Moldova's Report on IADGs implementation - HIV and AIDS in the ...

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GOVERNMENT OF MOLDOV
A

Moldova’s Report on
IADGs
implementation

National Voluntary Presentation for the

Annual Ministerial Review of the ECOSOC








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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS


AMR


Annual Ministerial Review

CEDAW


Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women

CEC


Central Electoral Commission

EGPRSP


Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

EUMAP


EU
-
Moldova
Action Plan

GDI


Gender
-
related Development Index

GDP


Gross Domestic Product

HBS

Household Budget Survey

HDI


Human Development Index

IADG
s



Internationally Agreed Development Goal
s

ITC


Informational technologies and communications

MCRG


Mini
stry of Construction and Regional Development

MDG
s



Millennium Development Goals

MEc

Ministry of Economy

MEd


Ministry of Education

MEn


Ministry of Environment

MF


Ministry of Finance

MH


Ministry of Health

MTEF


Medium Term Expenditure Framework

MTRI


Ministry of Transport and Road Infrastructure

NALFE


National Agency for Labour Force Employment

NARIT


National Agency for Regulating Informational Technologies

NBM


National Bank of Moldova

NBS


National Bureau of Statistics

NCFM


National C
ommission for Financial Market

NMB


National Bank of Moldova

NDS


National Development Strategy

NGES


National Gender Equality Strategy

NHRAP


National Human Rights Action Plan

NSPCPM


National Scientific
-
Practical Centre of Preventive Medicine

NVP


National Voluntary Presentation

ODA


Official Development Assistance

PPP


purchasing power parity

PRGF


Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility

PRSC


Poverty Reduction Support Credit

TB


tuberculosis

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CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION

................................
................................
................................
................................
........

4

CONTEXT

................................
................................
................................
................................
................

4

PART A. IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES AND POLICIES

............................

5

I.

Key Features of the National Development Strategy

................................
................................
.....................

5

II.

Progress in achieving IADGs/MDGs

................................
................................
................................
............

6

Goal 1: Reduce poverty and hunger

................................
................................
................................
............................

6

Goal 2:

Achieve universal access to general compulsory education

................................
................................
...........

7

Goal 3:
Promote gender equality and empower women

................................
................................
..............................

8

Goal 4:
Reduce child mortality

................................
................................
................................
................................
.....

8

Goal 5:
Improve maternal health

................................
................................
................................
................................
.

9

Goal 6:

Combat HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and other diseases

................................
................................
.....................

10

Goal 7:

Ensure environmental sustainability

................................
................................
................................
.............

11

Goal 8:
Develop a global partnership for development
................................
................................
..............................

11

PART B. GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN

................................
.............................

14

I.

Gender and national development strategy

................................
................................
................................

14

II.

Major challenges in the area of gender equality

................................
................................
..........................

14

Women on the labour market

................................
................................
................................
................................
....

15

Women subject to domestic violence

................................
................................
................................
........................

15

Women subject to human trafficking

................................
................................
................................
.......................

16

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

................................
................................
................................
.........

17

ANNEX A. Attainability of MDG targets for 2010 and 2015

................................
................................
.......................

19

ANNEX B. MDG monitoring indicators (DevInfo)

................................
................................
................................
.....

21

ANNEX C. Selected indicators, including disaggregated by gender

................................
................................
..........

25







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INTRODUCTION


The aim of this Report is to
assess Moldova’s progress towards the Internationally Agreed Development Goals
(IADGs) and, in particular, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The Report represents the National
Voluntary Presentation (NVP) for the fourth Annual Ministerial Review (AM
R) of ECOSOC in 2010. The
Moldovan Government, with the support of UN agencies, initiated the process of preparation of the NVP in
November 2009. To this end, a
participatory draft
Comprehensive
IADG/
MDG Report was prepared
, involving
representatives of th
e Government, civil society, the donor community and other stakeholders
.
It assessed the
impact of national reforms and selected policies, as well as projects implemented by country development
partners on the MDG targets, focusing on gender equality and e
mpowerment of women.
The main findings of
the Comprehensive
IADG/
MDG Report are summarized in the NVP.


The objective of the NVP is to analyze and provide an assessment of how Moldova has implemented its
national development strategies to achieve the IADGs. It provides a summary of successes and failures,
lessons learned, and challenges in achieving existing

commitments. The NVP also provides feedback on the
country’s performance and enables the development community to understand its policies and development
circumstances.
The thematic focus of the NVP is on “Implementing the internationally agreed goals and

commitments in regards to gender equality and empowerment of women”. Taking into account this thematic
orientation, the NVP assesses overall progress towards the achievement of each of the eight MDGs, including
through the lenses of gender equality. Besid
es providing background information on Moldova’s development
during transition
,

it comprises two major parts, namely: 1) General Chapter, which discusses the major national
development strategies, implemented by Moldova over the last decade and assesses ov
erall progress towards
IADG/MDG implementation, and 2) Thematic Chapter on gender equality and empowerment of women.


CONTEXT


For almost two decades, Moldova has engaged in the process of transition to a market economy.
In 1991, it
seceded from the Sovie
t Union and became a sovereign and independent parliamentary republic.
The
commencement of the transition period was accompanied by Transnistria’s self
-
proclamation as an
independent state. This event impacted Moldova from both a political and economical p
erspective, as
Transnistria accounted for a third of the total industrial production of the country and almost its entire energy
production. Due to a lack of proper economic and social reforms, accompanied by political instability in the first
ten years of

transition, Moldova was subjected to deep economic recessions, which led, among other adverse
events, to a growth in poverty.


Only after 2000 was the economy of Moldova able see growth, due largely to remittances, which represented
about one
-
third of GD
P in 2008 (see Annex C). Over the period 2000

2008 the economy registered cumulative
growth of 67.2%, although this only represented 56.9% of total output in 1990.
R
epeated external shocks
(droughts, floods, export restrictions)
experienced by the country

over 2006

2008, followed in 2009 by the
deepest economic crisis
experienced
since the beginning of transition

the GDP collapsed by 6.5%

have
undermined the authorities’ efforts to
effectively influence

the pattern of economic growth.


The economic growth
that did occur

by 2009
, driven by migration and remittances, contributed to a reduction in
poverty and an increase in the population’s income; thus helping to establish improved access to healthcare
and education. In spite of these positive developments, m
assive migration created problems on the local labour
market. During the transition period, Moldova’s population decreased by more than one
-
fifth, and the
emigration of almost a quarter of the economically active population has diminished the labour market
, causing
a fall of almost one
-
fifth in the size of the active and employed populations. At the same time, the economically
inactive population increased dramatically in size. While the unemployment rate has fallen gradually, this has
largely been a functi
on of emigration of the labour force. From the human and gender development
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perspectives, as reflected by the Human Development Index (HDI) and the Gender Development Index (GDI),
Moldova is one of the least advanced countries in Europe and among transitio
n states. There are also
important internal differences―women live longer than men and show higher enrolment ratios

in higher
education
, while men own significantly larger economic resources.


Considering

that the le
vel of implementation of the IADGs

is d
irectly connected to the level of human rights

in a
country
, we can identify the
subsequent
problems the Moldova
n

authorities are facing in this domain: poor
detention conditions in most of the penitentiaries and pre
-
trial detention facilities; traffickin
g in human beings;
an overextended pre
-
trial detention period; a low level of judicial independence
;

restricted exercise of the right
to freedom of religion; insignificant participation of women in the main decision
-
making roles in the public and
private s
ectors; resorting to abortion as a means of contraception
;

and discrimination faced by some minorities

(
e.g. Roma
)
. The year 2009
was

marred by the events of April

7, with severe violations of human rights taking
place against protesters participating in r
allies that followed the parliamentary election.
S
hocking
rights abuses

were recorded, including arbitrary arrests, torture, ill
-
treatment and even
the
deaths of detained persons. These
events have
yet
to be investigated.


PART A. IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIO
NAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES AND POLICIES


I.

Key Features of the National Development Strategy


The Government first officially addressed poverty in 2001 by approving the interim Economic Growth and
Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (iEGPRSP). This was
followed, in 2004, by the full Economic Growth and
Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper that covered a two
-
year period to 2006
,

but was extended for a further year.
The country’s major external partners, particularly
USA, the World Bank, the EC, Sweden and Ger
many,
accounting for approximately 79% of gross ODA in 2003

2004,
aligned their medium
-
term assistance
strategies to the EGPRSP, which was built on three major priorities:
1) sustainable and inclusive economic
growth; 2) reduction of poverty and inequality

and increased participation of the poor in economic development;
and 3) human resource development.


Although the welfare of Moldovan citizens increased considerably during this period, the impact of EGPRSP on
economic growth and poverty reduction was m
arginal. First, EGPRSP implementation was delayed for about
one year, due to a lack of institutional arrangements within the Government to undertake commitments at the
onset of implementation. The impact of this strategy was further minimised as a result o
f the poor linkage
between EGPRSP, the Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF) and the annual budget. Meanwhile,
during 2005

2007, the EU
-
Moldova Action Plan (EUMAP) was implemented,
but despite

deliberate efforts,
inaction of Moldovan leadership resulted

in the EUMAP only partially achieving its goals, though certain pieces
of legislation were adapted to EU standards.


