What Is The Computer

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Nov 26, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Computer Security

-------------------------------------

Computer Department


Lecture 1


2012
-
2011

1


What Is The Computer
: A programmable machine. The two principal
characteristics of a computer are:



It responds to a specific set of instructions in a well
-
defined manner.


It can execute a prerecorded list of instructions (a program).



Modern Computers:


Modern computers are electronic and digital. The actual machinery
--

wires,
transistors, and circuits
--

is called hardware; the instructions and data are called
software.


All general
-
purpose computers require the following hardware components:


memory : Enables a computer to store, at least temporarily, data and programs.


mass storage device : Allows a computer to permanently retain large amounts of
data. Common mass storage devices include disk drives and tape drives.


input device : Usually a keyboard and mouse, the input device is the conduit
through which data and instructions enter a computer.


output device : A display screen, printer, or other device that lets you see what the
computer has accomplished.


central processing unit (CPU): The heart of the computer, this is the component
that actually executes instructions.

2

In addition to these components, many others make it possible for the basic
components to work together efficiently. For example, every computer requires a
bus that transmits data from one part of the computer to another.



Computer Classification:

Computers can be generally classified by size and power as follows, though there is
considerable overlap:



personal computer : A small, single
-
user computer based on a microprocessor. In
addition to the microprocessor, a personal computer has a keyboard for entering
data, a monitor for displaying information, and a storage device for saving data.


workstation : A powerful, single
-
user computer. A workstation is like a personal
computer, but it has a more powerful microprocessor and a higher
-
quality
monitor.


minicomputer : A multi
-
user computer capable of supporting from 10 to hundreds
of users simultaneously.


mainframe : A powerful multi
-
user computer capable of supporting many
hundreds or thousands of users simultaneously.


supercomputer : An extremely fast computer that can perform hundreds of
millions of instructions per second.

3

2.
4

COMPUTER GENERATIONS

1. VACUUM TUBES:
1946
-
1958

2. TRANSISTORS:
1959
-
1963

3. INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: 1964
-
1979

4.

VERY LARGE
-
SCALE INTEGRATED (VLSI)
CIRCUITS:

1980
-

PRESENT


2.
5

BUSES

CPU

PRIMARY

STORAGE

DATA BUS

ADDRESS BUS

CONTROL BUS

INPUT

DEVICES

OUTPUT

DEVICES

SECONDARY

STORAGE

2.
6

TYPES OF MEMORY


RAM :
Random Access Memory


Dynamic: Changes thru processing


Static: Remains constant (power on)


ROM :
Read Only Memory (preprogrammed)


PROM: Program can be changed once


EPROM: Erasable thru ultraviolet light


EEPROM: Electrically erasable

*


Computer Components:


Hardware: Physical components like Screen, cables, Keyboard and system
Unit ect...


Software: A set of insteructions that tells computer what to do and how to
do it! Such as word processing, computer games and programs.


Users: Are the people who use the soft ware on computer to do some
tasks.



Computers performs three main operations:


Receive inputs


Process


Produce out put


7

Computer Security


8

is a branch of computer technology known as
information security
as applied to
computers

and
networks
.

The Security:

is the system of safeguards for protecting information technology
against disasters, system Failure, or Unauthorized access that can result in damage
or loss.


The objective
of computer security includes protection of information and property
from theft, corruption, or natural disaster, while allowing the information and
property to remain accessible and productive to its intended users.


Security is thus based on the following independent issues:


* Privacy
-

the ability to keep things private/confidential


* Trust
-

do we trust data from an individual or a host? Could they be used against
us?


* Authenticity
-

are security credentials in order? Are we talking to whom we think
we are talking to, privately or not.


* Integrity
-

has the system been compromised/altered already?


Environments can be hostile because of


* Physical threats
-

weather, natural disaster, bombs, power failures, etc.


* Human threats
-

stealing, trickery, bribery, spying, sabotage, accidents.


* Software threats
-

viruses, Trojan horses, logic bombs, denial of service.



9


We have to make the compute secure because of the following reasons:


* Losing the abilty to use the system.


* Losing important data or files


* Losing face/reputation


* Losing money


* Spreading private information about people.



To protect your system you need to:

1
-

Use password.

2
-

Use authentication techniques and Process.

3
-

Use several standard encryption and decryption codes.

4
-

Change the password frequently.

5
-

Save storage media in save Place.

