Geospatial Analysis with ArcGIS Desktop Extensions

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Geospatial Analysis with ArcGIS


Desktop Extensions

An ESRI

®
White Paper • December 2001



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ESRI White Paper i

Geospatial Analysis with ArcGIS
Desktop Extensions

An ESRI White Paper


Contents Page

Overview.............................................................................................. 1

ArcGIS Extensions Comparison.......................................................... 3

Powerful Stand-Alone Functionality.................................................... 3
ArcGIS Spatial Analyst.................................................................. 3
ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst....................................................... 4
ArcGIS 3D Analyst........................................................................ 4

Working Together................................................................................ 4
Surface Creation............................................................................. 7
ESDA............................................................................................. 7
Perform Diagnostics....................................................................... 7
Topographic Analysis.................................................................... 7
Advanced Raster–Vector Analysis................................................ 8
Three-Dimensional Visualization and Analysis............................ 8

Conclusion............................................................................................ 9







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ESRI White Paper
Geospatial Analysis with
ArcGIS Desktop Extensions

Overview
The ESRI
®
ArcGIS

Desktop products (ArcView
®
, ArcEditor

, and
ArcInfo

) are a scalable set of state-of-the-art software for geographic
data creation, management, integration, analysis, and presentation. The
ArcGIS Desktop products include sophisticated functionality out of the
box and are readily customizable by advanced geographic information
system (GIS) users. With ArcGIS 8.1, ESRI introduces a new suite of
common architecture extensions that build on this functionality with more
powerful tools and analysis. Three of these extensions, ArcGIS Spatial
Analyst, ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst, and ArcGIS 3D Analyst

, are
often used together because they have complementary features. ArcGIS
Spatial Analyst gives you the power to perform advanced raster
calculations, combine maps for suitability analysis, and perform terrain
and raster–vector analyses. ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst integrates a
powerful exploration environment with advanced interpolation methods
and analytical tools. ArcGIS 3D Analyst allows you to create dynamic,
interactive three-dimensional views for effective real-world analysis of
your data. By using these three extensions together, the power of a full
realm of geospatial analysis is at your fingertips.




Geospatial Analysis with ArcGIS Desktop Extensions


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December 2001 2
Figure 1


Working Together to Create More Efficient and Accurate Geospatial Analysis


ArcGIS 3D Analyst

ArcGIS Spatial Analyst
ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst



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ESRI White Paper 3

ArcGIS Extensions
Comparison



Table 1
Features Available in Each Extension


ArcGIS 3D Analyst
ArcGIS Spatial Analyst
ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst
Similarities



Intuitive user interface
• • •
Works with ArcView,
ArcEditor, and ArcInfo
• • •
Works with a variety of
data types
• • •
Available for single or
concurrent use
• • •
Surface creation
• • •
Surface analysis
• •

Differences



Query three-
dimensional data



Model real-world
surface features



Three-dimensional
visualization



Advanced raster–vector
analysis



Map algebra



Grid statistics



Powerful data
exploration and
statistical analysis


Surface creation with
sophisticated tools


Diagnostics for optimal
surface creation



Powerful Stand-
Alone Functionality
ArcGIS Spatial Analyst, ArcGIS 3D Analyst, and ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst include
powerful stand-alone tools for various GIS needs. Depending on the task at hand, many
GIS users will utilize some of the functionality of all three extensions to achieve their
goals.

ArcGIS Spatial
Analyst
ArcGIS Spatial Analyst provides a broad range of powerful spatial modeling and analysis
features that allow you to create, query, map, and analyze cell-based raster data. ArcGIS
Spatial Analyst also allows you to perform integrated raster–vector analysis. Using
ArcGIS Spatial Analyst, you can derive information about your data with terrain analysis,
identify spatial relationships, find suitable locations, and calculate the accumulated cost
of traveling from one point to another. ArcGIS Spatial Analyst integrates real-world
variables such as elevation and vegetation into your geospatial environment to help solve
complex problems.



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December 2001 4
ArcGIS Geostatistical
Analyst

ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst brings surface creation to the next level by giving you the
power to explore data thoroughly for data anomalies with exploratory spatial data
analysis (ESDA), utilize sophisticated statistical interpolation methods for surface
creation, and use advanced analytical tools to ensure an optimal interpolated surface is
created.

ArcGIS 3D Analyst
ArcGIS 3D Analyst creates a dynamic environment for you to effectively visualize and
analyze surface data. With ArcGIS 3D Analyst, you can view a surface from multiple
viewpoints, query a surface, determine what is visible from a chosen location on a
surface, and create a realistic perspective image, draping raster and vector data over a
surface. ArcGIS 3D Analyst also provides advanced GIS tools for three-dimensional
modeling such as cut–fill, line-of-sight, and terrain modeling.

