Achieving Energy Efficiency & Demand Response in Homes with Wireless Sensor Networks

swarmtellingMobile - Wireless

Nov 21, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION
Achieving Energy Efficiency &
Demand Response in Homes with
Wireless Sensor Networks
Nathan Ota
Presentation to DRETD TAC
On behalf of DRETD Team
2/19/08
CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION
Motivation
You.
Solution includes you too.
Temperature differences of up to
three degrees from room to room
are not uncommon, EnergyStar
CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION
Application Achievements
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QuickTime™ and a
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QuickTime™ and a
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QuickTime™ and a
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QuickTime™ and a
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QuickTime™ and a
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Thermostat UI
Peffer
Layered Model
Peffer, Chen, Jiang
Optimal Control
Chen
Thermal Modeling
Jiang
System Architecture
Ota
Multi-Sensor Thermostat
Ota
Modular Monitoring
Ahrens, Hsu, Ota
RF Performance
Ota
CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION
Multi-Sensor Thermostat
Example Strategy:
Maximize the Number of Rooms
Below a Threshold Comfort
Dissatisfaction
MXR and MND strategies “look”forward in time.
Energy Efficiency
Demand Response

Measure environment conditions in every room.

7 strategies, design for retrofit, no new actuators.

Comfort control rather than temperature control.

Energy efficient and DR opportunities.
CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION
2003
2004/20052006
~
2

i
n
c
h
e
s
Hands-on Experience from
Deployments of Wireless Sensors
CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION
2.4 GHz RF Performance
12
13
25
23
24
26
11
22
= base station= node

Empirical testing in homes throughout Northern California.

Conclusion: multi-hop networking necessary.

Conclusion: control must handle data uncertainty.
CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION
Systems Engineering

Perception, actuation, communication, decision making.

Agent-based architecture is scalable and extensible.

Agent-based architecture leverages layered architecture.
CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION
The “Disaggregated”Thermostat
Aware
Controls
Measures
Uses
Actuates
energy
prices,
weather
n/a
Comfort,
cost
°F
°F, RH°F
Multiple
sensors
Single
sensor
On/OffOn/Off
New Way
Old Way

Communication-based functional separation.

Spatial-temporal sensing with WSN’s.

Grid-aware to support Demand Response.
CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION
Energy Efficiency
with Disaggregated Thermostat

Field testing multi-sensor control strategies.

7 sensors, 1 meter, 1 thermostat, 1 router.

Energy savings in “live”deployments.
0.0000
0.0020
0.0040
0.0060
0.0080
0.0100
0.0120
0.0140
0.0160
0.0180
Standard (24C)MXRMND
kWh Per Degree Hour
0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
PPD
Normalized Energy Consumption
Mean PPD
CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION
Auto Demand Response
with Disaggregated Thermostat
Disaggregated
Thermostat
Remote Data
Storage &
Supervisory
Control
Auto
DR
CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION
Mote Platform
Energy Scavenger
Solar
Vibrational
Predictive Maintenance Monitoring
Anemometer
Surface Temperature
“Plug-able”Designs
with Disaggregated Thermostat
Temperature
Humidity
Solar
CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION
Vision: From Demand Response
to Sustainable Choice
$/kWh
$/gal
River water quality
City air quality
$/CO2
CO2/town
My Neighborhood Score
CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION
Towards the “DR cube”in 2009
Moteiv
CrossBow
Sunspot
Dust
Crossbow
PicoCube
$10’s
$1’s
$0.1’s
$0.01’s
Hitachi u-chip
General
Purpose
ASIC
200320062012
Micro-integration of
hardware and software
allows lower cost platforms.
It doesn’t get less expensive than this
DR Cube
2009
CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION
Micro-integration by the millions
Power Bus
Micro-power Supplies
Micro-sensors
Micro processor
Control logic
Learning algorithms
Automation
Distributed throughout
all computers in the
system
Micro-radio
Software applications run on the Hardware platforms
CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION
Beginning Micro-integration:
PicoCube January 2007
CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION
Renewable Power
Supply
Low Power Radio
Sensor
Power Storage
“Picocube”
“Disappearing Computer”
B. Gates, Economist(2003)
Micro-integration of
Wireless Sensor Networks