The lessons learned from the failure of both the EGPRSP and EU
-
Moldova Action Plan forced the Government
to rethink its strategic plannin
g process. The National Development Strategy (NDS) for 2008

2011 followed
and it appears to be more successful. From the outset, NDS policy measures were linked to the MTEF, and
policy units were established in all line ministries to support NDS implementa
tion. Macroeconomic stability and
efficient public administrations are prerequisites for meeting the NDS objectives, which are:
1) Strengthening
democracy, rule of law and human rights; (2) Transnistrian conflict resolution and reintegration of the country
;
(3) Improving competitiveness of the national economy; (4) Development of human capital, employment and
inclusion; and (5) Regional development. However, the economic crisis
, as well as the political

instability
that
emerged in 2009
as a result of failur
e of the new Parliament to elect a President,
undermined NDS
implementation
―o
nly in 2008
did
the Government follow NDS priorities. Most of 2009
was dominated by

elec
tions and

the
country’s
response to
the economic crisis was delayed. P
olicies had a
populist rather than
systematic and rational flavour. Although the new coalition Government, appointed in September 2009
,

has
theoretically endorsed the NDS, it
has

not undertake
n

concrete measures to fully implement it.


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After finalization of the EU
-
Mold
ova Action Plan, concrete steps to design a new partnership tool with the EU
were launched only in January 2010, when Moldova initiated negotiations on an EU
-
Moldova Association
Agreement.

This process will result in a medium or long
-
term EU integration ag
enda for Moldova. Because
NDS objectives are not likely to be achieved
by 2011, the new EU agenda may

represent the policy platform for
internal and external resource planning.


To date, the MDGs are the only long
-
term national targets that are included i
n the Government’s medium
-
term
agenda, set out in the NDS. The MDGs are, however, not exhaustive.

Moldova first established its national
targets for the years
2006, 2010 and 2015
for achieving the MDGs in the 2004 Economic Growth and Poverty
Reduction Stra
tegy Paper.

The Government previously reported annually on the EGPRSP and biennially on the
MDGs. Both EGPRSP indicators and the MDGs were monitored through a DevInfo database (see Annex B).
In
2005,

the Government approved the first National MDG Report, w
hich made a detailed and well
-
grounded
analysis of each of the eight goals.
Later, in 2007, after a progress analysis and a series of consultations with
civil society and the country’s development partners, most of the targets were revised.
The main reason
s
for
revision
were
a

change in
the
methodology
used to

estimat
e
a number of indicators, achievement of certain
targets and the downward rev
ision of other targets that seemed overly
ambitious.

Although all revised MDGs
and indi
cators are covered in the
NDS, G
overnment commitments towards their implementation and
,

therefore
,

the achieved results, differ from goal to goal.


One of the efforts to fulfill the MDGs was the assessment of the MDGs in Moldova from a gender perspective,
which was carried out in
2006 by
UNIFEM. Also in the same year
, an assessment was made as to the human
and financial resources needed to achieve the MDGs. This provided a clear estimate of the costs associated
with fulfilling the MDGs in Moldova, which allowed the Government to fo
cus its domestic planning

and foreign
resource mobilization efforts. However, since their adoption, the Government has been more concerned with
reporting on MDG progress than setting short to medium
-
term action plans to ensure their implementation.


II.

Progress in achieving
IADGs/
MDGs


Goal 1:

Reduce poverty and hunger


Market and government failures during the first decade of transition led to economic recession and increased
poverty, thus qualifying Moldova as the poorest country in Europe
1
. The poverty rate since this time has seen
various fluctuations. The regional crisis in 1998 deepened poverty to a level of 70% of the population. However,
from 2000
the poverty rate began to fall, largely due to remittances.
In 2006 (when a new methodolo
gy
for
estimatin
g

poverty was introduced)
,

30.2% of
the
population were living in absolute poverty and 4.5% in
extreme poverty.
Despite these gains, starting from 2008, absolute poverty increased for the first time in the
previous three years, reaching 26.
4%, compared to 25.8% in 2007, mainly due to its extension into rural zones
and a drop in remittances.

At the same time, the

share of underweight children aged 0

5 years fell from 14.3%
in 2006 to 11% in 2008. The most vulnerable social groups that are aff
ected by absolute poverty are the aged,
those whose sole source of income is self
-
employment in agriculture, large families and families with multiple
children, and persons unemp
loyed for long periods. From a

gender perspective, there is no clear differenc
e
between the poverty levels of men and women (see Annex C).


The public policies implemented by the Government in past years have had an overt social orientation, with
around 68% of public expenditure being directed towards implementing social measures.
In order to support
the vulnerable, including those under the poverty line, the Government, with the support of the country’s
development partners,
2

has implemented a range of policy measures. One of the most popular policies for



1


With a per capita GDP of 1800 USD, Moldova has the lowest incomes in Europe. Albania, which had the lowest incomes in Europe
in 2000, reached a per
-
capita GDP of 4000 USD

by
2008. Baltic countries have GDP per capita that exceed 14 000 USD. Source:
World Economic Outlook Database, October 2009, http://www.imf.org/external/ns/cs.aspx?id=28

2

The main donors assisting Moldova in its fight against poverty are the IMF
,

through it
s credits within the Poverty Reduction and
Growth Facility (PRGF) Programme
,

and the World Bank, through its Poverty Reduction Support Credit (PRSC) programme. Other
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poverty reduction was the
transition from nominal compensations
for utilities
that are

provided to 11 categories
of the population to social aid based on means testing. Though nominal compensations accounted for about
half of social assistance expenditure, the categorical approach
has lead to certain failures of the system―the
richest two quintiles receiving one
-
third of the targeted compensations. Despite Government efforts, t
he poverty
trend realised in 2008 reduced the probability of achieving the intermediate target of a reducti
on in
both
the
proportion of people whose consumption was less than
4.3 dollars per day (in PPP terms) and the absolute
poverty rate
by 2010. In regards to extreme poverty, in 2007 and 2008, Moldova succeeded in achieving a
reduction in the level of extrem
e poverty required by both the intermediary target for 2010 and the final one for
2015.


Goal 2:

Achieve universal access to general compulsory education


Progress in achieving MDGs on education has been uneven. Over the period 2002


2008, enrolment rates in
general compulsory education dropped from 95.1% to 90.9%. The causes of the fall in enrolment ratios, as well
as the rise in the number of school dropou
ts, are related to: high poverty rates, especially in families with many
children; labour migration of parents and consequent growth in the number of children left without permanent
parental care; and poor school infrastructure.
Although spending on educat
ion has been growing steadily,
reaching 8.7% of GDP in 2008 compared to 5.7% in 2000, there is a huge gap in financing between the
different levels of education―general compulsory education benefiting from almost one
-
half of available funds,
and these are
inefficiently spent.
Schools are being utilized at an average capacity of 67%. A considerable
share of schools is in inadequate physical condition, lacking centralized heating and proper sanitary
infrastructure.
Despite all these constraints
, the

general l
iteracy level
of
98.9%
in 2008, and that
among
young
people aged 15

24

of
99.6%
,

is
relatively

high
. This
will probably be the

only

target for
this
MDG to be
achieved in the short
to

medium terms.


The Government, with the support of country development
partners, has implemented a range of policies to
increase quality and access to general compulsory education
3
. However, more significant policies were
launched only recently. School reorganisation commenced early in 2010, and the new financing formula,
pro
viding for more school autonomy in utilizing funds, has yet to be introduced. Optimization of the school
network is also relevant given the continuous fall in the number of school students
4
. However, if the
reorganisation of schools does not consider the n
eeds of children with disabilities, who account for almost one
-
tenth of children under 16, the reform will be incomplete.


Unlike the coverage of general mandatory education, the share of children with pre
-
school education is
continuously increasing. In 20
08, the enrolment rate of children aged from 3

6 years represented 74.4%
compared to 44.1% in 2000, which is close to the target for 2015 of 75%. At the same time, it is hard to assess
the kindergarten enrolment ratio of 6 and 7
-
year olds, because, at this

age, a large proportion of children are
already enrolled in primary education. Moreover, the monitoring of this indicator has revealed a number of
statistical problems
5
. The coverage of 6

7 year
-
old children by education, regardless of the cycle of educat
ion,
is 91.1%, which is not different from the level registered in
2000. The enrolment ratio in pre
-
school education of
this age group has increased over recent years from 36.8%
in 2000 to
41.8% in
2008.
The increase in the
preschool enrolment rate is,
among other factors, a result of joint efforts of the Government

with the support of






donors

the European Commission, UNDP, DFID, SID
A, etc.―provide support to

Moldova through
technical assistance projects
focused on the reduction of poverty and the promotion of social inclusion.

3

The main policy papers on
education are: Moldovan Educational System Modernization Program (2005

2008); “Education for All

National Plan (2004

200
8); “SALT” Program for Implementing Informational Technologies in Education
;

Strategy and Action Plan on
the Reform of the Residential System (2007

2012)
;

and
National Strategy and Plan for Community Action (2007

2009).

4

According to forecasts, the numb
er of school students will fall in the academic year 20
14/2015 by more than 24%

compared to
2006/2007.

5


The
re were

flaws in the record
s

of the
Ministry of Education

pertaining to

children aged 6

7 years
. Therefore, for this report

data
provided by the NBS

based on the HBS were used. Changes in

the source of information would eventually make it necessary to
consider repeatedly revising the MDG targets on education.

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UNICEF, the World Bank and other partners, through the development of new policies on early education, as
well as teaching and methodological materials, which also encompa
ss vulnerable groups.