6
-

Use some Unti
-
Virus Programs.



Human Erorrs which result Problems:


Forgetfulness.


Misundrestanding/miscommunication.


Misidentification.








.

10


Confusion/strees


Ignorance.


Carelessness


Slow of Response.


Inability to deal with complexity


Inability to cooporate with others.



There are Obvious Problems with password authentication
.


Password can be guessed.


Password can be leaked.



Biometrics:

There are alternatives for providing a password.For instance, biometrics is the name
given to the field of identifying human physiology order to use it for authentication


Signature recognition.


FingerPrint reader.


Retina Scan.


Lris Scan.


VoicePrint Identification , and Typing pattern analysis.











.

.


.

11



12



Security Goals:


Prevention:


Prevent attackers From violate security policy.


Detection:

Detect attackers violation of security policy.


Recovery:

Stop attack, access and repair the damages, continue to function correctly

Even if attack succeeds
.


The three basic components of the computer security:

1
-

Confidentiality(
ةيرسلا
)

Confidentiality

is the concealment of information or resources. The need for keeping
information secret arises from the use of computers in sensitive fields such as
government and industry. For example, military and civilian institutions in the
government often restrict access to information to those who need that information. The
first formal work in computer security was motivated by the military's attempt to
implement controls to enforce a "need to know" principle. This principle also applies to
industrial firms, which keep their proprietary designs secure lest their competitors try to
steal the designs. As a further example, all types of institutions keep personnel records
secret.



2
-

Integrity(
ةملاس
)


Integrity

refers to the trustworthiness of data or resources, and it is usually phrased in
terms of preventing improper or unauthorized change. Integrity includes data
integrity (the content of the information) and origin integrity (the source of the
data, often called authentication). The source of the information may bear on its
accuracy and credibility and on the trust that people place in the information.This
dichotomy illustrates the principle that the aspect of integrity known as credibility
is central to the proper functioning of a system.


3
-

Availability

Availability

refers to the ability to use the information or resource desired. Availability
is an important aspect of reliability as well as of system design because an
unavailable system is at least as bad as no system at all. The aspect of availability
that is relevant to security is that someone may deliberately arrange to deny
access to data or to a service by making it unavailable. System designs usually
assume a statistical model to analyze expected patterns of use, and mechanisms
ensure availability when that statistical model holds. Someone may be able to
manipulate use (or parameters that control use, such as network traffic) so that
the assumptions of the statistical model are no longer valid. This means that the
mechanisms for keeping the resource or data available are working in an
environment for which they were not designed. As a result, they will often fail.


13


Understanding security and safer computing:

If you connect to the Internet, allow other people to use your computer,
or share files with others, you should take steps to protect your computer
from harm. Why? Because there are computer criminals (sometimes
called hackers) who attack other people's computers. These people can
attack directly, by breaking into your computer through the Internet and
stealing your personal information, or indirectly, by creating malicious
software to harm your computer.


Fortunately, you can help protect yourself by taking a few simple
precautions. This article describes the threats and what you can do to
defend against them.


Protect your computer


These are ways to help protect your computer against potential security
threats:


Firewall
. A firewall can help protect your computer by preventing hackers
or malicious software from gaining access to it.


Virus protection
. Antivirus software can help protect your computer
against viruses, worms, and other security threats.



14


Spyware and other malware protection
. Antispyware software can help
protect your computer from spyware and other potentially unwanted
software.



Windows Update
. Windows can routinely check for updates for your
computer and install them automatically.





Manage security settings with Action Center


Use a firewall


A firewall is software or hardware that checks information coming from
the Internet or a network and then either turns it away or allows it to pass
through to your computer, depending on your firewall settings. In this way,
a firewall can help prevent hackers and malicious software from gaining
access to your computer.


15

Windows Firewall is built into Windows and is turned on automatically.

16

How a firewall works?

If you run a program such as an instant messaging program or a multiplayer network game
that needs to receive information from the Internet or a network, the firewall asks if you
want to block or unblock (allow) the connection. If you choose to unblock the connection,
Windows Firewall creates an exception so that the firewall won't bother you when that
program needs to receive information in the future.


Use virus protection


Viruses, worms, and Trojan horses are programs created by
hackers

that use
the Internet to infect vulnerable
computers
. Viruses and worms can replicate
themselves from computer to computer, while Trojan horses enter a computer
by hiding inside an apparently legitimate program, such as a screen saver.
Destructive viruses, worms, and Trojan horses can erase information from your
hard disk or completely disable your computer. Others don't cause direct
damage, but worsen your computer's performance and stability.


