Prof. Dr. Ahmed Shuja Syed

surprisesameSemiconductor

Nov 1, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Prof. Dr. Ahmed
Shuja

Syed




Member Experts Group, SASSI


Vice President, CESET


Adjunct Professor & Principal Investigator Advanced
Electronics Laboratory Project, Faculty of Engineering
& Technology, International Islamic University,
Islamabad

Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad

Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad


Semiconductor Devices and Materials
are driven by
ICT’s industrial age
(Computation, Communication and
exploding internet usage
-

Economy
Drivers
)


WHY Semiconductor Technology


Dominates?


1.
Physical Properties are rapidly
alterable;

2.
Response to external inputs can be
tailored that allows the devices to
implement information processing
operations;

3.
Implementable Boolean logic,
Amplification of signals, Generation
of signals, Storage and Retrieval of
information…



Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad

Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad

Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad

Intel’s First
Fab

in
Israel:Year

2008; the first
high
-
volume, $3.5 Billion, 45 nanometer
manufacturing factory outside the US.

Apple to Build R&D
Centre in Israel; IBM has
already got few!

Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad

Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad

The Andhra Pradesh government and
SemIndia

have announced the setting up of a $3
-
billion (Rs 13,500
crore
) project to
manufacture semiconductors used in

computers, mobile phones and other digital devices

at a 1,200
-
acre site near the
upcoming
Hyderabad

international airport, 40km from the city. Two other semi conductors makers
Nano

Tech

and
Cypress
Semiconductor

have evinced interest in locating their bases in the
Fab

City
and negotiations are on to woo some
more semiconductor companies.
Chennai, Bangalore and Hyderabad
, have been hotly pursuing the project.

Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad



FABS
-

Zero



Full Cycle Commercial R&Ds
-

Zero



Corporate R&D
Centres
-

Zero



Corporate Funded Labs in Universities
-

Zero



Class (100) Clean Room fully nurtured to provide proof of concept
-

Zero



ISO 14000+ Standardized Semiconductor Design Facilities
-

Zero



Non QA Semiconductor Design Facilities for
Fab
-
less Solutions
-

IIU,
COMSATS, UET
Taxila
/AWC, NED, etc.



Process Unsolicited Fabrication and Characterization Facilities
-

Research
Scale (Universities and Strategic Organizations)


Semiconductor Process Engineering Focused BS/MS Degree Programs on
National Scene
-

None went through a closed loop (industrial capacity
building is missing)


Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad

Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad

Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad

RSE Focused R&Ds/Labs

RSE Focused Corporate Sector

Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad

Principal Research/Development
Techniques:


Rutherford
BackScattering

(RBS),


Particle Induced X
-
Ray Emission (PIXE),


Channeling (PIXE & RBS),


X
-
Ray Fluorescence (XRF),


Microbeam

RBS and PIXE,


Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA),


Ion Implantation, and


Optical and electrical characterization


In semiconductors, ion implantation
is used to selectively dope regions of
the wafer
-

superior to chemical
diffusion because, lateral diffusion is
minimized


The energies used in semiconductors
typically range from 200
eV


severa氠
MeV’s


Idea of doping semiconductors using
ion implantation was patented by
William Shockley in 1954


Ion implantation is a direct
descendent of the Manhattan project
-

separation of Uranium isotopes for
the first atomic bombs

Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad


Surface Treatments


Doping (semiconductor devices)


Hardening & Coatings


Antifouling


Materials Synthesis


Micro/nano Lithography


Bio Medical


Ion Beam Therapy


Cell irradiation


radiation sensitivity


Materials (Ion Beam) Analysis


Cultural Heritage


Civil Engineering


Geological & Cosmological


Biomedical

Requirements

6 ion species

1
-
1000keV

10
11



10
18

Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad

Example of the work toward a technological basis
for quantum computing: deposition and spatially
resolved, in situ monitoring of a single atom.`

The Quantum Computer is a "
dream machine
"
that has the potential to perform certain types of
calculations millions of times faster than today's
most powerful Supercomputers. If, as Moore's
Law predicts, the number of transistors on a
microprocessor continues to double every 18
-
24
months, the year 2020 or 2030 would find the
circuits on a
microprocessor measured on an
atomic scale
.

Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad

In 1945, the
synchrotron

was proposed as the latest accelerator for high
-
energy physics,
designed to push particles, in this case electrons, to higher energies than could a
cyclotron
, the
particle accelerator of the day. An accelerator takes stationary charged particles, such as
electrons, and drives them to velocities near the
speed of light
. In being forced by magnets to
travel around a circular
storage ring
, charged particles tangentially emit
electromagnetic
radiation
and, consequently, lose energy. This energy is emitted in the form of
light

and is
known as synchrotron radiation.

Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad

Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad

Middle East

ILSF
-

Iranian Light Source
Facility
, Iran




SESAME
, Jordan




Current Observers (2012) are France,
Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Kuwait,
Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden,
Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and
the United States of America.

SESAME (Synchrotron
-
light for
Experimental Science and
Applications in the Middle East) is the
Middle East's first major international
research centre in the making.

It is an
autonomous intergovernmental
organization at the service of its
Members which have full control over
its development, exploitation and
financial matters. SESAME, which is
located at Allan (Jordan), will be a
"third generation" synchrotron light
source.

Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad

Facilities are used for the detailed study of engineering and manufacturing. The X
-
ray beams
allow for detailed analysis and
modeling
of strain, cracks and corrosion as well as in situ study
of materials during
production processing
. This research is vital to the development of
high
performance materials
and their use in innovative products and structures.