From a gender perspective, enrolment in the general mandatory education system does not show any
significant disparities―
the enrolment ratio among boys

is only marginally

higher than among girls
. Thus, in
primary education, where ge
nder differences are slightly more prominent than in secondary education, the
enrolment rates of girls and boys were 92.7% and 94.4% respectively in 2008. But in secondary education, the
disparities are insignificant; the rate of enrolment in 2008 being 88
.8% for girls and 89.8% for boys. There are
also no serious disparities between the sexes in pre
-
school enrolment; the enrolment ratio for girls aged
between 3 and 6 is 73.8% while for boys it is 74.9%.


Goal 3:

Promote gender equality and empower women


The representation of women in decision making is very irregular in Moldova. The Constitution of Moldova
stipulates that women and men are equal before the law and public authorities. In reality, however, the
legislation on gender equality is merely decla
rative, in part because of the way traditions and customary
perceptions see the role of women in society. At the level of Parliament, trends seem more favourable for
women following the 2009 parliamentary elections, with the number of women MPs rising―abou
t one
-
quarter
of seats are held by women. Although this is higher than in 1998, 2001 and 2005 (8.7%, 15.8% and 20.7%
respectively) and higher than in countries like Ukraine (8.2%),
Georgia (6%) and Albania (7.1%),
this level of
representation of women is not sufficient for ensuring the equality of seats between the two sexes.


In 2008, women’s representation among leadership bodies at the level of local public authorities did not
grow―only 3.1% of heads of rayon an
d 17.4% of mayors were women. At the same time, the number of
women elected as local and rayon councillors rose, but is still low―16.9% of rayon councillors and 28.7% of
local councillors are women. At the local level, the only position where women outnumb
er men is the lowest
ranking in the hierarchy (i.e. the consultant/specialist level). Within the central executive, even though there is
gender parity in the distribution of salaries and even of high
-
ranked positions, the higher up in the hierarchical
stru
cture of decision makers, the fewer women are seen compared to men.


Even though the representation of women in rayons and local councils, as well as in Parliament, is increasing,
their place in the decision
-
making structures precludes forecast, since fut
ure developments depend largely on
the way each political party perceives gender
-
parity
-
related issues. Of note is that beyond the official figures
illustrating women’s participation in the decision
-
making process, it is difficult to assess their real invo
lvement in
de facto
decision making.


Discrepancies between the salaries of women and men have decreased in recent years, with the average
female salary standing at 73.3% of the average male salary in 2008. The existing gender pay gap is caused by
the fact

that women, in most cases, either work in less well
-
paid domains traditionally considered feminine
occupations (e.g. education, healthcare services), or occupy low
-
paid positions (i.e. subordinate jobs with no
managerial tasks/prerogatives).


Goal 4:

Red
uce child mortality


In comparison to other MDGs, due to the Government’s constant efforts, important achievements have been
made in reducing child mortality.
Success in this area
is
the

result of regionalis
ing

perinatal medical assistance,
implementing
in

vitro

transportation, establishing a national system of monitoring and observation of perinatal
medical assistance and other measure
s

implemented by the Government with the support of country
development partners
6
.

Starting from 2008, a new methodology of

defining live birth was applied
7
. As expected,



6


Government of Japan, Switzerland, European Bank for Reconstructi
on and Development,

UNICEF,
Swiss Agency for Development
and Coopera
tion, and World Bank have provided financial assistance to reduce child mortality.

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this methodology led to growth in the infant mortality indicators for that year. But despite this anomaly, in 2008,
the situation was significantly better than in 2000, and even in 1990.
Over the period 1990

2008, infant
mortality dropped from 19 to 13.1 for each 1,000 live births in the 1,000 gm or above birth weight category and
from 21.7 to 21.1 for each 1,000 in the 500 gm or above category.

A similar trend occurred in the under
-
five
mortality rate.
This s
hows that

the targets for 2010 and 2015 for both indicators have been greatly exceeded.


The factors that continue to drive infant mortality are diverse. Perinatal diseases, congenital malformations and
respiratory diseases are still prevalent. Under
-
five

mortality is also caused by traumas and poisonings
. Infant
and under
-
five deaths are higher among boys
―a finding that may be explained by the fact that fewer girls were
born each year than boys (in 2006, for example, 48.3% of the total number of live birt
hs were girls). In rural
areas, the mortality rates for both female and male infants are higher than the respective indicators for the
urban environment.


The proportion of children immunized against measles

in Moldova is very high at 94.4%. Universal
immu
nisation cannot be achieved for various reasons, including parents’ erroneous perceptions and the advice
of doctors. However, according to WHO, the proportion of children immunized against measles in Moldova is
among the highest in the world
8
. The accompli
shment of this MDG greatly depends on the implementation of
National Immunization Programs and actions for increasing awareness of the positive effects of child
vaccination against measles.



Goal 5:

Improve maternal health


Maternal mortality
9

has not undergone a linear evolution over recent years, although it has fallen significantly
from the last decade of the twentieth century―55.2 cases for each 100,000 live births in 1990 to 27.1 cases in
2000. After a considerable increase in 2001 (43.9 c
ases for each 100,000 live births), this indicator declined,
reaching a level of 15.8 cases for each 100,000 live births in 2007. Despite these gains in reducing maternal
mortality, a significant increase was registered in 2008, reaching the level of 38.4
cases for each 100,000 live
births, thus exceeding by a significant margin the values registered in previous years.
While this development
raises concern, in absolute terms this indicator is not exceedingly high, since in
absolute numbers fifteen
women die
d in 2008, of which 11 were from rural areas and four from urban communities
.
Furthermore, the
proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel remains quite high at 99.5%
, compared, for instance,
to
88% in the case of Tajikistan and Azerbaijan.


Maternal deaths are predominantly caused by bleeding
, followed by late gestosis, septic states
,
thromboembolism, hepatic cirrhosis and, rarely, cases of anaesthesia
-
related complications. Of the total
number of maternal death cases, in about half, major s
ocial problems can be identified, such as a migratory
lifestyle, disregard for medical care

and lack of modern medical procedures in some rayon maternity wards
.

Further complications arise from abortions. Although the number of abortions in Moldova has fal
len
significantly―from 37,000 in 1997 to 14,000 in 2008, largely because of the implementation of family planning
measures―the complications resulting from abortions continue to re
present one of the causes of

maternal






7


The methodology
for

defining live births recommended by WHO
is
birth which occurs after 22 completed
weeks of gestation and
newborn

weight of 500 g
m
s or more. Previously, the respective indicator was estimated based on the definition of a live birth
as

that
which occurred after 28 completed weeks of gestation and with
newborn
weight
of

1,000 gms or more.

8

Source:
Nation

Master

world
-
wide database with data gathered from

sources such as the UN, OCDE, and
Central Intelligence
Agency.

9


In Moldova, the maternal mortality indicator is in line with the definition and the methodology proposed
by WHO. Based on

this

definition, a maternal death is defined as the death of a woman during pregnancy or in the period of up to 42 days following
the
completion of the pregnancy, for any reason associated with, or aggravated by the pregnancy or its handling, but not caus
ed by
traumas or poisonings.

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deaths
10
. The situation may worsen in c
oming years due to the pandemics that are making victims of pregnant
women increasingly frequent
11
.


The gains that Moldova has registered during recent years (with the exception of 2008) in the context of
reducing maternal mortality are largely the product of the public policies implemented, together with the support
of the country’s development partners
. A number of policies
ensuring that all pregnant women, regardless of
their ethnic origin, social or marital status, political or religious views, together with newborns benefit from fair
and free access, at the established level, to high quality health s
ervices during pregnancy, childbirth and the
postpartum period,
were carried out successfully
12
.


Goal 6:

Combat HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and other diseases


HIV/AIDS has been a relatively recent addition to Moldova’s population, with the first cases of HIV infections in
Moldova recorded in 1987. By 1995, there were 40 people carrying HIV, including 21 foreign citizens who were
expelled from the country under l
aws existing at that time. The epidemiological situation worsened from 1996
onwards and was spread by injecting drug users (IDU) in the early stages through the use of shared needles. A
particularly alarming situation in this context is in the Transnistria

region of Moldova. Over the period 1987

2008, of the 4,996 HIV aids carriers officially registered in the country, 3,461 cases were from Transnistria.


Compared to the aggregate incidence of HIV/AIDS, the incidence of this disease among 15

24 year
-
olds f
ell in
2008. However, HIV continues to have the most dramatic effect on the young and fertile population. Moreover,
a trend has emerged towards ‘feminization’ of the infection, where, at the beginning of the epidemic the
majority of HIV positive persons we
re men, (84.0%) in recent years, women have contributed to a growing
share of the number infected.
Over

2003

2007, the proportion of pregnant women tested for HIV rose from
96% to 99.4%

and HIV prevalence among
this group

continued

to rise: 0.1% in 2005;
0.21% in 2006; and
0.23%
in 2007
13
. There is a strong risk of f
urther development of the HIV epidemic in Moldova

given the

high
levels of migration

experienced by members of the population
14
.



The actions taken in recent years through implementation of the National Program for the Prevention and
Control of HIV/AIDS
and Sexually Transmitted Infections
2006

2010, financed chiefly by international donors,
have contributed to the detection, containm
ent and prevention of these diseases.
People with HIV/AIDS are
provided with antiretroviral treatment free of charge. Moreover, 56 voluntary, free counselling and testing
centres have been opened
15
.

In 2005, the National Coordination Council on TB/HIV was c
reated
.
16

However,
despite this positive progress in preventing HIV/AIDS, most HIV education and prevention programs are
fragmented and focused on the improvement of knowledge about HIV and AIDS rather than on the instigation
of behavioural change. There ar
e limited prevention efforts dedicated to children and teenagers at risk due to
limited data on the number of these categories of persons, and due to service providers' lack of capacity to
identify, refer and offer services.