Antivirus

programs
scan

e
-
mail and other files on your computer for viruses,
worms, and Trojan horses. If one is found, the antivirus program either
quarantines (isolates) it or deletes it entirely before it damages your computer
and files.


Use spyware protection


Spyware

is software that can display advertisements, collect information
about you, or change settings on your computer, generally without
appropriately obtaining your consent. For example, spyware can install
unwanted toolbars, links, or favorites in your web browser, change your
default home page, or display pop
-
up ads frequently. Some spyware displays
no symptoms that you can detect, but it secretly collects sensitive information,
such as the websites you visit or the text you type. Most spyware is installed
through free software that you download, but in some cases simply visiting a
website results in a spyware infection.



17


To help protect your computer from spyware, use an
antispyware
program
. This version of Windows has
a built
-
in antispyware program
called
Windows Defender
, which is turned on by default. Windows
Defender alerts you when spyware tries to install itself on your computer.
It also can scan your computer for existing spyware and then remove it.


Because new spyware appears every day, Windows Defender must be
regularly updated to detect and guard against the latest spyware threats.
Windows Defender is updated as needed whenever you update Windows.
For the highest level of protection, set Windows to install updates
automatically.


Update Windows automatically


Microsoft regularly offers important updates to Windows that can help
protect

your computer against new
viruses
and other
security threats
. To
ensure that you receive these updates as quickly as possible, turn on
automatic updating. That way, you don't have to worry that critical fixes
for Windows might be missing from your computer.



18

Updates are downloaded behind the scenes when you're connected to the
Internet. The updates are installed at 3:00 A.M. unless you specify a
different time. If you turn off your computer before then, you can install
updates before shutting down. Otherwise, Windows will install them the
next time you start your computer.


To turn on automatic updating


Open Windows
Update
by clicking the
Start
button . In the search box,
type Update, and then, in the list of results, click Windows Update.


Click
Change settings
.


Make sure Install
updates automatically (recommended)
is selected.


Windows will install important updates for your computer as they become
available. Important updates provide significant benefits, such as
improved security and reliability.


Under
Recommended updates
, make sure the
Give me recommended
updates the same way I receive important updates
check box is selected,
and then click
OK



19

1
-

How to turn on automatic updating??

2
-
How to protect ur computer?

3
-

Viruses, worms, and Trojan horses are
programs created by
______
.

4
-
Explain How Firewall works?



20


What is Computer Virus
:
Computer Virus is a
malicious

software program written intentionally to enter a computer
without the user's
permission

or
knowledge
. It has the ability
to
replicate

itself, thus continues to spread. Some viruses do
little but replicate, while others can cause severe
harm

or
adversely
affect

program and
performance

of the system. A
virus should never be assumed harmless and left on a system.




Virus Types:

There are different types of computer viruses which can be
classified

according to their
origin, techniques, types of files
they infect, where they hide, the kind of damage they cause,
the type of operating system or platform they attack.


21


Resident Virus:

This type of virus is a
permanent

as it
dwells

in the
RAM
. From there it can
overcome

and
interrupt

all the
operations

executed by the system. It can
corrupt files and programs that are
opened
,
closed
,
copied
,
renamed

etc.


Examples:
Randex
,
CMJ
,
Meve
, and
MrKlunky
.



Direct Action Viruses

The main purpose of this virus is to
replicate

and take
action

when it is
executed
. When a specific condition is met, the virus will go into action and
infect files in the
directory

or folder that it is in as well as
directories

that are
specified in the
AUTOEXEC.BAT
file path. This batch file is always located in
the
root directory

of the hard disk and carries out certain operations when
the computer is
booted
.


Examples:
Vienna virus
.


22


Overwrite Viruses:

Virus of this kind is characterized by the fact that it
deletes

the information
contained in the files that it infects,
rendering

them partially or totally useless
once they have been infected. The only way to clean a file infected by an
overwrite virus is to
delete the file completely
, thus losing the original
content.


Examples:
Way
,
Trj.Reboot
,
Trivial.88.D
.



Boot Sector Virus:

This type of virus affects the
boot sector
of a
floppy
or
hard disk
. This is a
crucial part of a disk, in which information of the disk itself is stored along with
a program that makes it possible to
boot (start)
the computer from the disk.
The best way of avoiding boot sector viruses is to ensure that floppy disks are
write
-
protected

and never starting your computer with an
unknown

floppy
disk in the disk drive.


