. (TS/TSA) Context Augmented Phone Calls
A ringing phone does usually not convey more information about the call other than a phone number
and possibly the name of the person calling. In health care environments it could be preferable to
receive more information about the call, such as the urgency and perhaps what the matter is about.
This would enable health care workers to more efficiently decide whether to answer the call or not.
The project would seek to build a phone on which users can augment phone calls with further context
information about the call. This information would then be displayed to the callee. The student should
be familiar with object-oriented programming. A prototype would be developed for the Android
platform.

Supervisor: Joakim Klemets (joakim@item.ntnu.no)
Professor: Lill Kristiansen (lillk@item.ntnu.no)
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36. (TS/TSA) Smart Watch for Health Care Workers
Health care workers are often interrupted in their work due to incoming calls or messages on their
mobile phone. Nurses are also sometimes busy using both their hands, and are unavailable to answer
the call without interrupting the ongoing activity. In order to help health care workers to make an
informed decision on whether to take the call or not, the objective of this project is to develop a smart
nurse watch. The smart nurse watch would provide a way to easily obtain information about a call.
This would be a part of a wider pervasive system to enhance communication within hospitals. The
student should be familiar with application programming.

Supervisor: Joakim Klemets (joakim@item.ntnu.no)
Professor: Frank Alexander Kraemer (kraemer@item.ntnu.no)

37. (TS/TSA) Awareness Communication and Distribution Service for Hospitals
Awareness about colleagues activates and availability status is important for nurses in their daily
coordination and prioritization of work. Currently, this type of information is mostly exchanged
orally. However, there are situations when is not possible to exchange this information face-to-face.
This project would seek to design a system that allows health care workers to easily communicate
awareness information to other nurses. The system would also make sure that the information is
distributed to colleagues in an appropriate manner. The student should be familiar with application
programming.

Supervisor: Joakim Klemets (joakim@item.ntnu.no)
Professor: Lill Kristiansen (lillk@item.ntnu.no)

38. (NT) Availability of Cloud Computing Scenarios, a Simulation Study.
Cloud computing is a technology with huge and increasing popularity in ICT business. It makes the
computing tasks more flexible, accessible and reliable.

Cloud computing environments are not fault free. Failures are unavoidable events that occur
according to stochastic processes. The main objective of this project is to analyze the availability
that a cloud provider offers under different cloud computing variables such as: redundancy,
management of spare servers, virtual machine restore mechanisms, and cloud computing
architectures.

The project requires the simulation of several cloud computing scenarios, and the analysis of the
availability level obtained under each of them. For the realization of this project, we need a student
interested in cloud computing and dependability with good programming skills (preferably be familiar
with the simulation of random process).

Supervisor: Andres Gonzalez ( andresgm@item.ntnu.no )
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Professor: Bjarne E. Helvik ( bjarne.e.helvik@item.ntnu.no )


39. (IS) “Bitcoin – the concept and coin mining”
Bitcoin (BTC) is a digital currency first described in a 2008 paper by pseudonymous developer
Satoshi Nakamoto, who called it an anonymous, peer-to-peer, electronic payments system. Bitcoin
creation and transfer is based on an open source encryption protocol and is not managed by any
central authority. The creation of new bitcoins is automated and may be accomplished by servers,
called bitcoin miners that run on an internet-based network and confirm bitcoin transactions by
adding codes to a decentralized log, which is updated and archived periodically. Each bitcoin is
subdivided into 100 million smaller units called satoshis, defined by eight decimal places.
The students will have to study in details the concept of Bitcoin and coin mining and will have to
install some experimental mining environments.

This assignment is open for 2 students.

Professor: Danilo Gligoroski (danilog@item.ntnu.no)


40. (IS) “Litecoin – the concept and coin mining”
Litecoin is a peer-to-peer Internet currency that enables instant payments to anyone in the world. It
differs from its parent Bitcoin in that can be efficiently mined with consumer-grade hardware.
Litecoin provides faster confirmations (targeted at every 2.5 minutes on average) and uses memory-
hard, scrypt-based mining to target the CPUs and GPUs most people already have. The Litecoin
network is scheduled to produce four times as many currency units as Bitcoin.
The students will have to study in details the concept of Litecoin and coin mining and will have to
install some experimental mining environments.

This assignment is open for 2 students.

Professor: Danilo Gligoroski (danilog@item.ntnu.no)


41. (IS) “PPCoin – the concept and coin mining”
PPCoin also known as Peer to Peer coin, Peercoin, PPC and P2PCoin is the first known crypto-
currency based on an implementation of a combined Proof of Stake/Proof-of-work system. PPCoin's
major distinguishing feature is that it uses proof-of-stake/proof-of-work hybrid system. The proof-of-
stake system was designed to address vulnerabilities that could occur in a pure proof-of-work system.
With Bitcoin, for example, there is a risk of attacks resulting from a monopoly on mining share. This
is because rewards from mining are programmed to decline exponentially, which may decrease the
incentive to mine. As miners decline, the likelihood of a monopoly increases, which leaves the
network vulnerable to a 51% attack (i.e., where the monopolist can double-spend coins). With a
proof-of-stake system, new coins are generated based on the holdings of individuals. In other words,
someone holding 1% of the currency will generate 1% of all proof-of-stake coin blocks. This has the
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effect of making a monopoly more costly, and separates the risk of a monopoly from proof-of-work
mining shares. Additionally, the proof-of-stake system also has other beneficial qualities.
The students will have to study in details the concept of PPCoin and coin mining and will have to
install some experimental mining environments.