The spread of tuberculosis in

Moldova reached epidemic proportions in the 1990s, amid a socioeconomic crisis
and inadequate financing of the health care system, a shortage of anti
-
tuberculosis medicines over 1997

2000



10

In 1997
,

for every 100 newborns 75.2 abortions were registered. By 2008
,

this indicator had fallen to 36.2. The share of interrupted
pregnancies in the age group 15

19 years is more or less constant over the past 10

years, representing 10%

of the total number of
abortions.

11

Based on the data of the Ministry of Health for the year 2009, one
-
quarter of the total number of deceased pregnant women was
infected

with the pandemic flu. In the first three weeks of 2010, four women died due to the pandemic flu.

12


National Programme on “Strengthening perinatal medical assistance in the Republic of Moldova” for the period 1998

2002
,

Programme on “Promoting high quali
ty perinatal services” (2003

2006), National Strategy regarding reproductive health for the years
2005

2015,


National Health Policy of the
Republic of Moldova 2007

2021.

13


Data of the National Center for Sanitary Management (unpublished report, 2008)

14



Report by Oxford Analytica, 2008.

15


The travel costs are covered by a grant offered by the
Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.

16


Set up by Government Decision
no.825 of 3 August 2005.

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and migration. In 2008, TB incidence in penitentiary institutions w
as 11 times higher than in the general
population. A concerning development is an increase in the number of cases of multi
-
drug
-
resistant
tuberculosis, which make up about 43% of the total number of

cases. From a gender point of view, there is a
great disp
arity between the number of men and women suffering from TB, with more than two
-
thirds of new
cases of TB in 2008 registered among men. The implementation of the DOTS Programme, in compliance with
the National Programme for the Control and Prevention of Tu
berculosis, covering the periods 2001

2005/2006

2010, has contributed to the detection of tuberculosis and the development of statistics in the area.
Access to second
-
line tuberculosis treatment (administered when initial or first
-
line treatment is ineffec
tive) has
also been extended. For the treatment of out
-
patient conditions of non
-
bacilliferous TB cases, a mechanism is
in place to assist sufferers financially with buying medicines, food, and covering transport costs. In order to
control and prevent the
spread of tuberculosis, coercive treatment of people with contagious tuberculosis was
initiated in 2009.



Goal 7:

Ensure environmental sustainability


In order to address this MDG goal of ensuring environmental sustainability, the Government has committed to
increase the proportion of land covered by forests and state
-
protected land areas, as well as expand population
access to quality water, sewerage an
d sanitation systems.
S
low progress has been achieved in recent years
i
n
relation to

expansion of forest
ed

land. In general, between 2000 and 2008, the proportion of land covered by
forest increased by only one percentage point, reaching 10.9% of total cou
ntry territory

although a higher
proportion than in Kazakhstan (1.2%), Kyrgyzstan (4.5%) and Tajikistan (2.9%)
.


The trend
of

increasing
the proportion of state
-
protected land areas that maintain biological diversity has been
relatively steady since 2000
. Progress was achieved in 2006 when the
coverage

of such areas
grew

twofold,
followed by another expansion in 2007.
As a c
onsequen
ce
,
by 2007, the revised target of 4.6
5% for both 2010
and 2015 ha
d already

been achieved.

Of importance for Moldova, however
, is that besides quantitative growth,
it is also necessary to improve the quality of these areas, since declaring a territory a protected area implies the
implementation of a range of actions, such as ensuring the allocation of funds and human resources,
ensuring
maintenance and putting in place a protection regime.


A persistent problem in Moldova is population access to quality sanitary infrastructure. In 2008, the
proportion
of the population with sustainable access to improved water sources stood at 53%, with a marked disparity
between urban (92.2%) and rural (26.7%) access. The proportion of the population with sustainable access to
sewerage was only 45.7%. Access

of the population to sanitation services is extending even more slowly,
reaching only 45.9% in 2008.
The slow dynamics of these indicators suggests that the MDG targets could be
le
ft unaccomplished and impede progress towards health
-
related MDGs.


Goal 8
:
Develop a global partnership for development


For a transition country like Moldova, the creation of development partnerships is crucial in attaining higher
living standards for the population as well as for the country’s integration into European and in
ternational
structures. This implies, on the one hand, constant cooperation on the part of all countries aiming at meeting
the first seven MDGs and, on the other hand, achieving progress in other important domains which have not
been covered by the goals,
such as foreign trade, transport and communications infrastructure, external debt
sustainability, and support to youth.


Official Development Assistance (ODA) per capita to Moldova has risen constantly

from 18.2% in 1995 to
33.7% in 2000 and 269.2% in 200
7. However, international assistance has not always been translated into
efficiency gains. Moreover, given the provision of loans under non
-
preferential conditions at the outset of
transition, external debt has increased dramatically.
By 2000
,

gross
external debt had climbed to 133% of GDP,
while external government debt stood at 60.4%.
In recent

years, the Government has made sustainable efforts
to
wards

settl
ing both

gross external

debt and external government debt, reducing
these

to 67.5% and 12.9%
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respectively in 2008. With the
impact of the
world financial crisis the gross external debt level in developed
countries ha
s

risen to much higher levels than in Moldova (Luxemburg 3,733% of GDP, Ireland 881%,
and
United Kingdom 338%). However
,

Moldovan ext
ernal debt
is still higher than in other developing countries
(Azerbaijan 6% of GDP, Uzbekistan 18%,
and
Russia 29%).

An analysis of debt sustainability made at the
beginning of 2008 concluded that Moldova’s external debt outlook is favourable, with a low
risk of debt distress,
and
qualifying Moldova as
a
“low indebted” country.

However, with the willingness of country development
partners to provide around US$2.6 billion to support Moldova over 2011

2013, expressed during the
Consultative Group Meeting on
March 2010, Moldovan foreign debt will increase dramatically.


Moldova's foreign trade is constantly expanding. However, considering the
peculiarities

of the country's
economy

largely based on consumption

imports, which satisfy t
he bulk of domestic
consumption

have risen
at a greater rate than exports

in recent years. Thus, the trade gap grew more than 10 times

over the last nine
years. Foreign direct investment has also been rising constantly, yet at a slower pace than remittances and
imports.


A p
articular role in creating partnerships for development is played by youth
17
. The difficulties of the transition
period have increasingly had a negative impact on the younger generations, which throughout the past decade
have had to confront multiple proble
ms, such as unemployment, illegal migration, human trafficking, juvenile
delinquency, and marginalisation of certain groups.
In 2008, the unemployment rate among
this group

was
11.2%, compared with 4% for the whole population.
To encourage an entrepreneuri
al spirit among rural youth,
the Government adopted the National Programme for Youth Economic Empowerment (NPYEE) for 2008

2010.
Under this Programme, the Government, with the support of the country's development partners, offers training
and practical sup
port for earning initial capital to start a private business. A follow
-
up to this programme is also
being implemented with the support of the country's development partners (UNICEF, the World Bank), aimed at
helping establish micro
-
enterprises in rural are
as. Additionally, t
he Government adopted the 2008

2009 Action
Plan to encourage Moldovan migrant workers, a great
number of whom

are young, to return to the country. A
Programme to coordinate reintegration assistance for voluntary returnees is being implemented with the
support of the International Organization for Migration (IOM). So far, return and reintegration assistance has
be
en provided to some 460 people.


Dealing with landlock issues is also important
for Moldova
in the context of the increasingly widespread
globalization process.
Transportation infrastructure is still underdeveloped, mainly because of the poor
condition of

the roads. The problems caused by
being

landlocked have been partially solved by the
construction and opening of the Giurgiulesti Port in 2009.
However, in terms of achieving essential growth in
foreign trade, the port’s capacities may be insufficient.


Information and communication technologies (ICTs), which represent the sixth component of this national MDG,
have seen considerable progress in Moldova in recent years. In just eight years, ICT penetration has surged to
make the ICT sector account for near
ly 10% of GDP. This rate is considerably higher than in other countries in
the region and is much higher than the European Union's average. Moldova has come to rank fourth among
the CIS member states in terms of the ICT development index, after Russia, Ukr
aine and Belarus
18
. Virtually all
of the strategic programs of national importance contain actions in the area of ITC
19
.


In addition to these issues MDG 8 addresses access of the population to medication. In order to achieve
access, both in terms of cost a
nd location, with the support of WHO Moldova launched a process of systematic



17

Youth is defined as the population group aged between 15 and 24 years and accounts for 10
%
t of Moldova's total population
.

18

According to the
International Telecommunication Union's

“Measuring the Information Society” Report, which measures the ICT
deve
lopment indexes of 183 countries, Moldova is ranked 68th, placing

it

in the category of countries with medium levels of the
Opportunity Index (ICT
-
OI) (in 2007, Moldova ranked 83th). Noteworthy is the ICT
-
OI average annual growth rate for Moldova, where
it

is ranked 28th (35th in 2007).



19

National Development Strategy, Government Program, National Strategy for Building an Information Society (E
-
Moldova) and its
Action Plan, etc
.

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analysis of the pharmaceutical market. Both prices and physical access to medications have increased over the
last few years. Thus, around three
-
quarters of the population have p
hysical access to medication and a slightly
higher proportion is covered by compulsory health insurance.


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PART B. GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN


I.

