New Approach to Security
Security should be the individual rather than the state.
Human security holds that a people
centered view of security is
necessary for national, regional and global stability.
Human security , a rough parallel to well
being or quality of life but for
everyone rather than just the middle class and above.
United Nations Development
) 1994 Human
is considered to be a milestone publication in the field of
human security, with its argument that insuring
"freedom from want"
"freedom from fear"
for all persons is the best path to tackle the problem of
disciplinary understanding of
security involving a number of research fields, including
studies, international relations, strategic studies, and human rights.
UNDP’s definition of Human
The UNDP's 1994 Human Development Report's definition of human security
argues that the scope of global security should be expanded to include
first drew global attention to the concept of human security in
Human Development Report
and sought to influence the
1995 World Summit on Social Development in Copenhagen.
An assured basic income for individuals, usually from
productive and remunerative work or, as a last resort, from a publicly financed
of the world’s people are presently economically secure.
Economic security is a serious problem in developing countries, concern also
arises in developed countries as well.
problems constitute an important factor underlyin
tensions and ethnic violence
UN, "the key is to tackle the problems relating to access to assets, work and assured
income (related to economic security)."
Health Security aims to guarantee a minimum protection from
Food security :
All people and at all times must have both
economic access to basic food
UN, "the overall availability of food is not a problem, rather the problem often
is the poor distribution of food and a lack of
In the past, food security problems were dealt with at both national and global
UN, "Both developing and industrial
threats to health security are
usually greater for poor people in rural areas, particularly children. This is due to
and insufficient access to health services, clean water and other basic
major causes of death traditionally were
, whereas in industrialized countries, the major killers were
diseases of the
related chronic diseases are leading killers worldwide, with 80 % of deaths
from chronic diseases occurring in low
Aims to protect people from the short
ravages of nature, man
made threats in nature, and deterioration of the
Personal security aims to protect people from
, whether from the state or external states, from violent individuals and sub
state actors, from
, or from predatory adults. For many people, the
greatest source of anxiety is
, particularly violent crime
Developing countries, lack of access to clean
is one of the greatest
Industrial countries, one of the major threats is
caused by the emission of
, is another
environmental security issue
Political security is concerned with whether people live in
a society that honors their basic human rights.
Amnesty International, "
is still practiced in 110 countries.
HR violations are most frequent during periods of political unrest. Along with
repressing individuals and groups, governments may try to exercise control over
ideas and information.
Community security aims to protect people from the
and values and from sectarian and ethnic violence.
Traditional communities (minority)
are often threatened. About
half of the world’s states have experienced some inter
ethnic strife. The UN
1993 the Year of Indigenous People
to highlight the continuing
vulnerability of the 300 million aboriginal people in 70 countries as they face a
widening spiral of violence.
Freedom from Fear
from Want and beyond
Freedom from Fear
Human Security to protect individuals from
violent conflicts and these
threats are strongly associated with poverty, lack
of state capacity and other forms of inequities. Emergency assistance,
conflict prevention and resolution, peace
are the main concerns of
this approach. Canada, banned landmines and has incorporated the
"Freedom from Fear" agenda as a primary component in its own foreign
Freedom from Want
It is a holistic approach; argues that the
threat agenda should be broadened to include
hunger, disease and
because they are inseparable concepts in addressing the
root of human insecurity. They
kill far more people than war, genocide
and terrorism combined.
Different from "Freedom from Fear", it
expands the focus beyond violence with emphasis on
Security and the Threats
Security from whom ?
Source of security
Military or both
approach to security
Societies, Groups, and
(e.g., civil war, ethnic
Human security (e.g.,
economic threats to
the survival of
societies, groups, and
Traditional and Human security
demands ascribed to the
nd not the people. Protects a
boundaries, people, institutions and values.
being of individuals
ordinary people's needs in dealing with
sources of threats.
states from external
tate security is a
state's ability to deter or
defeat an attack
It makes uses of
deterrence strategies to maintain the
integrity of the state
In addition to protecting the state from
external aggression, human security would
expand the scope of protection to include a
broader range of threats, including
environmental pollution, infectious
and economic deprivation.
survival. Decision making power is
centralized in the government, and the
execution of strategies rarely involves the
involves not only governments, but a
broader participation of different actors
regional and international organizations, non
governmental organizations and local
relies upon building up national power
and military defense. The common forms it
takes are armament races, alliances,
strategic boundaries etc.
not only protects, but also empowers
people and societies as a means of security.