This assignment is open for 2 students.

Professor: Danilo Gligoroski (danilog@item.ntnu.no)


42. (IS) Privacy on the Internet
From a research network the Internet has evolved to become the backbone of the modern digital
society allowing people to get access to valuable information. Unfortunately there is always a
backside of the medal. Personal information has also been disclosed without the consent of the owner.
More seriously data about a person has been collected without the awareness of the users. Indeed,
privacy is a big concern on the Internet. The goal of this project is to study and shed light about the
privacy on the Internet.
More specifically the project consists of the following tasks:
• Study and understanding of privacy
• Investigation of the digital footprints and the threats to privacy
• Study and proposal of existing privacy protection mechanisms
This project can be continued in a Master thesis work.

Professor: Do van Thanh (thanh-van.do@telenor.com)

43. (IS) Universal identity
Today quite often, in order to get access to useful information or services on the Internet users need to
have an identity, i.e. login name and password. As the number of identities increases in the same pace
as the number of services, users will have problem to remember all the login names and
corresponding passwords. Further, passwords constitute a weak form of authentication which does
not provide sufficient protection of the user. For mobile networks, the subscriber’s identity is stored
on the SIM card, which provides both strong and flexible authentication. It would be nice if there is a
way of federating Internet identities and mobile identities to make life easier for the users at the same
time as security is ensured. The goal of the project is to investigate and identify solutions for a
universal identity, which can offer both security and user-friendliness to the users.
The project will consist of the following tasks:
• Investigation of the current state-of-the art identity and access on the Internet
• Study of identity management in mobile networks
• Identification and analysis of federation possibilities
• Elaboration of federation solutions
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This work can be continued in a Master thesis work.

Professor: Do van Thanh (thanh-van.do@telenor.com)

44. (IS) Identity management in M2M (Machine-to-machine)
M2M (Machine-to-machine) represents a future where billions to trillions of everyday objects and the
surrounding environment are connected and managed through a range of devices, communication
networks, and cloud-based servers. In a static M2M system where all objects remain unchanged a
simple identity management system will suffice. However, when the number of objects is changing
or/and the objects start moving and changing positions a more sophisticated identity management is
required to ensure both connectivity between objects and sufficient security. Furthermore, object may
be allocated to different users in a dynamic way and a dynamic identity management system is
required. The goal of the project is to shed light onto the identity management in M2M and eventually
propose an IdM system for M2M.
The project will consist of the following tasks:
• Study of M2M system
• Investigation of the current state-of-the art IdM systems for M2M
• Elaboration of requirements of an IdM for M2M
• Elaboration of an IdM for M2M
This work can be continued in a Master thesis work.

Professor: Do van Thanh (thanh-van.do@telenor.com)

45. (IS) Mobile phone security
Lately, smartphones have outclassed PCs both in numbers and usage and this trend is still continuing.
Unfortunately, together with the popularity came also the malicious attacks. Indeed, the mobile phone
is now more than ever exposed because it has become an inseparable companion of each individual,
carrying valuable information, which can be exploited economically. Furthermore, both the awareness
of the danger and the countermeasures are still quite limited. This project is aiming at clarifying the
threats that smartphones are exposed to and present some of the countermeasures.
The project will consist of the following tasks:
• Identification of attacks on smartphones
• Study of the threats and vulnerabilities of smartphones, e.g. iOS, Android, Windows.
• Identification and analysis of protection measures
This work can be continued in a Master thesis work.

Professor: Do van Thanh (thanh-van.do@telenor.com)

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46. (IS) Device collaboration in the Internet of things
A traditional M2M system consists of three essential elements: the Field-deployed wireless device,
the wireless carrier network and the back-end server network. When M2M evolves to become the
Internet of things the focus is shift to interactions between objects and how they serve the user. It is
no longer matter whether communications are via the wireless carrier network or via the local
wireless networks. There are currently a several activities focusing on device collaboration such as
DLNA (Digital Living Network Appliance, Android@Home service, DVB Multimedia Home
Platform, NEC M2M platform, etc. and the advance is at high pace. The goal of the project is to shed
light onto the complex situation in device collaboration.
The project will consist of the following tasks:
• Study of current device collaboration systems
• Elaboration of requirements for device collaboration system
• Proposal of a device collaboration system
This work can be continued in a Master thesis work.

Professor: Do van Thanh (thanh-van.do@telenor.com)

47. (TS) M2M for health care
To face a growing aging population the health sector has to make use of technologies and the
adoption of M2M technologies is a necessity. One of the major current challenges is to provide
adequate health care to elderly citizens living at their home. It is crucial to use M2M technologies to
make health equipment e.g. devices for measuring glucose levels, blood pressure, heart beat, etc.
collaborate with each other to serve the patients. The goal of the project is to shed light on the state-
of the art of M2M for health care.
The project will consist of the following tasks:
• Study of current M2M technologies
• Analysis of current M2M for health care i.e. standards, enabling technologies and challenges
• Proposal of an M2M system for health care
This work can be continued in a Master thesis work.

