PAY ATTENTION TO INATTENTION!

swimminghersheyUrban and Civil

Nov 25, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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PAY ATTENTION TO INATTENTION!

Rosemary
Tannock,PhD

Canada Research Chair & Professor in Special Education;, OISE/University of Toronto;
Professor of Psychiatry, University of Toronto; Senior Scientist, The Hospital for Sick Children

SAALED

Capetown
, 2011

Recurring themes


Short attention span/ inattention


Poor working memory


Challenges accessing the curriculum



From exclusion, through inclusion, to
belonging


Risk Triad

for Belonging

Poor

Working memory

Classroom

inattention

Poor Academic
Attainment

http://working
-
memory
-
and
-
education.wikispaces.com/

www.teachadhd.ca


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Vg3fLgrNus&feature=player_embedded


Smaller capacity?





Poorer filtering out irrelevant
information, that is…

poor selective attention!





What do we mean by

“poor
working memory
?”


Pay attention to Inattention!


Inattention in kindergarten

as reported by teachers

Poor reading in Gr. 5

387 children followed from Kindergarten
-

Grade 5


even after controlling for IQ, hyperactivity,

emotional problems, & reading ability in
Kindergarten/Grade 1



The problem


Which of these students is paying attention?


How do you know?

Do outward
appearances
necessarily reflect
internal mental
state?

What is attention?

Where is the ‘mind’s eye’ ?

Attention Networks

Front of
brain

Back of
brain

Norepinephrine

Acetylcholine

Dopamine

Alerting

Focusing

Executive

Brain’s
neurochemicals

Posner &
Rothbart

(2007). Annual Review of Psychology, 58:1
-
23


The Brain’s Attention Networks
(Posner)


Maintaining alertness



I’m ready!



Focusing visual
& auditory stimuli


where
you look & what you listen
to.
Zoom in!



Executive attention


Inhibiting
competing
thoughts, emotions, stimuli
to
complete a
task.
Ignore distractions!


Part II

How can we help children
pay attention?

Effective instructional practices


Introducing the lesson


Draw schematic on board





Preview previous lesson(s)



Set learning expectations


Set behavioral expectations (remain seated, talk in
quiet voice in small group)


State needed material


Simplify instructions & choices


1. Preview

2. New
information (T)

3. Individual
work

4. Group
work

5. Review &
close

Effective instructional practices


Conducting the lesson


Be predictable


Support the learner’s active participation


Use audiovisual /different modalities


Ask probing questions


allow time to respond


Check performance & give prompt feedback


Help learner self
-
correct errors


Help learner focus/refocus


Divide work into smaller units


Effective instructional practices


Concluding the lesson


Give advance warning


Check
assigment


Preview next lesson (very briefly)

Problematic Attention Networks:

Implications for education…


Alertness



not ready !



Focusing


zoomed
out / wrong target!



Executive control
-
acted without
thinking!



Actively engage the
learner’s attention



Increase saliency of
relevant information



Precue
/prompt &
praise

Problem

Solutions

1A. Engage ALL learners in active
learning


Create learning activities with high
response rate



questions for whole class to answer
(thumbs up/down)




Think
-
Pair
-
Share


2 minutes


How else can you increase
each learner’s
active responding in class?


Discuss & identify
3 ways

1. Engage ALL learners in active
learning


Create learning activities with high
response rate



questions for whole class to answer


written, choral, gestural


active monitoring & marking sheet
(click/clunk; know that, don’t understand,
new, oops I was wrong)



partner activities (discuss, read, co
-
write)




1B. Engage ALL learners in active learning


Break into smaller units /
shorter time period



1 page/column at a time


Use count
-
down timer




Help get started



check understanding



set timer, then leave!



Take brief (30
-
60 sec),
timed,
structured

breaks


Everyday life in the

classroom from the

perspective of a

student with
inattention or
ADHD
!




INCREASE SALIENCY
OF RELEVANT
INFORMATION!

Problematic Attention Networks:

Implications for education…


Alertness



not ready !



Focusing


zoomed
out / wrong target!



Executive control
-
acted without
thinking!