Determining the
properties and morphology of buried layers and interfaces

remains an important area in
solid
-
state science. Many of the technological products of materials science are based on thin
-
film devices,
which consist of a series of such layers. Structural studies of in
-
situ processing of
semiconducting polymer
films is also likely to be an important area of growth in the coming decade.


Diffraction of high
-
intensity x
-
ray beams is an ideal technique to study spin, charge and orbital ordering in
single crystal samples to understand
high temperature superconductivity
.

Magnetic contrast in images will be provided by exploiting either circular or linear
dichroism
. At 10 nm
resolution, the
nanoscience

beamline

provides high quality images of the magnetic domains of thin films
and
multilayers
, clusters, exchange
-
biased films, giant
magnetoresistive

metals and metal
-
semiconductor
spintronic

materials
. At higher spatial resolutions it is possible to conduct experiments on
individual
nanoclusters
. Spectroscopy on
nanosized

particles is able to
unravel their electronic and
chemical properties

which may be dominated by the surface due to a large surface to volume ratio.

Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad

The definition of the terahertz portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has varied but is
generally considered to be the band between infrared and microwave radiation, usually
running
from 300 GHz to perhaps 10 THz
, overlapping those bands commonly referred to as
the sub
-
millimetre

and far infrared.


Applications in semiconductor manufacturing
are especially appealing, given the large
potential market. Terahertz spectroscopy has
already been demonstrated to yield
semiconductor wafer parameters including
mobility, conductivity, carrier density and the
presence of plasma oscillations.

Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad

Radiation hardening

is a method of designing and testing
electronic components

and systems
to make them resistant to damage or malfunctions caused by
ionizing radiation

(
particle
radiation

and high
-
energy
electromagnetic radiation
),

such as would be encountered in
outer
space
, high
-
altitude flight, around
nuclear reactors
,
particle accelerators
, during
nuclear
accidents

or
nuclear warfare
.

Reverse Mode Semiconductor
Manufacturing for Nuclear and
Space Applications


A photograph of a bar with
10 terahertz laser sources
developed by the Harvard
University engineers. One of
the lasers is connected to
the contact pad (seen on the
left) by two thin gold wires.
A 2mm
-
diameter Silicon
hyper
-
hemispherical lens is
attached to the facet of the
device to collimate the
terahertz output. The
emission frequency is 5 THz,
corresponding to a
wavelength of 60 microns.



Credit:

Courtesy of the
Capasso

Lab, Harvard School
of Engineering and Applied
Sciences


Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad

Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad

Courtesy: MASAYOSHI TONOUCHI, Institute of Laser Engineering, Japan

A 100 mm diameter
wafer and
fabricated lithium
-
drifted Si detectors
for the Cosmic Ray
Isotope
Spectrometer
(CRIS) on NASA's
Advanced
Composition
Explorer (ACE)
spacecraft launched
in 1997.

Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad


A 20 by 20 orthogonal
-
strip lithium
-
drifted Si
detector for imaging and
high
-
resolution
spectroscopy
measurements. The active
part of the detector is 46
mm by 46 mm by 3.5 mm
thick. These detectors may
be operated at relatively
high temperatures (above
200K) while still
maintaining low noise
performance.

Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad


A 2 by 2 detector array
assembled from four
detector modules. Each
module consists of a front
-
end electronics assembly
and a 1 cm
3

coplanar
-
grid
CdZnTe

detector
contained in a compliant
mount. Large detector
arrays can be formed in
this fashion in order to
achieve the high detection
efficiencies required in
some applications.

Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad


A 40 by 40 pixel array
Ge

detector developed
for hard x
-
ray
astronomy. The pixels
are 0.3 mm by 0.3 mm
in size with a 0.5 mm
center
-
to
-
center
spacing. The detector
was produced using the
amorphous
-
semiconductor
electrical contact
technology.

Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad

Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad

Measured
137
Cs spectrum obtained with a 1
cm
3

CdZnTe
-
based detector. Left:
conventional planar geometry. Right:
Coplanar
-
grid geometry. This demonstrates
the spectroscopic performance improvement
achieved with the coplanar
-
grid technique.

Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad


Capacity Building (R&D, Manpower Training, Facilities, Engagement of
Global Players)



National Priority ?? Complete absence on global map!


User Facilities
-

Medium Scale Solutions


Mega Facilities
-

Owning or Sharing?



Dual Usage
-

Operational Assessment for PSDP/Security Funds


Being Heart of
Energy

and
Nano

Research
-

Directional Pump
-
priming
policy orientation


Applications such as Ultra
-
sophisticated Detectors, 4
th

GenerationThermal

Imagers, Space
RadHard

Chips, Super Computing
ICs, Electromagnetic Pulse Weapons,
Nano
-
nuke Memory Devices etc
-

Direct beneficiaries of Semiconductor Radiation Engineering have
multiple complexity levels of design and fabrication with almost “zero”
access to international FABs
-

What would we do?



Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad


Next generation device designs for
nano
-
scale chip fabrication


Design, characterization & process optimization of ultra shallow
junctions in
sub 22nm CMOS


Fabrication protocol optimization for III
-
V based
quantum devices
for photonic applications


Study, Design and Modeling of thermal effects in III
-
V
-
based
HEMT devices
for
opto
-
telecommunication application


Ion
-
beam induced substrate engineering for
Liquid Crystal
Display (LCD) Applications


Process Engineering and Characterization for
GaAsN

Thin films
for Diverse Applications


Design and Simulations of
MEMS
based Micro
-
needle Arrays for
Biomedical Applications


Characterization of Damaged Engineered Silicon for Applications
in
Large Area Electronics


Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad


Able to provide support on R&D and
commercial manufacturing of semiconductor
radiation engineered devices for diverse
applications




Collaborative Linkages are Welcome!