Professor: Do van Thanh (thanh-van.do@telenor.com)


48. (TS) State Machines on Embedded Processors from Nordic Semiconductor
Nordic Semiconductors has a range of embedded processors (the nRF series) for wireless
applications, for instance for heart rate monitors or remote controls. Applications on these processors
are programmed in C. In this thesis, we want to find out if the paradigm of state machines can help to
create responsive, efficient and highly concurrent applications, and find out how this affects the
power consumptions of the devices.

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Supervisor: Nordic Semiconductor: Reidar Martin Svendsen (martin.svendsen at nordicsemi.no)
Professor: Frank Alexander Kraemer (kraemer@item.ntnu.no)

49. (TS) Runtime Systems for State Machines in Lua
Lua (lua.org
) is a programming language that is increasingly popular on embedded processors. In this
thesis, we want to find out how event-driven and state-based applications can be programmed in Lua.
This includes current design patterns for such applications as well as possible extensions for a
runtime support system.

Professor: Frank Alexander Kraemer (kraemer@item.ntnu.no)

50. (TS) M2M/Telematics Application
The goal of this task is to design, implement and refine an M2M application. The detailed application
is not defined yet, but examples are usually in the domains of logistics, transport or home automation.

Professor: Frank Alexander Kraemer (kraemer@item.ntnu.no)


51. (IS)IMPLEMENTATION OF CSP AND/OR AX.25 ON FOR THE NUTS STUDENT
SATELLITE

As a part of the national student satellite program, the NUTS CubeSat project was initiated at NTNU
in 2010. The projects goal is to give hands-on experience to students within different fields of
satellite technology. This includes planning, specification, design, construction, launch and operation
of a satellite.

The construction of a satellite is a multi-disciplinary field. To succeed, the project needs highly
motivated and interested students with a different backgrounds. This technical complex project will
serve as a challenge for all persons involved.

The NTNU student satellite NUTS will be using the ham-frequencies at 145 MHz and 437 MHz for
communicating with the ground station. When using ham-frequencies, we are not allowed to encrypt
downlink data or use non-open communication protocols. The AX.25 protocol will be used. Even if
the down link cannot be encrypted, we need to secure our uplink such that only authorized users are
able to upload commands to the satellite. As an example, the satellite must be able to detect and reject
a re-transmitted RF signal.

The student(s) working on this topic should propose and make an implementation of the CSP and/or
AX.25 protocols for NUTS,
taking into account the above mentioned issues, previously investigated in 2011 and 2012. The
implementation should
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be both in the space (AVR32) and ground segments (PC, Windows/Linux/GNU-radio)

Web: http://nuts.cubesat.no


Supervisor: Roger Birkeland (roger.birkeland@iet.ntnu.no)
Professor: Stig Frode Mjølsnes (sfm@item.ntnu.no)


52. (NT/TØ) Energy efficiency in wired/wireless access networks
Over the last years, energy consumption of both IT devices and their supporting infrastructure has
become one of the most important concerns in ICT networks because of environmental (and cost)
reasons. Energy consumption in ICT is increasing mainly due to exponential network growth, and it is
clear that there is an urgent need for sustainable and eco-friendly networks.
Nowadays, access networks are responsible for 70 – 80 % of total network-based energy
consumption. Fortunately, there are many energy saving techniques that can be exploited in order to
reduce energy consumption in access networks. Some of these mechanisms are the use of novel
protocols, low power electronics, sleep modes of customer premises equipment and access network
nodes or low-energy access architectures. In this project, the student will analyze different energy
saving techniques that can be employed in wired/wireless access networks.
More precisely, the student shall:
- Provide a background of energy saving techniques for different wired/wireless access network
technologies.
- Analyze and quantify the reduction in power consumption achievable by employing the
previous energy saving techniques for specific wired/wireless access technologies.
- Outline the cost implications of applying these techniques.
This work can be continued in a Master Thesis work. In addition, as there exist many access network
technologies, the student will focus only on wired or wireless technologies (or the most
representative/promising technologies of these two).

Supervisor: Álvaro Fernández (alvarof@item.ntnu.no)
Professor: Norvald Stol (norvald.stol@item.ntnu.no)



53. (NT) Assessing dependability in hybrid wireless-optical access networks
Access to the Internet has become a very important service in modern society; not only for social
activities, but also for business, communication and safety of humans and the environment. A hybrid
wireless-optical access network is a new kind of access network architecture that combines a Passive
Optical Network (PON) with a Wireless Mesh-Network (WMN) in order to provide this service. The
importance of this new architecture has increased over the last few years due to the fact that it exploits
the advantages of both PONs and WMNs at the same time. Thus, a hybrid wireless-optical access
network is able to achieve low deployment costs, relatively high data-rates and mobile end-user
access. However, the combination of these two technologies has created several new challenges, and
assessing the dependability of this technology is one of them.
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Dependability is a relevant characteristic of systems based on information and communication
technology. As the dependency of our society in these systems increases, also the concern for
dependability does. That is the reason why the dependability of hybrid wireless-optical networks must
be analyzed. In this project, the student will assess the dependability of hybrid wireless-optical access
networks.
More precisely, the student shall:
- Provide a background of the hybrid wireless-optical access network architecture.
- Analyze the dependability of such architecture and quantify the availability/reliability that can
be achieved.
- Outline and analyze possible fault tolerant designs for this architecture.
This work can be continued in a Master Thesis work.

