Report of WG 3 meeting June 20 21

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Dec 3, 2012 (4 years and 9 months ago)

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Report of WG 3 meeting June 20./21.2006
, Duisburg, Germany


Participants:


Dr. Joanna Kalka

Environmental Biotechnology Department

Slesian University of Technology

Gliwice (Poland)


Nicoletta Kythreotou

Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

Univer
sity of Cyprus

Nicosia (Cyprus)


Irina Lucaciu

Head of "Biotests and Ecotoxicological Researches" Laboratory

National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology

Bucharest (Romania)


Dr. Sureyya Meric

University of Salerno

Salerno (Italy)


An
ders Baun (co
-
chair of WG 3)

Associate Professor

Institute of Environment & Resources

Technical University of Denmark

Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)


Dr. Ralph Hobby (chair of WG 3)

Institute of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Water Technology

University Duis
burg
-
Essen

Duisburg (Germany)


Meeting content:


After short introduction of University Duisburg
-
Essen and the Institute of Energy and
Environmental Engineering, Department Water Technology Ralph Hobby present
ed

the time schedule for the meeting and explai
ned the different topics. Anders Baun
present
ed

a summary of the results of WG3 from the meeting in Copenhagen
6
-
9
October, 2005
as
introduction to
discuss
the bases
of the
WG3
meeting

in Diusburg
.


Discussion:

Chose of substances or groups of substances w
hich have to be
assessed.


The term Xenobiotics describes a huge number of substances and it is impossible to
assess all xenobiotics which may occur in the urban water cycle.
Th
e results from
the WG 1 meeting in Lisbon show, that
the following groups are p
otential
contaminants for the urban water cycle:




Sewage irrigations farms and bank filtration sites as possible sources of
pharmaceuticals in ground water:



pharmaceutically active substances (PhACs)
,
diclofenac
,
propyphenazone
,
clofibric acid




Drinking w
ater disinfection by
-
products:



chloroform, bromoform, bromodichloroacetic acid





Sources of compounds from households


relevance of personal care
products



Personal care products such as synthetic fragrances

(
HHCB, AHTN, Musk
Xylene, Musk Keton
),
household

bactericides

(
such as triclosan
) and other
compounds are used by most of us in daily life.




Biocides as micropollutants in wastewater




Xenobiotics from Municipal Solid Waste Management




Household chemicals and personal care products as sources

to
xenobiot
ic organic compounds and potentially endocrine disruptors



WG3
team
discussed how
to
choose
relevant
substance or substance groups in
dependence on the occurrence and special conditions in the countries
of the
members of WG 3 meeting.

The latter resulted
in identification of large regional
differences in urban water management in the countries represented at this WG3
meeting. A summary of practices is given below:


D
e
nmark:

In D
e
nmark 99% of drinking water

are

produced by
the use of
ground
water. Because t
reatment processes for drinking water treatment are
mainly aeration, precipitation, sand filtration, special attention is pa
i
d to
the ground water quality
. That means, a special group which has to be
considered in D
e
nmark, are pesticides.
83 active ingredi
ents in
pesticide

products

are allowed in D
e
nmark

and pesticide approval has
specific focus on pesticide mobility.

Surface water may be impacted by
other
x
enobiotics like endocrine disrupting compounds
(EDC
s
)
,

pharmaceuticals

and other xenobiotic organic
compounds
, which are
discharged by waste water treatment plants.
M
onitoring of surface
waters with regard to these substances
has been performed but very
limited information is available when it comes to content of XOCs in
wastewater and urban runoff.


Po
land:

In Poland 90% of drinking water is produced by the use of surface
water. High amount of chlorine are used for the disinfection in drinking
water treatment, so DBP’s must be considered. Waste Water Treatment
Plants are working according to the state o
f the art (activated sludge
treatment p
-
elimination). So, surface water may be impacted by other
xenobiotics like endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC
s
) and
pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotic organic compounds, which are
discharged by waste water treatmen
t plants. Monitoring of surface
waters is done e. g. for PAH and pesticides according normation.


Romania:

In Romania 65
-
70% of drinking water is produced by the use of surface
water and for the rest ground water is used.

Specific pollutants for
surface wa
ter are: nitrogen inorganic compounds, phenolic compounds,
surfactants, heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, Cd) and also bacteriological
pollution is noted some times;

Specific pollutants for ground water are:
heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr), PAH, pesticides.T
here are also,
other xenobiotic compounds discharged by WWTP or xenobiotics from
municipal / industrial solid waste, which are not monitoring in surface
and ground waters (such as: organic chlorinated substances,
acrilamide, endocrine disruptors, pharmaceu
ticals, other micro
pollutants).