Gender and national development strategy


The problem of gender equality has been of concern to
the Government of Moldova throughout the past two
decades of transition. In 1994, Moldova ratified the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination
against Women (CEDAW), in 1995 the ILO Convention concerning Discrimination in Respect of Em
ployment
and Occupation, in 1999 the ILO Convention concerning Equal Remuneration for Men and Women Workers for
Work of Equal Value and in 2001 the Revised European Social Charter. In recent years, significant progress
has been made both in terms of adapti
ng the legal and institutional framework to the context of gender policy
and in terms of incorporating the issue into national policy papers. Gender equity has been included on the
agenda of the Government via the MDGs. The most substantial commitment

was
undertaken by the current
G
overnment of Moldova, which included in its government program a separate chapter dealing with policies
aimed at ensuring gender equality. At the same time, a new National Program for Ensuring Gender Equality for
the years 2010

2
015 and an Action Plan of its implementation were adopted.


The Government, with the support of UNIFEM and in close and effective cooperation with specialized NGOs
20
,
has conducted an extensive awareness
-
raising and advocacy process for the inclusion of th
e gender paradigm
in the content of the National Development Strategy 2008

2011. In spite of all these efforts, the final version of
this strategic document did not include cross
-
sector reference to the gender dimension, maintaining only a
sporadic presenc
e of the dimension in subjects pertaining to education, health and social protection.

Each of the above
-
mentioned papers (with the exception of NDS) contains provisions that forbid gender
discrimination in various fields. In 1998, Moldova presented its ini
tial report to the CEDAW Committee―a
report that was further revised in 2000.
Subsequently, the Committee formulated multiple recommendations to
Moldova

and, i
n
2004,

the

country presented
its report, which
together with an alternative report presented by
Moldovan civil society
,

was examined by the Committee in 2006.
Upon evaluation of these reports, the CEDAW
Committee formulated a number of recommendations for Moldova, which have yet to be dealt with
21
.

The principle of gender equality of opportunities is

included in Law no. 5
-
XVI of February 9, 2006 on Ensuring
the Equality of Opportunities between Women and Men. The law mentions the necessity of including its
principles in all “public policies, strategies and programs, normative acts and financial invest
ments”, thus calling
for an integrated approach to the gender dimension. It also provides an institutional framework for ensuring
equality between women and men by designating the competent authorities in the area of gender equality.
These authorities are
as follows: Parliament, Government, and Governmental Commission for Equality
between Women and Men, Ministry of Health and Social Protection (presently, Ministry of Labour, Social
Protection and Family, assigned to be the specialized authority), other mini
stries, central administrative
authorities and local public authorities by means of gender units. The activity of the Ministry of Labour, Social
Protection and Family, through the activity of the Department of Policies for Ensuring Gender Equality and
Prev
ention of Violence, has contributed to the achievement of significant progress in recent years in the area of
gender equality. Based on this law and for purposes of satisfying the provisions of CEDAW, through
Government Decision no. 350 of 07.04.2006, the
Governmental Commission for Equality between Women and
Men was instituted. Government Decision no. 895 of 07.08.2006 approved the Regulations of the
governmental Commission for Equality between Women and Men.


II.

Major challenges in the area of gender equali
ty





20


50/50 Women Political Club, Gender Centre, Women
’s

Organizations Foru
m,

Partnership for Development Centre”, and others.

21


http://www.un.md/UNIFEM/government/CEDAW/CEDAW_Recomandari%20_2006_Rom.pdf

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The analysis of gender equality in Moldova points to the most problematic areas as being: empowerment of
women, particularly on the labour market, violence towards women, and trafficking
22
.

Women on the labour market


The situation of women on the
labour market

(as discussed under MDG3),
in spite of the
ir

high
er

level of
education

overall
, is characterized
,

firstly
,

by
a
concentration of women in poorly remunerated public sector
jobs, such as healthcare, social assistance and education, and
,

secondl
y
,

by the existence of a disparity in
remuneration between women and men in both the private and public sectors.
In 1999, the rate of labour
activity among women was identical to that of men aged up to 50 years, after which age women’s activity
declined. I
n 2008, the rate of labour activity among women up to age 50 fell below that of men. At the same
time, the unemployment rate for men was higher.


A 2008 study on the situation of women on the labour market highlighted their disadvantageous situation
23
.
Abo
ut 38.1% of businesses interviewed believed women endure tougher conditions on the labour market than
men. At the same time, 42.5% believed that women confront discrimination on the labour market. Respondents
admitted they prefer to employ men, even when t
hey have weaker professional qualifications than the women
applying for the same position
s

so as to “prevent possible human resources fluctuations caused by maternity
leave”. The businesses interviewed considered that discrimination against women occurs mo
st often at the
moment of employment (56.7%), while over a third considered that this phenomenon occurs mostly at the
moment of promotion. Moreover, according to data obtained in the survey “Sexual Harassment in the Republic
of Moldova”
24
, more than six out

of 10 female students and more than four out of 10 female employees believe
gender
-
based discrimination exists in Moldova and that, either directly or indirectly,

they have experienced
various forms of gender
-
based discrimination on the part of their rela
tives, friends or acquaintances.


Labour legislation in Moldova, which is very protective (especially in relation to pregnant women), in fact limits
women’s participation in certain spheres and often places obstacles in the way of them participating in the

labour market, especially in the private sector, by perpetuating stereotypes of gender roles. In about 97% of
cases women are responsible for childcare. This is due to a blatant insufficiency of services and childcare
institutions for children of pre
-
scho
ol age. The percentage of men who take childcare leave remains low for
economic reasons together with persistent stereotypes regarding traditional gender roles. Lack of economic
opportunities often forces women to search for a job abroad. One
-
third of migr
ants are women (CBS
-
AXA,
2009).
Of note is that

while a
migratory lifestyle
may help women avoid domestic violence, it also increases

the
chance
s

of human trafficking.


Women subject to domestic violence


One
in

four women in Moldova aged 16

35 suffers
from domestic violence.

In the Concluding Observations
for Moldova of 25 September 2009, the UN Human Rights Committee
expressed its concern at domestic
violence, the rarity of intervention measures by the judiciary, the limited number and capacity of shel
ters for
victims of domestic violence, and the fact that domestic violence is deemed to warrant police intervention only
in cases where it has resulted in serious injury.
At the same time, similar observations were formulated by the
UN Women's Rights Commi
ttee, which continues to be concerned about the prevalence of violence, including
domestic violence, against women in Moldova.


Given

the private circumstances in which domestic violence occurs, the extent of violence
experienced in the
country
is very difficult to estimate. However, the scarce data available
expose

an

alarming

situation
25
.



22


Comprehensive IADG/MDG Report, Government

of Moldova
, 2010

23


“The situation of women on the labour market of the Republic of Mold
ova”, ASEM, Chisinau, 2008.

24


http://www.progen.md/sys/files/Fenom_hart_sex_RM.pdf


25

Official statistics on cases

of domestic violence are collected exclusively by the police, while the indicators used do not manage to
fully reflect all forms of violence occurring in a family and
are
limit
ed

to registering premeditated murder cases within a family
,

serious
bodily inj
uries
,

light bodily injuries
,

and the number of domestic troublemakers.

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According to the Ministry of Internal Affairs
,

there were
47

cases of family
-
related

murders
between

2009
and

2008
.

The main aggressors
we
re the husbands (69%)

and to a
lesser

extent the fathers/stepfathers and
mothers/stepmothers
26
.
The survey also revealed that women with multiple children were more likely to
become victims of violence. The situation in the Transnistrian region is little known, and the
information
that we posses is based on the activity of civil society in the region. According to a survey on the
perception of domestic violence in the Transnistrian region, carried out by the local NGO “Rezonans” with
the support of UNIFEM Moldova, it was

found that most victims of domestic violence are women (44.5%)
and children (45.3%). One in four women in Transnistria suffers from domestic violence in the form of
either physical abuse, economic or psycho
-
emotional violence.
27



The Law on Preventing and

Combating Domestic Violence, adopted in March 2007: sets out key notions
with respect to domestic violence and its forms, establishing an institutional framework with detailed
responsibilities for the relevant authorities; provides for the creation of ass
istance centres for the victims of
violence; and an effective mechanism for solving cases of violence by filing complaints, requesting
protection orders, and isolating abusers. While

the L
aw took effect on 18 September 2008, not a single
order of such kind

was issued by the Moldo
van courts until September 2009
, following awareness
-
raising
and training activities carried out with the support of donors and local civil society.
28

The Law provides for
the creation of services to protect victims of domestic violence, but with limited budget resources such
centres have yet to be created by the authorities. Today, it is the NGOs that administer most of the
assistance to women affected

by domestic violence and these activities rely heavily on the support of
donors. These organizations provide psychological and legal counselling and medical assistance, but few
can afford to offer shelter as well. Centres are few in number, have limited h
uman and material resources,
and are located almost exclusively in urban areas. Unfortunately, the Law is not complete from a gender
perspective, since it fails to explicitly recognize that it is women who are mostly subject to domestic
violence and that t
his is a serious violation of human rights.


Ineffective enforcement of the law by the police, who treat instances of domestic violence as minor
incidents, has discouraged women from reporting such cases. Often, cases of domestic violence are
qualified as
administrative offenses and do not meet the requirements for criminal proceedings. According
to the survey

“Women at Risk in the Republic of
Moldova” (2005)
,

almost one
-
half of women aged 16 to 24
years did not appeal for help because they thought it was f
utile
.