Supervisor: Álvaro Fernández (alvarof@item.ntnu.no)
Professor: Norvald Stol (norvald.stol@item.ntnu.no)


54. (NT, TØ) “3-Level Integrated Hybrid Optical Network” (3LIHON)
A new switch architecture concept for the future optical core network has been proposed called the
“3-Level Integrated Hybrid Optical Network” (3LIHON) [1]. Within this architecture concept some
actual realization alternatives are possible. Aspects of the basic architecture have been studied with
regard to performance and dependability in previous master theses (i.e. parts of b) and c) below)
[2, 3]. In addition research on architecture and implementation alternatives (i.e. parts of a) below) is
done by a PhD student at the department [4, 5]. However challenges remain with regard to evaluation
of both the general concept and the actual realization(s) with respects to performance, dependability,
cost and energy consumption /environmental impact. Comparisons should be done, both between
alternative realizations of the 3LIHON concept, and with other suggested architectures for the future
optical network.
A number of challenges can be identified in the context above, e.g.:
a) Focus on architecture: Feasibility studies and comparisons of different implementation
choices, e.g. of the Optical Packet Switched (OPS) part of 3LIHON, including alternative or
additional use of Optical Codes (OC) inside the OPS. Evaluation of scalability for the Optical
Circuit Switched (OCS) part of the architecture. Development of scheduling algorithms for
contention resolution.
b) Focus on performance: Evaluation of scheduling algorithms. Do performance studies for all
types of connection classes using the 3LIHON node.
c) Focus on dependability/reliability: Extend the architecture of a 3LIHON node to increase
reliability for parts of or all connections using a node. Develop a strategy how to use available
resources as well as possible in a fault situation.
d) Focus on economy/cost: Evaluate the cost of 3LIHON and compare it to other architectures.
e) Focus on energy usage/environmental impact: Evaluate the energy consumption and
environmental impact from 3LIHON and compare this to other architectures.
If result from the project is satisfactory this work can be extended in a Master thesis spring 2014.
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[1] N. Stol, C. Raffaelli and M.Savi: “3-Level integrated hybrid optical network (3LIHON) to meet future QoS requirements”, IEEE GLOBECOM
2011, Houston, Texas, USA, December 2011.
[2] G. Leli, C. Raffaelli, N. Stol, M. Savi: “Performance Assessment of Congestion Resolution Scheduling in Asynchronous 3-Level Integrated Hybrid
Optical Network (A-3LIHON)”. Networks 2012; October, 2012.
[3] A. Fernandez, N. Stol, M. Savi: "Protecting Real-Time Traffic Service in a 3-LIHON Hybrid Node", 17h International Conference on Optical
Network Design and Modeling (ONDM 2013), Brest, France.
[4] S. Yang and N. Stol: “Architecture and performance evaluation of the edge router for an integrated hybrid optical network,” IEEE ICCC 2012,
Beijing, China, August 2012.
[5] S. Yang and N. Stol: “Architecture, Performance and Cost Analysis of an Optical Packet Switch with Input Concentrators”, submitted to 2nd IEEE
ICCC 2013, Xi’an, China, August 2013.

Professor: Norvald Stol (norvald.stol@item.ntnu.no)

55. (NT) “SDN/Openflow based control and management of Integrated Hybrid Optical
Networks (IHON)”
Software Defined networking (SDN) and especially the variant denoted Openflow has been receiving
a lot of attention in the research community lately. The basic idea is to replace distributed control with
a more centralized control when operating networks, giving a global view of the resource situation in
a network (or a sub-area of a network) making routing decisions and “traffic engineering” of
information flows easier. There is however aspects of this strategy that is not necessarily beneficial
and need to be studied more, e.g.:
• Scalability: How large may a (sub-) network be for this to still be manageable with
regard to the amount of information exchange needed in a network to keep the central
controller updated. This also depends on the complexities of the protocols used. Can
sub-areas of the network exchange macro-level information (a la BGP in the Internet)?
• Dependability: centralized control functionality must be extremely reliable. How can this
be achieved?
Research in this area is still very active. Our contribution would be to use a case study where we
focus on application of Openflow to one specific type of architecture, i.e. the Integrated Hybrid
Optical Network (IHON). An example of an IHON is the 3LIHON described in the task above. Is this
type of control and management suited for the IHON architecture? Is it scalable? What about
dependability in this context?
If result from the project is satisfactory this work can be extended in a Master thesis spring 2014.

Professor: Norvald Stol (norvald.stol@item.ntnu.no)


56. Security requirements for the Cloud
As the uptake of Cloud computing services increases, we see a growing number of SaaS, PaaS and
IaaS offerings from a broad set of providers. The Cloud broker is foreseen to take an important role in
the Cloud ecosystem, providing a one-stop shop for many customers. The Cloud broker will help
customers find the best services that fit their particular needs, and that fulfills their requirements on
performance, dependability, security and cost

SINTEF ICT is currently working on security requirements related to Cloud brokering. CloudSurfer is
a prototype Cloud broker tool that automatically matches a customer's security requirements against
different provider offerings. CloudSurfer is based on WS-Agreement, which is a standard for
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describing requirements in terms of machine-readable Service Level Agreements between service
providers and service customers.