Examples:
Polyboot.B
,
AntiEXE
.

23


Macro Virus:

Macro viruses infect files that are created using certain applications or
programs that contain
macros
. These mini
-
programs make it possible to
automate
series of operations
so that they are performed as a
single action
,
thereby saving the user from having to carry them out one by one.


Examples:
Relax
,
Melissa.A
,
Bablas
,
O
97
M/Y
2
K
.



Directory Virus:

Directory viruses
change

the
path

that indicate the
location

of a file. When you
execute a program file with an extension
.EXE or .COM
that has been infected
by a virus, you are unknowingly running
the virus program
, while the original
file and program is previously
moved

by the virus. Once infected it becomes
impossible

to locate the original files.


Examples:
Dir
-
2
virus.

24


Polymorphic Virus:

Polymorphic viruses
encrypt

or
encode

themselves

in a
different

way (using
different algorithms and encryption keys) every time they infect a system. This
makes it
impossible

for anti
-
viruses to
find

them using
string

or
signature

searches

(because they are
different

in each
encryption
). The virus then goes
on creating a
large

number

of
copies
.


Examples:
Elkern
,
Marburg
,
Satan

Bug

and
Tuareg
.



File Infector Virus

This type of virus infects
programs

or
executable

files (files with .
EXE

or .
COM

extension). When one of these programs is run,
directly

or
indirectly
, the virus
is
activated
, producing the damaging effects it is programmed to carry out. The
majority of existing viruses belong to this category, and can be classified
depending on the actions that they carry out.


Examples:
Cleevix

and
Cascade
.

25


Companion Viruses

Companion viruses can be considered as a type of
file

infector

viruses like
resident or direct action types. They are known as companion viruses
because

once they get into the system they 'accompany' the other files that already
exist. In other words, in order to carry out their infection routines, companion
viruses can wait in
memory

until a program is run (resident virus) or act
immediately

by making copies of themselves (direct action virus).


Some examples
include
:
Stator
,
Asimov.1539

and
Terrax.1069.



FAT Virus:

The
file allocation table
or FAT is the part of a disk used to store all the
information about the location of files,
available space
,
unusable space
etc.
FAT virus attacks
the FAT section
and may damage crucial information. It can
be especially dangerous as it prevents access to certain sections of the disk
where important files are stored. Damage caused can result in
information

losses

from individual files or even entire directories.


Examples:

26


Multipartite Virus

These viruses spread in multiple ways possible. It may
vary

in its action
depending upon the
operating system
installed and the presence of certain
files.


Examples:
Invader
,
Flip

and
Tequila.



Web Scripting Virus

Many
web pages
include complex
code

in order to
create

an interesting and
interactive content. This code is often exploited to bring about certain
undesirable actions.



Worms

A worm is a program very
similar

to a
virus
; it has the ability to
self
-
replicate

and can lead to negative effects on your system. But they can be detected and
eliminated by
anti
-
viruses
.


Examples of worms include:
PSWBugbear.B
,
Lovgate.F
,
Trile.C
,
Sobig.D
,
Mapson
.

27


Trojans or Trojan Horses:

Another unsavory breed of malicious code are Trojans or Trojan horses, which
unlike viruses do not
reproduce

by infecting other files, nor do they
self
-
replicate

like worms. In fact, it is program which
disguises

itself as a
useful

program

or
application
.



Logic Bombs

They are
not considered
viruses because they do not
replicate
. They are not
even
programs

in their own right but rather camouflaged segments of other
programs. They are only
executed
when
a certain predefined condition is met
.
Their
objective

is to
destroy

data

on the
computer

once certain conditions have
been met. Logic bombs go
undetected

until

launched

and the results can be
destructive
.



28

1
-
The main purpose of Vienna virus is to
replicate and take action when it is executed.
When_______.

2
-

The only way to clean a file infected by an
overwrite virus is to______.

3
-

Examples for Multipartite virus ____,____
and _____.

4
-

Polyboot.B is the
example for
Overwrite

Virus (T or F)?

29

Q1
\
How to protect your system?

Q2
\
Write down the examples of Resident Virus.

Q3
\
Fill the followings...

1
-
_______ viruses infect files that are created using
certain applications or programs that contain
macros.