Actively engage the
learner’s attention



Increase saliency of
relevant information



Precue
/prompt &
praise

Problem

Solutions

2. Increase saliency… by creating supportive
classroom environment


Organize physical environment to reduce
distractions


near teacher, between well
-
focused students, away
from distractions



Organize materials so they are easy to identify &
store (color coding)



Establish & post routines on
one

wall

Organizing the physical
environment


Special places for
all

children


A quiet place with minimal distractions


A moving place


A group place


An individual place


Everything in its own place


Desks, Bags, Closets, Binders

24

Rowe KJ: 2003
Australian Council for Educational Research

Rowe K, Pollard J, Rowe K (2005) [www.acer.edu.au/news/latestnews.html]


Teachers were taught how to:


assess a student’s ability to process & remember
verbal information


adapt their instructional language


“Speak short & sweet & repeat”



Children showed improvements in:


literacy outcomes



inattentive behavior


Improvements persisted over several years


2.
Increase saliency of relevant information by
Using
Effective Instructions & Commands

Rowe & Rowe’s Rules of Thumb

for inattention & literacy risk
(2006)


Children not at risk


Median/mean number of words accurately
recalled =
age in years + 4

(up to age 10)



Children in
high
-
risk category
for literacy


Cannot recall sentences of word length
more than
age in years + 3


Likely to be rated as inattentive, poor
academic achievement


Use Effective Instructions & Commands


ATTRACT the student’s attention


Maintain eye contact, proximity


SPEAK clearly, paced




Use short sentences (‘chunked’)


Use visual/gestural cues & wait for compliance


PAUSE between sentences


MONITOR the student


If child has ‘blank look’ stop & repeat instruction


TO REPEAT INSTRUCTION


Restate slowly and simply


Do not expand






TRY IT OUT! Small Group:

label yourselves A, B, C, D etc


Partner A

act as fidgety & inattentive


Partner C
gives directions;


Write down a 5
-
step direction for your
‘learners’ (e.g., a list of actions, like
Tilly’s
)


Give the directions to your learners


Monitor & rate their response 0
-
3 (3=all
correct)


Partners A, B,D: rate your instructor 1
-
5 (5= very
effective)

Problematic Attention Networks:

Implications for education…


Alertness



not ready !



Focusing


zoomed
out / wrong target!



Executive control
-
acted without
thinking!



Actively engage the
learner’s attention



Increase saliency of
relevant information



Precue
/prompt &
praise

Problem

Solutions

Poor executive control of
attention, poor working memory
& slow processing speed

pose problems for giving
effective feedback


WHY?

30

Keep eyes on your
work

Time

Consequential approaches may be limited by poor
working memory capacity!

Intended

Target


1 1.5 2.0

2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

31

More effective :

Antecedent prompt plus reinforcement


Prompt student for desired behavior


Model, verbal prompt


Verbal prompt & student repeats


Gradually fade to non
-
verbal prompt & student
self
-
talk


Reinforce desired behavior


Initially praise approximations of desired behavior;
ignore unwanted behavior


Then hold praise until desired behavior; ignore
unwanted behavior


Gradually delay praise to extend duration of
desired behavior; ignore unwanted behavior

32

Eyes on work

Time

Prompt for

Target

Behavior

Antecedent /at
-
point
-
of
-
performance
approaches will be more effective

Ignore


1 1.5 2.0

2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

33

Eyes on work

Time
(min)

Prompt for

Target

Behavior

Antecedent /at
-
point
-
of
-
performance
approaches will be more effective

Ignore


1 2 3

4 5 6 7 8 9 10

20

CLASSWIDE ANTECEDENT
STRATEGIES

1. Clear rules & expectations

Define Class
-
wide & School
-
wide
Expectations for Attentive Behavior


Identify 1
-
2 Expectations


Short statements


Positive Statements
(what to do)


Memorable


TRY IT


Discuss with partner
-

how do you
develop statements?


Examples:


Be
-
there
-
be
-
ready, Hands and feet to self,
(“eyes on the fries”) eyes on the job

Teach Behavioral Expectations


Say, show, practice, review, & reinforce
positively stated expectations


Post expectations /rules


Teach in the actual settings where behaviors
are to occur


Teach (a) the words, and (b) the actions.