The current version of CloudSurfer has two interfaces, one that allows potential Cloud customers to
search for available services and another one for administrating the tool. In this task the student will
extend CloudSurfer with a new interface, which allows the providers to add service offerings to the
broker. The student will then analyze existing service offers from a number of public Cloud providers
(Amazon, Google, Microsoft, etc) and investigate to what degree these can be represented in
CloudSurfer.

Supervisor: Per Håkon Meland, SINTEF (Per.H.Meland at sintef.no)
Professor: Karin Bernsmed (Karin.Bernsmed@item.ntnu.no)


57. (IS) H0113 Hvordan avdekke tyveri av identitet eller sesjoner i WLAN?
Til denne oppgaven søkes dyktig nettverksdetektiv!
Kriminalitet skjer i stadig større grad over nett og en viktig forutsetning for å bekjempe denne type
kriminalitet er å kunne spore opp brukere. WLAN er den mest utbredte aksessformen til internett og
et stort problem er at det per i dag er mulig å stjele og misbruke en brukers tilkobling eller sesjon.
Hvordan kan vi avdekke sesjonstyveri?

Trådløse Trondheim har sammen med studenter på NTNU jobbet med ulike måter å detektere
sesjonstyveri på. Arbeidet som gjøres her ligger svært langt fremme og nylig det ble det publisert
artikkel som oppsummerer arbeidet så langt: http://tradlosetrondheim.no/pdf/Spoof_WiFi.pdf


Vi ønsker nå å se om det er mulig å bruke ett slikt system i praksis.

Veileder: Trådløse Trondheim v/Thomas Jelle (thomas.jelle@item.ntnu.no)
Faglærer: Danilo Gligoroski (danilog@item.ntnu.no)


58. (IS) H0213 Kan eduroam-prinsippet benyttes også utenom universitets og
høyskolesektoren?
Trådløse Trondheim har mange ulike brukergrupper og ulike aksessløsninger, ikke alle er like sikre
og vi vil vurdere å samle alle brukergrupper i en sikker løsning med autentisering og kryptering.
Oppgaven består i å vurdere og teste gjennomførbarhet, sikkerhet og brukervennlighet for en WPA-
Enterprise-basert løsning med RADIUS proxy for ulike brukergrupper som «gjester»,
«abonnementsbrukere» og «ansatte i ulike organisasjoner». Målet er at alle skal kunne benytte en
sikker SSID med WPA2 Enterprise og at båndbredde ol styres ut fra hvilke rettigheter du har/hvilken
organisasjon du kommer fra.

Ila oppgaven skal det lages en prototyp. Er det mulig å etablere en løsning som kombinerer
egenskapene:
- Sikker
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- Brukervennlig
- Autentisere brukere mot ulike RADIUS løsninger og abonnementsdatabaser
- Sette brukere med feil konfigurasjon i en "walled garden", hvor de får instrukser til hvordan de kan
logge på eller opprette nytt abonnement.
Stikkord: 802.1x, WPA/WPA2, Sikkerhet, WiFi, (Free)RADIUS

Veileder: Trådløse Trondheim v/Jan Egil Jægersborg (janegil at skylabs.no)
Faglærer: Danilo Gligoroski (danilog@item.ntnu.no)


59. (TØ) H0313 Hvordan tjene penger på å tilby gratis Wi-Fi?
Det det mulig å benytte en Freemium-modell for å tilby gratis Wi-Fi? Hvordan skal en slik modellen
se ut? Hvem er aktørene som må være med?

Veileder: Thomas Jelle, Trådløse Trondheim (thomas.jelle@item.ntnu.no)
Faglærer: Harald Øverby (haraldov@item.ntnu.no)


60. (NT) H0413 Posisjonering basert på WLAN signaler
Innendørs posisjonsinformasjon er en viktig byggestein i fremtidens tjenester. GPS fungerer ikke
innendørs, så for å få til posisjonering innendørs må det benyttes en annen infrastruktur. WLAN er en
slik infrastruktur som er egnet for posisjonering. Alle eksisterende løsninger har imidlertid svakheter,
enten i form av hvilke enheter som støttes, nøyaktighet eller forsinkelse på dataene. Oppgaven går ut
på å lage et design og en proto-type på en ny posisjoneringsserver som kobles rett inn i trådløsnettet
hvor en skal ha posisjonering og at beregningen av posisjon foregår basert på eksisterende trafikk i
nettet.

Veileder: Thomas Jelle/Åsmund Tokheim, Trådløse Trondheim (
asmund at tradlosetrondheim.no)

Faglærer: Yuming Jiang (jiang@item.ntnu.no)


61. (NT) H0513 Hvordan benytte sensorinformasjon fra Smarttelefoner for å avgjøre om en
person er i bevegelse og i hvilken retning?
Trådløse Trondheim har siden 2009 jobbet med innendørs posisjonering, se
campusguiden.no
. Denne løsningen bruker primært signalstyrken fra WLAN til å estimere brukerens
posisjon. For å forbedre denne opplevelsen er det ønskelig å ta i bruk sensordata fra brukerens
smarttelefon. F.eks. kan data fra et akselerometer og kompass brukes til å estimere brukerens
bevegelse og retning? På den måten kan vi indikere i hvilken retning brukeren går, ikke bare hvor han
er.

