Effects of the Renaissance

swimminghersheyUrban and Civil

Nov 25, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Effects of the Renaissance

Take notes on the effects of the
Renaissance

Dome

In
1419, the Arte
della

Lana held a competition to design a new
dome

(or
cupola
) for the cathedral. The two main competitors were
Lorenzo
Ghiberti

(famous for his work on the "Gates of Paradise" doors at the Baptistery) and
Filippo

Brunelleschi

with Brunelleschi winning and
receiving the commission.
[1]

Brunelleschi drew his inspiration from double
-
walled cupola of the
Pantheon

in Rome. He constructed a wooden and brick model with the
help of Donatello and
Nanni

di
Banco

(on display in the Museum Opera del
Duomo
). Brunelleschi won by a nose. His model served as a
guide for the craftsmen, but was intentionally incomplete, as to ensure his control over the construction.






Brunelleschi's
solutions were ingenious and unprecedented: the distinctive octagonal design of the double
-
walled dome, resting on a drum
and not on the roof itself, allowed for the entire dome to be built without the need for scaffolding from the ground.
[1]

This enormous construction weighs 37,000
tonne

(40,785

US tons) and contains over 4 million bricks. He made several models and
drawings of details during the construction. Brunelleschi had to invent special hoisting machines and
lewissons

for hoisting large stones.
These specially designed machines and brilliant masonry techniques were Brunelleschi's spectacular contribution to architectu
re.

The ability
to transcribe a circle on a cone face within the innermost double
-
shelled wall makes the self
-
sustaining "horizontal" arch const
ruction
possible, since geometrically, a circular plan is needed for such an erection.

The dome also used horizontal reinforcements of tension chains of stone and iron

paving way to the imaginations of iron and stee
l
structural reinforcements, such as reinforced concrete, in later centuries.

Ghiberti, appointed
coadjutor,
mocked these plans and called them unfeasible. Brunelleschi, deeply offended, then pretended a sickness
and left for Rome, giving the project in the hands of Ghiberti. But Ghiberti soon had to recognize that the whole project was

be
yond him. In
1423 Brunelleschi was back in charge and took over sole responsibility.

Work started on the dome in 1420 and was completed in 1436.
It
was the first 'octagonal' dome in history (The Roman Pantheon, a circular
dome, was built in 118

128 C.E. without support structures) to be built without a wooden supporting frame and was the largest do
me built
at the time (it is still the largest masonry dome in the world). It had been one of the most impressive projects of the
Renaissance
.


Brunelleschi's ability to crown the dome with a lantern was questioned and he had to undergo another competition. He was decl
are
d
the winner over his competitors Lorenzo Ghiberti and Antonio
Ciaccheri
. His design was for an
octogonal

lantern with eight radiating
buttresses

and eight high arched windows (now on display in the Museum Opera del
Duomo
). Construction of the lantern was begun a
few months before his death in 1446. Then, during 25 years, it got stuck and didn't make much progress due to alterations by
sev
eral
architects. Finally it was completed by his friend
Michelozzo

in 1461. The conical roof was crowned with a gilt copper ball and cross,
containing holy relics, by
Verrocchio

in 1469. He had used a hoisting machine specially designed by
Leonardo da Vinci
** This brings
the total height of the dome and lantern to 114.5
metres

(375

ft
). This copper ball was struck by lightning on
17 July

1600

and fell
down. It was replaced by an even larger one two years later.


Excerpt from Brunelleschi's Dome, by Ross King, p69: "The commission for this bronze ball [atop the lantern] went to the
sculptor Andrea del Verrocchio, in whose workshop there was at this time a young apprentice named Leonardo da Vinci.
Fascinated by
Filippo's

[Brunelleschi's] machines, which Verrocchio used to hoist the ball, Leonardo made a series of sketches of
them and, as a result, is often given credit for their invention."


The decorations of the drum gallery by
Baccio

d'Agnolo

were never finished after being disapproved by no one less than
Michelangelo
.


A huge statue of Brunelleschi now sits outside the Palazzo
dei

Canonici

in the Piazza del
Duomo
, looking thoughtfully up towards his
greatest achievement, the dome that would forever dominate the panorama of Florence. Only 150 years later would this dome be
surpassed by Michelangelo's dome of Saint Peter's Basilica in the
Vatican City
.

Three Hallmarks of the Renaissance


Humanism


focus on human potential &
achievement; study of humans as opposed to God;
allowed for earthly pleasures



Secularism


emphasis on the here & now rather
than heaven; improve life on earth



Individualism


people should “be all that they could
be”; sought fame, wealth, intelligence, & to be
remembered forever

Gender Roles in the Renaissance


“Renaissance Man”


a

man should be skilled
in many different areas (writing, painting, well
read, swordsman, rider)
Baldassare

Castiglione


Women


upper class were expected to
become just as well educated, but not to do
anything with talents; be interesting at parties
& in social circles


Brainstorm: How did the Renaissance
change society?


Effects of the Renaissance


Critique of society led to the Reformation


Focus on learning led to the scientific
revolution, which set the foundations of
modern science


Principles and influence of arts in the
Renaissance set the standard for Western art


Search for new ideas leading to exploration
outside of Europe

Read: Page 380


Science, Technology & Society Box


Think about:


How did the printing press effect the world?


Make sure you finished your Renaissance
women worksheet


You will now be turning it in for a grade


If you are done early you may read your SSR
book work on your map.



Reminder: Maps due on Thursday, Retest is
Wednesday (Tomorrow) Before School or
During Lunch, bring back your progress
report
signed

if you got lower than a 74