2
-
Polyboot.B virus affects the ________ of a floppy
or hard disk.

3
-
Viruses, worms, and Trojan horses are programs
created by ______.

4
-
The three basic components of the computer
security are _______, ________, and ________.

30

Q1
\
There are different types of computer viruses
which can be classified according to their ???

Q2
\
How To turn on automatic updating?

Q3
\
Fill the followings

1
-
Examples of the macro Virus are ______ and
________.

2
-
________is the concealment of information or
resources.

3
-
There are alternatives for providing a
password.For instance, biometrics such as
_______, _________ and ______.


31


The
Entrance
to the

security of

C
omputers
and

Information:

Introduction:

Computer security

and

information centers

is one of the

most important issues
that haunt

many of the

officials,

because they take

many aspects

starting from
the non
-
smoking

or drinking

tea

and

refreshments

near

the keyboard,
through

preventing the
thief

from

stealing

software and

down to

prevent the
laying of

viruses and

expiration encrypts
the

data and

establish rules

and
regulations

challenge

of

these
crimes.



Considerations and

the
Foundations

of security

for

computer
systems:

When we think of

the system execution that
depends on the

computer

for the
purpose of

data
processing or

organizing,

so they
would form


a specialized
committee

to study the


execution
of
the proposal

by the
best

ways and

at
less

cost

to move from

manual system

to

a

computational

system. And it’s so
important that they should take the following
Considerations

of
security

for

computer systems:





32


1.
Determine
what

is

confidential information

and

the degree

of security

in
order
to

restrict the

circulation
.

2.
Determine the level of

immunity

of computers and

peripheral devices

in
terms of

the possibility of

Penetration

by
hackers.

3.
Making computer security one of important Foundations,

Recording

is
based

upon buying any part of the computer.

4.
Making data security a basic part of
proposed
operating system
requirements.

5.
Depending on an Efficient operating system that provide suitable and
acceptable degree of security.



Safety and security of computers and information.


One of
the most important

problems facing

any

information system

used by
computer

is in the

design

and
execution of

a

suitable software

and type
of

applications
that use

this

system,


in addition

of closing methods for
any

process.

The
Penetration security
of the software, which includes measures to prove
identity and authorization processes, supervision and
control.








33


T
he
most important

features of this

stage

are:

1.
Ease of

movements

of authorized

persons

using the system

because of

few
number of them.

2.
Due to the use

authorized by

the style of

punch cards, it
is

easy
to

control

their
work directly and

their presence

in the

computer
room.

3.
Disks

and

magnetic

tapes
are maintained
that

used

to store

the
information in

the
end of work

in a safe place

after

the preparation
of

more

than one
copy.

4.
As a result of

an
increase

of Information and feeling that this





institutions needs some new
ways

to store

and

process
information,


methods

have been developed

which ensures

the continuity of

the
flow



of

information to

all

centers

and outside the enterprise
accurately.


34


Cryptographic
Technique(Writing

E
ncryption
Science
)

This technique is used when

storing

information in
the assistance

storage

means,

And

when

transferring and

receiving

them
through the

transmission lines

used
to link (connect all computers and other network devices).

The use of

encryption technique

in

dealing directly

with the information

led

to
the
following:

1.
computer
need

to be

running

with
all

its components

without
interruption

for a long
time. This will

led to

the inability to

store

files in
the

disks and

magnetic

tapes

and put them

in a safe
place after work.

2.
Increase the

probability of

errors that

result from

the large number
of


communication
lines,

leading

to the possibility
of
section

leakage
of the
system

output
to

some parts,
which

has not send any request for that
section.

3.
Diversity

and the many

recipients of

the information stored
in

computers

and from

different places

and

far
away from each others
led to
the

difficulty of distinguishing

between

authorized

and unauthorized.

4.
Getting
the

output of

the
system

illegally,

Due to the negligence

of
some

authorized

and

difficulty of

control

on the overall

their negligence


35

5
-

Increase the probability

the use of

eavesdropping

devices


and

services

represented

on the
network to

steal information

by
non
-
authorize

as a result

of
higher

technical development, which
include

all
areas.



Concepts of

computer
security:

1
-
Confidentiality(
ةيرسلا
).

2
-
Integrity(
ةملاس
).

3
-
Availability(
رفوتلا
).



Elements of

computer
security:

1.
Security of

individuals

and

administration.

2.
Security
of

operating systems

and
software.