Oppgaven består i å utvikle og teste en løsning med bruk av sensordata fra smarttelefonen til å
forbedre brukeropplevelsen ved innendørs navigering.

Veileder: Trådløse Trondheim v/Åsmund Tokheim (
asmund at tradlosetrondheim.no)

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Faglærer: Yuming Jiang (jiang@item.ntnu.no)


62. (TS) H0613 App for som gir push reklame når brukere kommer inn i en trådløs sone
Oppgaven går ut på å designe en applikasjon for Andriod/iOS som automatisk detekterer når en
bruker ankommer en trådløs sone og som sender brukeren en reklame. Dette forutsetter at brukeren
har registrert sitt telefonnummer og godtatt betingelser for bruk av nettverket på forhånd. Det tekniske
utfordringene som må løses er hvordan automatisk gjenkjenne en bruker uten ny manuell
autentisering, samt knytte autentiseringen til en App for utsending av rekalme.

Veileder: Trådløse Trondheim v/Jan Egil Jægersborg (janegil at skylabs.no) og Håkon Klæbo
(haakon at skylabs.no)
Faglærer: Peter/Frank/Rolv


63. (NT) H0713 Bærbar nettverksmonitor
Oppgaven går ut på å lage et program for monitorering og diagnosering av feilkilder i trådløse
nettverk. Programmet skal kunne kjøre på en liten hardware med GPS og skal
som gjør det mulig å putte denne boksen i sekken og vandre rundt innen for dekningsområdet til et
WLAN, feks Trådløse Trondheim og automatisk gjøre monitorering, diagnose og feilsjekking.

Veileder: Trådløse Trondheim v/Jan Egil Jægersborg (janegil at skylabs.no) og Håkon Klæbo
(haakon at skylabs.no)
Faglærer: Yuming Jiang (jiang@item.ntnu.no)

64. (NT) Fusion network performance experiment
TransPacket is a startup-company that has implemented the novel fusion technology, also called
OpMiGua integrated hybrid networks (www.transpacket.com). In the project the student will perform
a network experiment involving TransPacket H1 nodes measuring performance parameters like
latency, latency variation (packet delay variation) and packet loss. The experiment shall be performed
in the laboratory of TransPacket in Oslo. Remote operation of experimental equipment is available.

The fusion concept (http://www.transpacket.com
) has the main objective of combining the best
properties from both circuit and packet switched networks into a hybrid solution. A number of studies
show that the performance properties of the OpMiGua (fusion) network are found attractive.

The Master project will be tutored by:
Steinar Bjørnstad (ITEM/Transpacket) - Steinar.Bjornstad@item.ntnu.no
, Phone: 90081033,
Co-supervisor will be: Raimena Veisllari - veisllar@item.ntnu.no



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65. (NT) Cost analysis comparing the fusion network with pure packet and pure circuit
switched networks

TransPacket is a startup-company that has implemented the novel fusion technology, also called
OpMiGua integrated hybrid networks.

The fusion concept (http://www.transpacket.com
) has the main objective of combining the best
properties from both circuit and packet switched networks into a hybrid solution. A number of studies
show that the performance properties of the OpMiGua (fusion) network are found attractive.
However, studies addressing the cost-efficiency of the network are limited. In this project, the student
will analyze the cost of a network utilizing a TransPacket OpMiGua node and compare this with the
cost of pure circuit and a pure packet switching.

The Master project will be tutored by:
Steinar Bjørnstad (ITEM/Transpacket) - Steinar.Bjornstad@item.ntnu.no
, Phone: 90081033,
and/or
Harald Øverby (ITEM) – Haraldov@item.ntnu.no

Co-supervisor will be: Raimena Veisllari - veisllar@item.ntnu.no


66. (NT) Operation and management (OAM) in Ethernet and MPLS-TP packet based
networks
Operation and Management is currently one of the most important issues addressed when carriers are
implementing packet switched optical networks. TransPacket is a startup-company
(www.transpacket.com) that has implemented the novel fusion technology, also called OpMiGua
integrated hybrid networks (www.transpacket.com
). TransPacket is now working on implementing
monitoring functions in the TransPacket products. In the project, protocols for monitoring will be
studied in detail and an overview shall be given. Pros and cons of the different solutions shall then be
evaluated. A part of the study may include a simulation analysis.

Migrating from the reliable high performance SDH network to a fully packet based network, puts
high demands on the packet network. For fulfilling these demands, existing protocols are extended,
trying to bring known functions in circuit switched systems like monitoring and traffic engineering
into the packet switched network.
Recently, a number of extensions to existing protocols for transport networks have been proposed.
Examples are the Transport Profile extension to MPLS: MPLS-TP, bringing OAM capability to
MPLS. Similar features are brought into Ethernet: Link-OAM and Service-OAM. Furthermore, the
OTN (Optical Transport Network) standard is proposed as a predecessor for SDH, enabling a physical
layer transport protocol for optical networks.