Prompt & pre
-
correct


Monitor continuously


Acknowledge & reinforce regularly





Build a social culture that is predictable, and
focused on student success.

Be a Positive Educator


Give more acknowledgements for appropriate
than inappropriate behavior


At least 4 to 1


At least once every 5
-
10 minutes


Follow any correction with opportunity for
positive behavior and feedback





Basic teaching techniques


Daily review


of relevant past learning & homework


Chunk lesson.


Begin with objectives
. Proceed in
small steps
.
Highlight key
points
.


Procedural learning


teacher modeling, followed by guided practice & immediate
feedback until mastery learning occurs.


Independent practice


continue until responses are accurate,
quick,automatic
.


Weekly reviews


routine and systematically build on previously learned
materials.


Classroom Management Practice

Rating

1. I have arranged my classroom to
minimize crowding and distraction

Yes No

2. I have
maximized structure and predictability

in my classroom (e.g., explicit classroom
routines, specific directions, etc.).

Yes No

3. I have posted, taught, reviewed, and reinforced 3
-
5
positively stated expectations

(or rules).

Yes No

4. I provided
more frequent acknowledgement

for appropriate behaviors than inappropriate
behaviors (See top of page).

Yes No

5. I provided each student with
multiple opportunities to respond

and participate during
instruction.

Yes No

6. My instruction
actively engaged

students in observable ways (e.g., writing, verbalizing)

Yes No

7. I
actively supervised

my classroom (e.g., moving, scanning) during instruction.

Yes No

8. I
ignored

or provided
quick, direct, explicit reprimands/redirections

in response to
inappropriate behavior.

Yes No

9. I have
multiple strategies/systems

in place to
acknowledge

appropriate behavior (e.g.,
class point systems, praise, etc.).

Yes No

10. In general, I have provided
specific feedback

in response to social and academic behavior
errors and correct responses.

Yes No

Overall classroom management score:

10
-
8 “yes” = “
Super
” 7
-
5 “yes” = “
So
-
So

<
5

“yes” = “
Improvement Needed


# Yes___

BUILD HOME
-
SCHOOL
PARTNERSHIP & TEAMWORK

Who are the team players?



parents,



teachers, teacher
-
assistants



psychologist, speech
-
language pathologist


, physicians



& of course the student!

Basic principles for home
-
school
communication


Communicate frequently & regularly


Phone call, Email, Spontaneous notes, Notebook, Home
-
School Daily/
WeeklyReport

Cards, Face
-
to
-
face


Increase parents’ comfort at meetings


P
rovide notice of time and room in advance along with brief
list of topics/questions, ask for parent questions; provide
written summary of decisions


Highlight student’s strengths (concrete examples)


Communicate about student’s needs (concrete
examples)


Work with parents to help create structure & routines
& to generate solutions


Communicate respect

www.education.gov.ab.ca/k_12/specialneeds/resources.asp


Daily Report

Name:________________ Date:__________

Circle the number that best describes how the student demonstrated the behavior today


Wonderful

Satisfactory

Needs
improvement

Brings

all needed supplies &
books to class

3

2

1

Follows directions

3

2

1

Starts work with minimal
prompting

3

2

1

Interacts positively

with peers

3

2

1

Responds positively to teacher
requests

3

2

1

Students signature______________________

Teacher signature_______________________

Parent signature________________________


In
-
class performance today:

___Wonderful

___Satisfactory

___Needs improvement

An
excellent
resource for
educators

Useful Resources on ADHD

www.education.gov.ab.ca/k_12/specialneeds/resource.asp

.

www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/osers/osep/products.html

http://research.aboutkidshealth.ca/teachadhd

A co
-
ordinated
,

sustainable, multi
-
system approach

System
-
level

Classroom
-
based

School
-
wide



System

:
home,
school,
education,
medical
, judicial


Transition
plans
(sector
-
to
-
sector, school
-
to
-
school,
grade
-
to
-
grade, class
-
to
-
class)



Instructional pathways
(credit
-
recovery, credit
-
rescue, co
-
op etc)



Ongoing
capacity
-
building (
parent programs,
professional
development)

Student

&

parents

TIME FOR ME TO STOP!

ANY QUESTIONS?