Most cases of domestic violence are not
reported because of embarrassment, fear and stigma, a lack of awareness of the existing laws, legal
procedures and legal services, or simply because of a lack of confidence in the system. A lack of female
poli
ce officers with specialist training in such cases is also a factor that discourages women from reporting.


Women subject to human trafficking


In the early 2000s, Moldova became a major source of trafficked persons in South
-
Eastern Europe,
predominantly

girls and women of whom 14% were under 18 and more than a half were in the 19

24 age
group
29
. There are no absolute figures on the phenomenon of trafficking since many victims are not identified in
either destination countries or Moldova due to changing tr
afficking patterns, stigma
-
related fears, low levels of
self
-
esteem and little confidence in law enforcement bodies.


An indicator used to measure the phenomenon of trafficking in Moldova is the number of persons assisted by
IOM and the Assistance and Pro
tection Centre for the Victims of Trafficking. Over 2000

2008 the total number
of assisted persons was 5,183, including 2,443 victims of trafficking and 1,016 children of the victims of



26


“Women at Risk in the Republic of
Moldova
:

National Representative

Survey”, Winrock International (2005), p. 63.

27

Survey
on
the
perception of domestic violence in Transnistria,

NGO „Rezonans”, 2009.

28

Activities carried out as part of the Project “Protection and Empowerment of Victims of Human Trafficking and Domestic Violen
ce”,
implemented by UNFPA, UNDP, IOM and OSCE.

29

Trafficking As It Is

A Statistical Profile,

2005

2006 U
pdate
, IOM Moldova, 2007

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trafficking, 50 stranded migrants and 1,674 'at
-
risk' cases
30
. The main

forms of exploitation were: sexual
(85.5%), labour (6.5%), and beggary (3.1%). The main destination countries were: Turkey (31%), Russia
(22.8%), Moldova (20.2%), the United Arab Emirates (5.7%), and Cyprus (4.4%). Although e
xploitation patterns
differ fr
om region to region, cases of sexual exploitation are common to all destination countries and are more
often registered in Turkey, the UAE, Balkan countries, and Moldova.

According to data made available by IOM and La Strada, at least 70% of trafficked vi
ctims are from families
defined as “poor” or “very poor”, 65% cite unemployment as the main reason for fleeing abroad, and 70

95%
suffered from domestic violence prior to being trafficked
31
.

According to IOM data, 80% of the trafficked
Moldovan girls and wo
men were subjected to domestic violence after their return as well as before being
trafficked. Another problem is internal trafficking in Moldova, in particular
from

the Transnistrian region. The
helpline operated by the NGO “Interaction”
,

with IOM's suppo
rt
,

received over 2,886 calls in the period 2006

2008.
32

Since

2004, IOM has facilitated the repatriation and rehabilitation of 236 victims and their children
with
in Transnistria
.
Most of the trafficked victims are aged between 19 and 24 years, and the
destination
countries are the same as for Moldova. A total of 85% of victims were subjected to sexual exploitation.

Landmark progress in fighting human trafficking was made with adoption of the Law on

Preventing and
Combating Trafficking in Persons in 2005
33
. The Moldovan Criminal Code was harmonized with this Law to
prescribe criminal responsibility for trafficking in human beings, trafficking in children, and illegal removal of
children from the country and pimping
34
.

The Code also upgrades safeguards for p
articipants in criminal cases
and toughens punishment for traffickers in human beings up to life imprisonment. Since 2001, some
institutional efforts have been made, including the creation of a special anti
-
trafficking division within the
Prosecutor Genera
l's Office and the establishment of the
National Committee

to

Combat Trafficking

in Human
Beings, followed by district multi
-
disciplinary anti
-
trafficking committees. In 2003, the National Committee
established four sub
-
working groups on prevention, protec
tion, legislation, and child trafficking, each co
-
chaired
by a deputy minister and an international organization, namely the IOM, OSCE or UNICEF.

Although a considerable part of Moldova's anti
-
trafficking activities are implemented by international
organi
zations and remain dependent on international donor funding, the Government has improved victim
protection efforts and provided direct financial assistance toward victim protection and assistance. It has had a
leading role, in partnership with IOM, in deve
loping and implementing the National Referral System (NRS)
for
assistance and protection of victims and potential victims of trafficking.

In total, since the NRS was launched in
2006 and until December 2009, the number of beneficiaries amounted to 874, inc
luding 292 victims and 582
prevention cases. With the Law on Preventing and Combating Domestic Violence coming into effect in
September 2008, the National Referral System was extended to include assistance for the victims of domestic
violence as well
35
.


CONCLUSION

AND RECOMMENDATIONS


Moldova’s commitment towards the IADGs and, particularly, the MDGs is reflected in the National Development
Strategy 2008

2011. The Government, with the support of country development partners and civil society, has
adopted
and implemented a number of policies aimed at achieving the MDGs, particularly targeting social
assistance to the most vulnerable groups, providing free medicines to children, pregnant women, people with
HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, and integrating gender re
lated issues into country development strategies. Despite
these efforts, progress towards the
MDGs is mixed.
At present, Moldova is halfway between the
commencement of its offensive against the millennium problems and successful completion of this challeng
e
(2004). While there has been some progress in MDG implementation since their approval, the trend has



30


IOM Moldova, FAQ about Moldova, Migration, Trafficking.

31

Second Annual Report on Victims of Trafficking in South
-
Eastern Europe, Country Report
,

Republic of Moldova
, August 2006.

32


IOM activities in Transnistria,
http://www.iom.md/materials/brochures/15_iom_transnistria_region.pdf

33

Law on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Persons
, No.241
-
XVI of 20 October 2005, MO 164
-
167 of
9 December 2005.

34

Articles 165, 206, 207 and 220 of the Criminal Code.

35

By the end of 2008
,

the NRS was extended to 16 districts,
two

municipalities and one town.

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18



reversed in the last three years, increasing the risk of failure. Adverse changes took place in relation to the
trends of the MDG indicators in 2008. Pov
erty as well as mother and child mortality increased, while sanitary
infrastructure and education stagnated.
The economi
c difficulties faced over the period 2007

200
9, particularly
in the latter year,

will compromise the achievement of several MDG targets.



Among the main challenges that the Government
may face

in implementing IADG
s,

and particularly MDGs
,

is
the
ongoing

economic crisis that
continues to
force
authorities

to
adopt

unpopular
policies and practices
,
such
as freezing

wage increases, limiting pension indexation,
and
cutting budget expenditure for service provision.
The support of donors in financing structural reforms and providing direct support for the budget will be crucial
in the medium term.
P
erpetuation of the po
litical crisis, particularly in light of
the
Venice Commission
recommendation (as of March 12, 2010) to dissolve Parliament
after June

16 and
conduct

anticipated
Parliament
ary

elections
,

is another impediment

to ensuring sequenced actions
.
These determinan
ts, together
with a focus on MDG reporting rather than their actual integration into national action plans, will also undermine
achievement of these goals. Finally, existing statistical shortcomings (as in the case of education) does not
allow for proper m
onitoring, making frequent revision of MDG targets necessary. Thus, of the 27 targets
established at the national level, at least six (pertaining to education, combating HIV/AIDS and access of the
population to improved water sources and sewerage) are not
likely to be achieved by 2015.


Gender equality has in recent decades been one of the preoccupations of the Government of Moldova, and
has been addressed through the signing of a number of international documents, the ratification of treaties and
formal c
ommitment to achieving the MDGs. However, d
espite these efforts, women continue to be under
-
represented at high levels in political forums, in leadership roles in central and local public administration,
notwithstanding the higher level of education and pr
ofessional qualifications among this group.
As far as the
situation on the labour market is concerned, women are often discriminated against and their remuneration
lags
behind that of men
.
While

this
state of affairs

is largely
due to
the fact that women a
re traditionally involved in
“feminized” economic activities, which are remunerated at a lower rate, this problem causes increasing
inequalities on the labour market, while also mak
ing

women financially depend
ent on men.
The insufficient
level of childcare

service provision at the pre
-
school
age
, as well as r
educed involvement of men in the
r
a
ising
and education of children, places
significant

obstacles in the path of women seeking professional fulfilment and
obstructs

their involvement in public and political activities.


Therefore, in order to empower women in both political and economic activities it is first necessary to
increase
public awareness and raise the level of gender culture so as to encourage both the inv
olvement of women in
the political sphere and men in raising and educating children. Second, of necessity is applying measures
aimed at increasing the representation of women in decision
-
making organs, both at the local and central levels,
including throug
h the revision of the Electoral Code. To avoid remuneration inequalities there is a need to
establish mechanisms for the systematic monitoring of the manner in which equal remuneration principles are
put into practice in the public and private sectors and
publishing the results of this process. Finally, it is
important to ensure the application of regulatory norms to prohibit the explicit discrimination of women on the
labour market and provide mechanisms for monitoring, reporting and punishing such practic
es, as well as to
adopt normative and regulatory acts which would prevent, prohibit and punish moral and sexual harassment at
workplace and in educational institutions.


The efforts made by the
authorities

to combat violence against women in its various fo
rms and human
trafficking are considerable, especially
in relation to

the development of legal instruments and policies.
However, despite this progress, the discrepancy between the legal framework and the reality at
the

community
level is great.

To make fu
rther headway in this area

it is important

to recognize the relationship between the
status of women in society and the diverse forms of violence against them; to fundamentally change public
attitude that violence against women is a “private” matter by ini
tiating awareness
-
raising campaigns. Also
needed is specific training on domestic violence issues for law enforcement officers, prosecutors, judges and
various categories of specialists from the health care system and social assistance. The Government shou
ld
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19



further promote and support partnerships with civil society to strengthen the infrastructure of services for the
assistance and protection of the victims of violence and human trafficking.