People contribute by identifying and
implementing solutions to insecurity.
Human development and Human Security
Security, stability, sustainability of
Moves forward, is progressive and
aggregate: “Together we rise”
䱯ok猠s琠w桯 wa猠汥晴 扥桩湤ba琠瑨攠
individual level: “Divided we fall”
term measures to deal
with risks with long term prevention
Growth with equity. Expanding the choices
and opportunities of people to lead lives
“Insuring” downturns with security.
瑨敭 瑨to畧栠摥慬楮g w楴栠roo琠捡畳敳Ⱐ
捵獨楯湩湧 w桥渠摩獡獴敲 獴物s敳e
Empowerment, sustainability, equity and
Protection and promotion of human
survival (freedom from fear), daily life
(freedom from want), and the avoidance
of indignities(life of dignity).
Human Rights and Human security
Human rights are commonly understood as
"inalienable fundamental rights to
which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human
Human rights are thus conceived as
the same for everyone). These rights may exist as
of human rights in international practice, within international law, global and
regional institutions, in the
policies of states
and in the activities of non
governmental organizations, has been a cornerstone of
The idea of human rights
states, "if the public discourse of
peacetime global society can be said to have a common moral language, it is
that of human rights." Despite this, the strong claims made by the doctrine of
human rights continue to provoke considerable skepticism and debates about
the content, nature and justifications of human rights to this day. Indeed, the
question of what is meant by a "right" is itself controversial and the subject of
continued philosophical debate
Relationship with NGOs
The generally accepted understanding of the term NGO refers to independent
development actors existing apart from governments and corporations. NGOs have
major contributions to human development, including fields of health and
nutrition, education and the environment. They are also key players in
international development and prominent advocates of international human rights,
both of which are critical components of human security. The focus, expertise and
infrastructure developed by NGOs through their activities linked with human
development and human rights allow them to make unique contributions to human
Relationship with environment
human security can be broken down into a series of subcomponents to better
achieve optimal environmental and social security. Environmental security is
composed of two subcomponents: (a) Rational resource utilization, that is
resource use that “meets the needs of the present without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”
Social security can be
simplified to components of (a) Established political safeguards, (b) Economic
safeguards, (c) Personal safeguards, and (d) Military safeguards.
The International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) states that a
major goal of comprehensive human security is to “transmit practical
recommendations to policy
makers on how to strengthen human security
through better environmental management and more effective natural resource
The overreaching goal being a pervasive global mindset that
recognizes the interdependent natures of the natural environment and our
collective social security.
Gender and human security
Human security focuses on the serious neglect of
the traditional security model. Traditional security’s focus on external
military threats to the state has meant that the majority of threats women
face have been overlooked. By focusing on the individual, the human
security model aims to address the security concerns of both women and
men equally. Women are often the worst victims of violence and conflict:
they form the majority of civilian deaths; the majority of refugees; and,
are often the victims of cruel and degrading practices, such as rape.
Women's security is also threatened by unequal access to resources,
services and opportunities.
Human security seeks to empower women,
through education, participation and access, as gender equality is seen as
a necessary precondition for peace, security and a prosperous society.
These principles on humanitarian intervention are the product of a debate
pushed by United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan. He posed a challenge
to the international community to find a new approach to humanitarian
intervention that responded to its inherent problems.
In 2001, the
International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (
produced the "The Responsibility to protect", a comprehensive report detailing
how the “right of humanitarian intervention” could be exercised. It was
considered a triumph for the human security approach as it emphasized and
gathered much needed attention to some of its main principles:
The protection of individual welfare is more important than the state. If the
security of individuals is threatened internally by the state or externally by other
states, state authority can be overridden.
Addressing the root causes of humanitarian crises (e.g. economic, political or
social instability) is a more effective way to solve problems and protect the long
term security of individuals.
Prevention is the best solution. A collective understanding of the deeper social
issues along with a desire to work together is necessary to prevent humanitarian
crises, thereby preventing a widespread absence of human security within a
population (which may mean investing more in development projects).
Human Security; Insecurity
Cause violence: Structural, Direct, Indirect
(Regulated) and (free)
Self expression (Basic needs
from one to another
Human Development Index
Income, Knowledge, Health
Suffering from Migration, discrimination, political instability, ethnic
, unemployment, poor health, natural and man made disasters, proper
Economic Insecurity and violence:
Revolution in Child Survival:
the growth, Infant mortality, Breast
Feeding, Observance of children