36

1
-
1
Security of

individuals:

There is no

doubt that the

computer

centers deals
with

many

groups

of people

at
different levels

through the

use of

a computer

system

to take advantage
of
executable

application systems

and that persons
may be

employees of

the
institution

or from

other

different institutions.


1
-
2
Security of


administrations of the computer centers:

Rests with the Director a number of actions and tasks that are essential to support
the security situation of the center, which can be summarized the following
points.

1
-

Making policy
formulation and

security measures

for

public

information
center.

2
-

Developing the plan

for

possible threats

that

performs

modifications when
needed.

3
-

Identify

staff

who have the

power to

exchange
information.

4
-

Full supervision

to follow

as much as

it came to

the business

aspect

of
security.

5
-

Assign
and
follow
-
up

a staff member

to
examine the

computer

system

on a
regular
basis.

6
-

Develop

a contingency

plan

and

follow
-
up developments

in

this
area.

37

7
-

Determine who is responsible

for

the security

center

and do

not
assign

this
responsibility to
one person

for a long
time.

8
-

Check

and notice

special
devices

of
moisture, temperature

and
prevent

smoking in
public
places.

9
-

Make sure

the safety of the

doors and

windows
of center building and
all
other

units.

10
-

Ensure that the data

stored

in

disks and

magnetic tapes and kept in safe place.

11
-

Ensure that the software
Library

is

not

at
risk or changing.

12
-

Monitoring

and follow
-
up

General

rescue
procedures.

13
-

Inspect and review

the registration process

for users to

make sure
the

software

is only

used by

authorized persons.

14
-

Establishment of

awareness courses

and

continuously.


2
-
1
Security of

operating
systems:

Cares

about protection
of

the supported operating

systems

in
the
management

system

and work to

minimize or

prevent

attempts to
manipulate

constants

or

the keys that

controls

the process

control the execution
of

software
on one hand

…..


38


A
nd

the

maintenance
monitoring
the
operating

system

on
the
overall

activities

within the system

on the
other hand.


Also
the issue of

operating systems

includes the

addition

of

the
followings:

1
-

Ways to protect

internal programs

for the operating
system.

2
-

Methods of

saving passwords.

3
-

Install

an
Authority

table for

authorized

by the

system

and prevent
the

manipulation of its contents.

4
-

Administration methods for

operating system

programs
and

communication

systems.


2
-
2
Security
of the

software:

Interested in

this subject, mainly

working with the

computer,

May
allow

some

systems

to a group of

beneficiaries

to

access

a section of
the programs
and files, while

others

give

the beneficiaries

the right to

absolute

access to
all
programs
and files,

another group of

beneficiaries

determine

their
powers

only

reading of

a particular
file, and some others have the all rights to
read and write on a particular file.


39


Security

in the

Information

Center


Introduction:

Staff in the

Information Center

computerized

plays very
important

role

in
maintaining the
security of the

computer
from

greedy

stealing

secrets.

Stuff

is

a
good

elements

in achieving

successful management

of the center

through
their
role

as a vital element

in particular

levels of leadership

at the
center.



Its possible
to

collect the

staff

levels

that

could threaten

the
center and

they are:
-

1
-

Director of the Center

by role of

his responsibility

for the management of

the
center.

2
-

Systems

analysts
and

programmers.

3
-

Users

and
formatters of the data.

4
-

One of

the beneficiaries of

systems

in different ways

for the purpose of

access
to the
files that he

is not allowed to

look at those files.

5
-

Prevent the handling

and dissemination of

confidential
information

between

public employees

per

center

to prevent leakage of

this
information to

outside the
center.

6
-

Human must
have

an active role
in computer security.

40


No

security

of information center

Non security

of information
center

should be

as much as possible

not to

make
way
for

some
negative

gaps

can play

a role

in penetrating
the security

walls of

the
center.

This is done

through

the
followings:


1
-

Low

monthly income of the

career

staff

lead to the

disclosure of

secrets

and
implementation

plans

for

the temptations of

financial and

external
pressures

upon them.

2
-

Making sure of

the people who

want

to enter

the center

after verifying
the

validity of

personal identity.

3
-

Close all

the roads leading

to the center

except for

one
road

after office
hours.

4
-

Not

to allow non
-
formally


assigned

after

official working hours

to enter

the
center.

5
-

Inventory of

security responsibility to

the Director of

the center
or

of

his
representative.


41