The Master project will be tutored by:
Steinar Bjørnstad (ITEM/Transpacket) - Steinar.Bjornstad@item.ntnu.no
, Phone: 90081033,
Co-supervisor will be: Raimena Veisllari - veisllar@item.ntnu.no


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67. (NT) Circuit switching still lives on in optical networks: OTN switching
Market trends shows that circuit switching in optical networks, previously implemented with
SDH/SONET but now being replaced by OTN switching, is one of the fastest growing markets in
optical networks. TransPacket is a startup-company that has implemented the novel fusion
technology, also called OpMiGua integrated hybrid networks (www.transpacket.com
). TransPacket is
now looking into the OTN technology for potentially integrating this technology in future products.

In the project, the student will study recent progress in OTN, including the OTN switching
capabilities. Performance of a pure packet switched network shall be compared with the performance
of an OTN switching based network. The performance comparison will typically be performed on a
proposed network scenario. Performance may be found using analytical and/or simulation methods.

The OTN (Optical Transport Network) standard is an ITU-T standard (G.709) describing a method
for wrapping in signals of different protocol-formats for transport across an optical network. OTN is
seen as a predecessor for SDH, enabling much of the same monitoring and management capabilities
known from SDH. While the first versions of the OTN-standard describes transport at 2.5 and 10
Gb/s wavelength-channel bitrates, the standard has recently been extended to include bitrates up to
100 Gb/s and down to 1 Gb/s. Furthermore, while OTN originally where only described as a method
for reliable data-transport, switching of sub-wavelength bitrates has recently proposed. This enables
e.g. add/drop at the OTN layer of parts of e.g. a 100 Gb/s stream, enabling the use of 10 Gb/s
interfaces on IP-routers in a 100 Gb/s transport network.

The Master project will be tutored by:
Steinar Bjørnstad (ITEM/Transpacket) - Steinar.Bjornstad@item.ntnu.no
, Phone: 90081033,
Co-supervisor will be: Raimena Veisllari - veisllar@item.ntnu.no


68. (NT) Mobile-backhaul packet network properties and alternatives
This topic is suitable for 2-3 projects.

TransPacket is a startup-company that has implemented the novel fusion technology, also called
OpMiGua integrated hybrid networks (www.transpacket.com
). TransPacket addresses the mobile-
backhaul network with the unique fusion technology.

There are several student-projects addressing different issues within the same main topic. The projects
may typically involve the following topics and is suitable for being continued in a master:

The fusion concept, or also called the “Optical Migration Capable Networks with Service
Guarantees” (OpMiGua) concept (http://www.opmigua.com
) has the main objective of combining the
best properties from both circuit and packet switched networks into a hybrid solution. While the
OpMiGua previously has been studied for large powerful transport networks with many wavelength
channels, the main objective of this project is to find how the OpMiGua hybrid principle may be
applied and how it will perform in a network containing only a few, or only a single channel.
Mobile-backhaul networks are moving from the use of circuit-switched technology towards using
packet switched technology. Ethernet is brought out as the main candidate technology. Combining
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Ethernet and the OpMiGua principle may be an attractive solution by bringing the circuit switched
properties of OpMiGua to Ethernet.


1) How to transport synchronisation information across the packet based mobile-backhaul network.
The student will study the properties of the alternatives in detail, including synchronous Ethernet and
IEEE 1588.

2) QoS in mobile backhaul-networks. What level of QoS is required and how is this supported in an
OpMiGua Ethernet mobile back-haul.

3) Characterizing the node and/or network performance through discrete-event simulation: An
OpMiGua network being applied with a single or only a few channels (wavelengths).

The Master project will be tutored by:
Steinar Bjørnstad (ITEM/Transpacket) - Steinar.Bjornstad@item.ntnu.no
, Phone: 90081033.
Co-supervisor will be: Raimena Veisllari - veisllar@item.ntnu.no


69. (NT) Software Defined Networking for Integrated Hybrid Optical Networks
Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a new networking paradigm that separates the network
control plane from the packet forwarding plane. A logically centralized controller that has a global
network view is responsible for all the control decisions and it communicates with the network-wide
distributed forwarding elements via standardized interfaces (e.g [1]). In this context, OpenFlow (OF)
has been proposed as a control framework that supports programmability of network functions and
protocols in an SDN network [2]. The OF controller is a server that has a global view of the network
and runs control applications (e.g. SPF routing). The network elements are OF enabled switches
which are abstracted and presented to the controller as a flow-table. The communication between the
controller and nodes is carried through the OF protocol. The control plane makes decisions as to how
each flow is forwarded then caches its decision in the data plane’s flow-table. In a packet switched
network a flow can be defined in a flexible way as a combination of any L2, L3, L4 headers of a
packet. Incoming packets are matched against the flow definitions: if there is a match, a set of actions
are performed. Packets that do not match any flow-table entry are sent to the controller. The controller
can decide how to process the packet and then insert its decision in the data plane creating a new rule
in the flow-table. Hence, even if each packet is switched individually, the flow is the basic unit of
manipulation within the switch.