ANNEX A. Attainability of MDG targets for 2010 and 2015


Assessed target

Attainability

by 2010

Attainability

by 2015

Goal 1: Reduce extreme poverty and hunger

Target 1.
Reduce the proportion of people whose consumption is
under $4.3 a day/person (in PPP terms) from 34.5% in 2006 down
to 29% in 2010 and
23% in 2015

Unlikely

Likely

Target 2.
Reduce the proportion of people under the absolute
poverty line from 30.2% in 2006 down to 25% in 2010 and 20% in
2015

Unlikely

Likely

Target 3.
Reduce the proportion of people under the extreme
poverty line from
4.5% in 2006 down to 4% in 2010 and 3.5% in
2015

Likely

Probabi Likely

Goal 2. Ensure access to gymnasium education

Target 1. Ensure opportunities for all children to attend general
secondary education. Increase the gross enrolment rate for general
secondary education from 94.1% in 2002 up to 95% in 2010 and
98% in 2015.

Unlikely

Unlikely

Target 2. Maintain literacy rate for the 15
-
24 year
-
old population at
99.5%

Likely

Likely

Target 3.

Increase the enrolment rate for pre
-
school programs for
3
-
6
year
-
old children from 41.3% in 2002 up to 75% in 2010 and
78% in 2015, and for 6
-
7 year
-
old children from 66.5% in 2002 up
to 95% in 2010 and 98% in 2015, as well as reduce by less than
5% the discrepancies between rural and urban areas, between
disadvant
aged and middle
-
income groups

Unlikely

Probabi Unlikely



Goal 3. Promote gender equality and empower women

Target 1.
Increase women’s representation in decision
-
making
positions
.

Increase representation of women at the decision making
level (from 26.5% in local councils in 2007 to 40% in 2015, from
13.2% in rayon councils in 2007 to 25% in 2015, from 18% women
mayors in 2007 to 25% in 2015 and from 22% women MPs in 2005
to 30% in
2015)

Unlikely

Likely

Target 2.
Reduce gender inequality in employment: reduce
disparity between women’s and men’s salaries by at least 10% by
2015 (the average monthly salary of women represented 68.1% of
the average salary of men in 2006)

Unlikely

Likel
y

Goal 4.
Reduce child mortality


Target 1. Reduce infant mortality from 18.5 (per 1,000 live births)

Likely

Likely

Target 2. Reduce the under
-
5 mortality rate from 20.7 (per 1,000
live births) in 2006 down to 18.6 in 2010 and 15.3 in 2015

Likely

Likely

Target 3. Maintain the share of measles vaccination of children
under 2 years at no lower than 96 % in 2010 an 2015

Unlikely

Probabi Likely

Goal 5. Improve maternal health

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20




Target 1. Reduce the maternal mortality rate from 16 (per 1,000
live
births) in 2006 to 15.5 in 2010 and 13.3 in 2015

Unlikely

Likely

Target 2. Maintain the number of births assisted by qualified
medical staff during 2010 and 2015 at 99%

Likely

Likely

Goal 6. Combat

HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis

and other diseases

Target 1.
Stabilize the spread of HIV/AIDS infection by 2015.
Reduce HIV/AIDS incidence from 10 cases per 100 thousand
population in 2006 to 9.6 cases by 2010 and 8 cases by 2015

Unlikely

Unlikely

Target 2.
Reduce HIV/AIDS incidence in the 15
-
24
-
year age group
from

13.3 cases per 100 thousand population in 2006 to 11.2 cases
by 2010 and 11 cases by 2015

Unlikely

Likely

Target 3. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reduce tuberculosis.
Reduce the rate of mortality associated with tuberculosis from 15.9
(per 100,000
population) in 2002 down to 15.0 in 2010 and 10.0 in
2015

Likely

Probabi Likely

Goal 7.
Ensure a sustainable environment

Target 1.

Integrate principles of sustainable development into
country policies and programs and reduce degradation of natural
resources. Increase forested area from 10.3 % in 2002 to 12.1 % in
2010 and 13.2 % in 2015

Unlikely

Likely

Target 2.
Increase the share of protected areas to preserve
biological diversity from 1.96 % in 2002 to 4.65 % in 2010 and
4.65 % in 2015

Likely

Lik
ely

Target 3.
Increase the share of people with permanent access to
safe water sources from 38.5 % in 2002 up to 59 % in 2010 and
65 % in 2015


Unlikely

Probabi Unlikely

Target 4. Increase the share of people with permanent access to
safe water
sources from 31.3 % in 2002 to 50.3 % in 2010 and
65 % in 2015

Unlikely

Probabi Unlikely

Target 5.
Increase the number of population with access to
sanitation systems from 41.7 % in 2002 to 51.3 % in 2010 and
71.8 % in 2015

Unlikely

Probabi Unlikely

Goal 8.
Create a global partnership for development

Target 1.

Further develop a transparent, predictable and non
-
discriminatory trade and financial system based on rules through
promoting exports and attracting investments

Likely

Likely

Target 2. Deal

with issues associated with Moldova's landlocked
status by upgrading transportation and customs infrastructure

Unlikely

Likely

Target 3. Monitor external debt issue


Likely

Probabi Likely

Target 4.
Develop and implement youth strategies.

Reduce
unemployment among youths

to 15 % in 2010 and 10 % in 2015

Likely

Probabi Likely

Target 5.
Ensure access to basic medication

Likely

Likely

Target 6.
Build an information society. Double the number of fixed
and mobile telephone subscribers from 2006 to

2015 and increase
the number of personal computers and Internet subscribers at a
minimum annual rate of 15 %

Likely

Probabi Likely

ANNEX B. MDG monitoring indicators (DevInfo)


Goals / Targets

Indicator Name

Source

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Goal 1. Reduce extreme poverty and hunger



Share of population living below the
threshold of $4.3 as per PPP
(consumer spending per person), %

MEc













34.5

29.8

30.4



Share of population living below the
threshold of $2.15 as

per PPP
(spending per adult equivalent), %

MEc

45.0

32.3

21.0

11.5

11.4

14.4

13.2







Share of

population living on incomes
under $2.15 per person per day by
PPP, %

MEc

64.5

52.4

39.8

28.9

27.8

27.6

13.2







Share of population living below
national absolute poverty line
(absolute poverty rate), %

NBS

67.8

54.6

40.4

29.0

26.5

29.1

30.2

25.8

26.4



Pov
erty gap index, %

NBS

27.0

19.3

12.4

7.3

6.8

8.0

7.9

5.9

6.4



Share of poorest quintile in national
consumption, %

NBS,
MEc

6.8

6.5

6.8

7.5

7.2

6.7

8.2

8.1

8.9



Incidenc
e of malnutrition in children
under 5 years, %

MH, NBS

20.9

19.8

18.6

19.0

17.1

16.7

14.3

12.8

11.0

Share of population living below the
level of minimum caloric intake (2,282
kcal/per day) (extreme poverty rate),
%

NBS

52.2

38.0

26.2

15.0

14.7

16.1

4.5

2.8

3.2

Goal 2
. Ensure access to general compulsory education (grades I
-
IX)

Ensure opportunities for all
children to attend general
secondary education

Gross enrolment rate into compulsory
education system, %

NBS

93.8

94.4

95.1

95.1

94.6

94.4

92.0

91.6

90.9

Gross enrolment rate in pre
-
school
education, children aged 3
-
6 years, %

NBS

44.1

47.6

57.0

61.1

66.1

70.7

70.1

72.6

74.4

Gross enrolment rate in pre
-
school
education, children aged 6
-
7 years, %

NBS

36.8

37.6

37.1

35.5

39.0

41.1

40.8

40.5

41.8

Share of children enrolled in first
grade after completing pre
-
school
education, %

MEd





66.5

78.8

69.1

75.6

81.7






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Maintain literacy rate for the
15
-
24 year
-
old population


Literacy rate, %

NBS,
MEd









99.9

99.5

99.6

99.6

99.6


Go
al 3. Promote gender equality and empower women


Increase women’s
representation in decision
-
making positions

Share of MP seats held by women,
%

NBS

7.9

12.9

15.8

17.5

22.0

22.0

21.8

21.8

21.8

Share

of seats in local councils held
by women, %

CEC















26.5

28.7


Share of seats in district councils
held by women, %

















13.2

16.9

Share

of mayoral seats held by
women, %
















18.0

17.4

Reduce gender inequality in
employment

Share of female employees by type of
economic activity, %

NBS



















Agric
ulture, hunting industry, fish
breeding



49.6

50.2

50.4

49.7

51.5

51.7

47.5

46.0

45.5

Industry



43.1

43.3

44.7

46.1

45.5

45.8

44.3

44.4

45.8

Const
ructions



15.2

14.5

14.7

13.5

11.4

12.0

9.5

9.4

11.5

Wholesale and retail trade; Hospitality
industry



58.0

58.4

58.6

59.3

60.7

59.6

57.6

59.2

58.3

Transportation & communications



24.8

24.1

25.3

22.2

22.5

26.2

27.9

28.7

25.0

Public administration; Education;
Health Care; Social Assistance



67.2

66.3

66.9

67.7

67.7

68.3

67.7

70.3

69.7

Other

activities



52.6

53.6

55.1

55.3

56.0

53.1

51.2

53.9

55.2

Share of women's average salary
compared to men's average salary, %

NBS







71.9

71.3

72.6

68.1

72.6

73.3

Goal 4
.
Reduce child mortality



Under 5 mortality rate, cases per
1000 children born alive

MH, NBS

23.2

20.4

18.2

17.8

15.3

15.6

14.0

14.0

14.4

Infan
t mortality rate, cases per 1000
children born alive

MH, NBS

18.3

16.3

14.7

14.4

12.2

12.4

11.8

11.3

12.2

Share of children aged under 2 years
vaccinated against measles*, %

MH, NBS

89.1

94.1

94.3

95.7

96.3

96.9

96.9

94.7

94.4

Goal 5
. Improve maternal health



Maternal mortality rate, cases per
100,000 births

NBS, MH

27.1

43.9

28.0

21.9

23.5

18.6

16.0

15.8

38.4

Rate
of assisted births, %

MH

99.3

99.2

99.1

99.4

99.4

99.5

99.6

99.5

99.5


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Goal 6. Combat

HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis

and other diseases

Stabilize the spread of
HIV/AIDS infection by 2015

HIV/AIDS incidence rate*, cases per
100,000 population

MH, NBS

4.0

5.5

4.7

6.2

8.4

12.5

14.7

17.4

19.4

HIV/SIDA incidence rate among age
group 15
-
24 years*, cases per
100,000 population