Drinking water treatment processes are:

1. A
eration
-
sand filtration
-
disinfection by chlorination, when raw water source is ground water;

2.

Prechlorination


coagulation with Al2(SO4)3


precipitation
(settlement)



filtration


post chlorination, when raw water source is
surface water.



Monitoring of drinking water quality is done by Health Ministry and it’s
territorial departments and usually, some parameters have values
higher than regulating limits: oxidab
ility, turbidity, nitrogen inorganic
compounds, heavy metals, pesticides (especially, when raw water
source is Danube river). Organic xenobiotics like EDC, DBP`s,
pharmaceuticals there are not monitoring.


Cyprus:

In Cyprus

nearly 50
% of drinking water is
produced by the use of
surface waters from dams.
For the supply of water for agricultural
purposes, approximately 60% is from surfa
ce water and treated
wastewater.
Dams which are influenced by irrigation are not used for
drinking water production

or irriga
tion
.
the chemicals monitored by the
state laboratory of Cyprus in rivers and dams are: Aldrin, Carbon
tetrachloride, DDT, Dieldrin, Endrin, Hexachlorobenzene, Fenthion,
Paranthion, Simazine, Atrazine, BN2,2, BN2,1, BN1,2, 1,2
-
dichloropropane, Ethylbenzene
, Heptachlor, BN3,1, Linuron, BN2,4 and
PCB.


Germany:

In Germany 60


70% of drinking water is produced by ground water,
for the rest surface water is used (rivers, reservoirs). So, surface water
may be impacted by other xenobiotics like endocrine disrupt
ing
compounds (EDC
s
) and pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotic organic
compounds, which are discharged by wastewater treatment plants.


Italy

The water supply and distribution
among the sources
are the same with
the case of Germany.
The contamination of sur
face and groundwater
have been considered recent years intensively by many EDCs, in
particular highly used pesticides due to intensive agriculture and
non
-
controlled discharges of
pharmaceuticals which have been detected in
the STPs effluent.
Due to water
scarcity the wastewater reuse has been
evaluated
a solution issue

for irrigation in particular in Southern Italy,
and islands while the largest rivers, such as Po, which have been used
for irrigation, and partly for drinking water in Northern Italy which m
ay
contribute to diffuse the pesticides

as well as many other xenobiotics

in
water, and subsequent urban water
cycle.
The recent wastewater reuse
limits set in 2004, require the treated water at disinfected water quality
as well, however, many xenobitics a
re not included in, similar to the EU
drinking water quality requirements.


WG3 team agreed, that it is not the job of WG3 to identify the relevant xenobiotics.
This is the job of WG1
, but the tasks of both WG’s are closely connected. So it may
be importa
nt for WG1 to identify the sources of relevant xenobiotics in different
countries in dependency of the special regional conditions.

Members of WG3 will
contribute to discussion of WG1 during the Vienna meeting on this issue.


As a follow
-
up on the Copenhag
en
WG3
meeting, Milda Zita Vosyline had prepared a
written
re
p
ort

on state
-
of
-
the
-
art of biotesting

prepared. Unfortunately,
Milda Zita
Vosyliene

was not able to attend the meeting
.

T
he presentations of Irina Lucaciu and
Sureyya Meric
also
showed that the
re are a lot of different biotest
s available

to asses
toxicity of
xe
no
biotics

and complex mixtures
.


During the Duisburg meeting the
WG3 team
developed an EXCEL data file with all
available biotests arranged with regard to the used animals/plants (microorg
anisms,
algae, plants, rotifer, crustaceans, fishes, amphibians and others). For each tests the
effects are listed, which can be assessed by the different tests.
The review by M.Z.
Vosyline

can be used as a background document for further detail on standar
dised
test methods.
It has to be discussed in the next meeting how to use these data for
the impact assessment, e.g. t
reatment,
t
reatment efficiency, complex composition
effects

and
monitoring effects

with the aims of
protection of aquatic an
d

human life

a
nd
risk assessment
. These data are also suitable
for the decision whether the
available tests are suitable or not. This data file is the first step to achieve one of the
main goal of WG3
, which is to deal with

the questions

of
:




Which effects (of substance
s) are caused and are important for the ecosystem
and human beings?



How it is possible to measure these effects?



Do we know the suitable methods for assessment?



Do we need new assessment methods?



Annex




Report of
Milda Zita Vosyliene



Presentation of Iri
na Lucaciu



Presentation of Sureyya Meric



Data File with Biotests



Duisburg
, 17.08
.2006


Ralph Hobby

Anders Baun