While SDN/OF for packet-switching is being widely researched and deployed (e.g. Google, Huawei,
Cisco etc.), circuit-switching in the optical domain is still under review and extension. Integrated
hybrid optical networks (IHON) [3] are networks that integrate both packet and circuit switching in
the same network nodes on the same links (e.g. wavelengths). The goal of the project is to enable an
SDN controlled integrated hybrid optical network, e.g. through extension of the OF framework. The
work would possibly include the following steps:
1) Studying the compatibility of OpenFlow with the IHON and propose possible extensions for a
full OF enabled IHON network.
2) Designing an OpenFlow/SDN framework for IHON.
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Other:
3) Implementing the extensions to the OpenFlow framework [e.g. 4].
4) Experiments and measurements on the performance of the OpenFlow enabled IHON network.

The project should include at least the first two steps while the others can be continued as a master
thesis. Basic requirements are a good knowledge of IP networking and good programming skills
(possibly C, Python).

References:
[1] S. Hubbard “Software-Defined Metro Networks: Virtualizing the Network & Services Edge”
[2] https://www.opennetworking.org/sdn-resources/onf-specifications/openflow
[3] http://www.transpacket.com/applications/integrated-hybrid-white-paper/
[4] http://www.openflow.org/wk/index.php/OpenFlow_Tutorial

Supervisor: Raimena Veisllari - veisllar@item.ntnu.no
Professor: Steinar Bjørnstad (ITEM/Transpacket) - Steinar.Bjornstad@item.ntnu.no, Phone:
90081033



70. (NT) Experimental evaluation of the performance of the OpenFlow protocol.
Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a new networking paradigm that is being widely researched
and deployed (e.g. Google, Huawei, Cisco etc.). The main characteristic is that it separates the
network control plane from the packet forwarding plane. In this context, OpenFlow (OF) has been
proposed as a control framework that supports programmability of network functions and protocols in
an SDN network. The OF controller is a server that has a global view of the network and runs control
applications (e.g. SPF routing). The network elements are OF enabled switches which are abstracted
and presented to the controller as a flow-table. The communication between the controller and nodes
is carried through the OF protocol. The control plane makes decisions as to how each flow is
forwarded then caches its decision in the data plane’s flow-table. In a packet switched network a flow
can be defined in a flexible way as a combination of any L2, L3, L4 headers of a packet. Incoming
packets are matched against the flow definitions: if there is a match, a set of actions are performed.
Packets that do not match any flow-table entry are sent to the controller. The controller can decide
how to process the packet and then insert its decision in the data plane creating a new rule in the flow-
table. Hence, even if each packet is switched individually, the flow is the basic unit of manipulation
within the switch.
OpenFlow has already been implemented in network elements (BROADCOM, Huawei etc.) and
network emulation tools are available e.g. using MiniNet
http://www.openflow.org/wk/index.php/OpenFlow_Tutorial
. Using these tools, the student will
outline network scenarios (e.g. NFSNET network, ring, torus topologies), setup the network flows
through OpenFlow and characterize the performance of the centralized control approach.

Supervisor: Raimena Veisllari - veisllar@item.ntnu.no
Professor: Steinar Bjørnstad (ITEM/Transpacket) - Steinar.Bjornstad@item.ntnu.no, Phone:
90081033



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71. (NT) OpenFlow to NETCONF interface to enable SDN in FUSION networks

Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a new networking paradigm that is being widely researched
and deployed (e.g. Google, Huawei, Cisco etc). The main characteristic is that it separates the
network control plane from the packet forwarding plane. In this context, OpenFlow (OF) has been
proposed as a control framework that supports programmability of network functions and protocols in
an SDN network [1]. The OF controller is a server that has a global view of the network and runs
control applications (e.g. SPF routing). The network elements are OF enabled switches which are
abstracted and presented to the controller as a flow-table. The communication between the controller
and nodes is carried through the OF protocol. The control plane makes decisions as to how each flow
is forwarded then caches its decision in the data plane’s flow-table. In a packet switched network a
flow can be defined in a flexible way as a combination of any L2, L3, L4 headers of a packet.
Incoming packets are matched against the flow definitions: if there is a match, a set of actions are
performed. Packets that do not match any flow-table entry are sent to the controller. The controller
can decide how to process the packet and then insert its decision in the data plane creating a new rule
in the flow-table. Hence, even if each packet is switched individually, the flow is the basic unit of
manipulation within the switch.

The NETCONF protocol [2] is a formal API that allows the configuration data to be retrieved and
manipulated. It uses an Extensible Markup Language (XML)-based data encoding for the
configuration data as well as the protocol messages. The NETCONF protocol operations are realized
on top of a simple Remote Procedure Call (RPC) layer
TransPacket (www.transpacket.com
) is a startup company that has implemented the novel FUSION
technology, also called integrated hybrid optical networks that integrate both packet and circuit
switching in the same network nodes on the same links (e.g. wavelengths) [3].

In the project the student will design/outline an OpenFlow to Netconf interface for the H1 Fusion
node and possibly implement the design.

The project can be continued as a master thesis. Basic requirements are a good knowledge of IP
networking and good programming skills (possibly C, Python, XML).

References:
[1] http://www.openflow.org/wk/index.php/OpenFlow_Tutorial

[2] RFC 4741, “NETCONF Configuration Protocol”
[3] http://www.transpacket.com/applications/integrated-hybrid-white-paper/




Supervisor: Raimena Veisllari - veisllar@item.ntnu.no
Professor: Steinar Bjørnstad (ITEM/Transpacket) - Steinar.Bjornstad@item.ntnu.no, Phone:
90081033