NBS, MH

10.4

10.5

9.0

9.8

13.4

20.1

18.8

21.2

16.1

Have h
alted by 2015 and
begun to reduce tuberculosis

R
ate of mortality associated with
tuberculosis
*, 100,000 population

MH

17.2

15.5

17.3

16.9

17.1

19.1

19.3

20.2

17.1

Goal 7.
Ensure a sustainable environment

Integrate principles of
sustainable development
into country policies and
programs and reduce
degradation of natural
resources

Share of forested areas, %

Moldsilva
Agency

10.5

10.5

10.3

10.5

10.6

10.7

10.7

10.7

10.9



Share of protected areas to preserve
biological diversity, %

MEn

-

-

1.96

1.96

1.96

1.96

4.65

4.76

4.76



GDP per one kg of domestically
consumed conventional fuel, MDL,
current

Prices

NBS,
MEn

6.0

7.7

8.3

9.8

10.4

11.6

13.8

17.3

20.1




CO2 emissions from stationary and
mobile source, tonnes per capita

MEn,
NBS

2.3

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.9

2.9

3.0

3.0





CFC emis
sions, tonnes per capita

MEn

0.0000
038

0.00000
60

0.00000
82

0.0000
052

0.0000
055

0.0000
040

0.00000
33

0.0000
026

0.000
0000



Share of people with access to
improved water sources, %

NSPCPM
,
NBS

37.8

38.1

38.5

39.7

44.5

45.0

46.0

47.0

53.0

Halve the
number of people
without access to improved
sewerage services.

Share of people with access to
improved sanitation, %

MCRD

41.1

40.0

41.7

41.5

43.6

44.0

45.0

45.4

45.9



Share of people with access to
improved sewerage, %

NBS

31.8

32.4

31.3

31.7

32.8

43.8

43.3

43.9

45.7

Goal 8.
Create a global partnership for development

Further develop a
transparent, predictable and
non
-
discriminatory trade and
financial system based on
rules through promoting
Share of exports, % of GDP

NBS,
MEc

36.6

38.2

38.7

39.9

37.9

36.5

30.8

30.5

26.3

Share

of international commercial
transactions carried out under free
trade agreements, %

MEc,
NBS













53.6

37.6

36.8


24

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exports and attracting
investments

Trade gap in relation with, % of GDP

NBM

-
23.7

-
22.1

-
23.7

-
30.9

-
30.1

-
40.2

-
48.2

-
53.3

-
54.7

Loans offered by commercial banks,
% of GDP

NBM


14.3

16.3

18.6

21.9

23.1

26.5

30.8

39.1

40.0

Insurance premiums, % of GDP


NCFM

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.3

1.3

1.3

Turno
ver of foreign
-
owned and
mixed companies, %

NBS,
MEc





25.8

25.4

25.1

26.5

28.2

27.9

27.7

Net FDI , % of GDP

NBS,
MEc

9.9

7.0

5.2

3.7

5.8

6.4

7.4

11.2

11.8

Deal w
ith issues associated
with Moldova's landlocked
status by upgrading
transportation and customs
infrastructure

Traffic capacity of national roads,
10,000 vehicles per day

MTRI

2.1

2.3

2.6

3.2

3.0

3.8

4.4

4.6

4.8

Share of

investment in transportation
sector, % of public investment

NBS,
MEc

13.7


12.0


16.0


15.7


12.3


8.2


19.5


6.6


17.6


Share

of investment in air and naval
transportation, % investment in
transportation

NBS,
MEc

76.3


63.1


19.2


11.9


19.7


7.1


28.4


13.8


23.7


Monitoring public external
debt

External public debt, % of GDP


MF

60.4

48.1

44.4

36.0

25.7

22.4

20.7

16.2

12.9

Exter
nal debt, % of GDP



133.1

115.3

111.4

92.4

73.2

70.8

72.9

70.4

67.5

Settlement of external public debt, %
of tax revenues to State Budget

MF

30.4

48.2

27.7

18.1

24.0

9.5

10.0

6.0

4.5

Develo
p and implement
youth strategies.

Unemployment rate in age group 15
-
24 years, %

NBS,
NALFE

15.8

16.3

15.2

18.1

19.7

18.7

17.1

14.4

11.2

Build an information society

Fixed telephony penetration per 100
population

NBS

16.6

18.1

19.9

21.9

25.2

27.4

29.7

30.1

31.2

Mobile telephony penetration per 100
population

NARIT

3.1

6.6

10.0

13.9

23.2

32.3

37.8

52.6

67.9

Personal computers per 100
population




1.3

1.5

1.8

2.6

3.4

10.3

12.4

15.6

24.8

Inter
net users per 100 population

NARIT

1.2

2.0

3.3

8.0

12.0

16.2

21.2

23.4

37.0

*

including data from eastern side of the Nistru River


ANNEX C. Selected indicators, including disaggregated by gender


Table

1:

Main Macroeconomic Indicators


Indicators


2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Real growth of GDP, %

2.1

6.1

7.8

6.6

7.4

7.5

4.8

3.0

7.2

GDP per capita, USD

353.7

353.7

353.7

353.7

353.7

353.7

353.7

353.7

353.7

Consumer Price Index,
annual
average, %

31.2

9.6

5.3

11.6

12.4

11.9

12.7

12.3

7.3

Budget deficit, as a
share of GDP, %

-
2.5

0.6

-
1.8

1.0

0.5

1.6

-
0.3

-
0.2

-
1.0

Foreign direct
investment, million
USD

127.5

103.4


84.5

73.7

151.0

190.7

251.1

493.4

712.8

Migrant remittances,
million
USD

152.9

212.0

254.1

317.3

422.4

683.2

854.5

1218.2

1660.1

Source: National Bureau of Statistics, National Bank of Moldova


Table 2:

Gender disaggregated poverty rates among the most vulnerable categories, 2008, %




Absolute
Poverty Rate

Extreme Poverty
Rate

Absolute
Poverty
Rate
(total)

Extreme
Poverty
Rate
(total)



men

women

men

women

Poverty rate (total)

27.1

25.8

3.4

3.0

26.4

3.2

Poverty rate among the elderly, total

353

36.7

3.2

3.3

36.1

3.3

Including by age group:













60


69

28.1

28.0

2.6

2.8

28.0

2.7

70


75

42.4

41.1

2.7

3.1

41.6

2.9

more than 75

43.0

49.8

5.1

4.8

47.3

4.9

Poverty rate among children, total

27.3

26.7

3.2

4.0

27.0

3.6

Including by age group:













Under 5

29.7

27.8

2.3

6.0

28.8

4.1

5


9

27.6

24.7

2.8

3.8

26.2

3.3

10


14

25.5

24.3

3.5

2.3

25.0

2.9

15


18

27.2

30.0

3.9

4.5

28.5

4.2

Farmers

37.6

36.2

6.8

6.3

36.9

6.5

Employed in agriculture

44.6

41.1

8.0

8.5

42.8

8.3

Pensioners

37.6

37.0

3.7

3.3

37.3

3.5

Households with 3

and more children under 18

41.9

42.8

7.3

8.3

42.3

7.8

Households with 3 and more children under 16

42.1

41.9

6.4

7.9

42.0

7.2

Households headed by persons with basic/primary
education

43.5

42.0

6.2

5.2

42.6

5.6

Households headed by persons without primary
education and illiterate

67.2

51.4

8.5

5.6

55.9

6.4

One
-
person households

26.1

30.1

5.3

2.1

29.0

2.9

Households living on unemployment benefits

63.2

20.5

0.0

0.0

34.9

0.0

Source: National Bureau of
Statistics, Ministry of Economy estimations


26

|
P a g e


Table 3:

Selected gender disaggregated indicators, 2008

Indicators

Total

Women

Men

Number of women and men
at the end of the year, thou.
people

3567.5

1852.6

1714.9

Live
-
births

39018

18920

20098

Economically
active
population, thou. people

1302.8

644.0

658.8

Employed population, thou.
People

1251.0

622.2

628.8

Unemployed, thou, people

51.7

21.7

30.0

Economically inactive
population, thou. people

1639.0

906.5

732.5

Total pensioners

621.4

399.7

221.7

Total

convicted

7367

982

6385

Source: National Bureau of Statistics