Working Together
All of these powerful extensions can work together to create an exceptional environment
for advanced spatial analysis. While ArcGIS Spatial Analyst incorporates advanced
raster–vector analysis, ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst introduces a powerful suite of tools
for spatial data exploration and surface creation using sophisticated statistical methods,
and ArcGIS 3D Analyst creates a real-world perspective for bringing all of these analyses
to life. When all three extensions are used together, a revolutionary GIS environment is
achieved.






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Figure 2
Using These Powerful Extensions Together Creates an Ultimate Environment
for Advanced Spatial Analysis

Sophisticated Surfaces

ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst
Topographic Data

ArcGIS Spatial Analyst and
ArcGIS 3D Analyst
California Ozone Data Measurements


"Our lab was impressed with the advent of the new ArcGIS extensions, viewing ArcGIS
3D Analyst via ArcScene

, integrated raster and vector analysis via ArcGIS Spatial
Analyst, and the accurate surface creation that ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst provides."

Name: Paul Shanayda
Title: GIS Coordinator
Organization: Ball State University–UCS/OGIS
Advanced Raster–Vector Analysis
Advanced Three-Dimensional
Analysis
ArcGIS Spatial Analyst
ArcGIS 3D Analyst



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Figure 3
Multiple Data Types


Internet Data

CAD Data Raster Data Vector Data




ArcGIS Spatial Analyst

ArcGIS 3D Analyst

ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst


Advanced Surface Creation with
Sophisticated Statistical Methods



ArcGIS Spatial Analyst

Advanced Vector–Raster Analysis




ArcGIS 3D Analyst

Advanced Three-Dimensional Visualization
Topographic Analysis



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Surface Creation
All three extensions give you the power to create continuous surfaces from sample data
measurements. However, ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst provides an advanced
exploration environment coupled with a powerful suite of surface creation tools with
sophisticated statistical methods. ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst enables users to take
advantage of these tools and techniques in an easy-to-use and dynamic user interface. In
addition, ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst gives you the power to perform diagnostics to
ensure the most accurate surface is created. GIS gives you the ability to create an optimal
interpolated surface and truly understand the quantitative and qualitative aspects of your
data measurements. Once the user has created the optimal surfaces, these can then be
exported to raster or vector format for advanced raster–vector analysis in ArcGIS Spatial
Analyst or dynamic three-dimensional visualization in ArcGIS 3D Analyst.

ESDA
ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst provides ESDA tools that help you better visualize and
analyze your data using statistical methods. The ESDA tools provide a broad range of
capabilities including visualizing trends and identifying potential data anomalies, such as
global or local outliers, and examining relationships among your measured sample points
with spatial data autocorrelation.

Perform Diagnostics
ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst also provides cross-validation and validation tools that
allow you to evaluate your model and predictions. The tools quantify the accuracy of the
model; you can either accept the model and its parameters, or you can change the model
or refine the parameters to create a better surface.

Topographic Analysis
ArcGIS Spatial Analyst and ArcGIS 3D Analyst allow you to derive unique information
such as hillshade, contour, slope, view-shed, and aspect maps. These topographic
surfaces give you the power to effectively relate your data to real-world elevation and
analyze how these varied surfaces will affect the data in question. By utilizing these
terrain maps with ArcGIS Spatial Analyst, ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst, and ArcGIS
3D Analyst you can analyze your spatial data in a more effective manner.


„ Slope: Identify the slope, or maximum rate of change, from each cell to its
neighbors.

„ Aspect: Assess the steepest downslope direction from each cell to its neighbors.
.
„ Hillshade: Determine the hypothetical illumination of a surface for either analysis or
graphical display. For graphical display, hillshade can greatly enhance the relief of a
surface.

„ Viewshed: Examine visibility from a cell location.

„ Contour: Simultaneously visualize flat and steep areas and analyze the distance
between elevations. Effectively identify ridges and valleys.

„ Curvature (directional flow of angles): Identify the overall rate of downward
movement and define the direction of flow.

„ Area and Volume: Calculate the two-dimensional area of a surface model or assess
the volume between the surface and a reference plane at a specific height.




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Advanced Raster–
Vector Analysis
ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst gives you the option to export your surfaces to a raster so
that further analysis can be accomplished with the advanced ArcGIS Spatial Analyst
raster–vector analysis options. For example, after you have completed a surface of ozone
sample points you can reclassify this surface in ArcGIS Spatial Analyst with ranges of
ozone levels and combine it with other factors, such as plant species, to identify areas of
optimum plant growth. You can even combine this raster data with water contamination
or other environmental problems using the raster calculator to identify areas where the
plant species will have the highest likelihood of surviving.

Cell-based raster data sets, or grids, are especially suited to representing traditional
geographic phenomena that vary continuously over space, such as elevation, slope, and
precipitation, and can also be used to represent less traditional types of information such
as population density, consumer behavior, and other demographic characteristics. Grids
are also ideal data representations for spatial modeling and analysis of flows and trends
over data represented as continuous surfaces such as hydrologic modeling or the
dynamics of population change over time.

The combination of spatial analysis and visualization tools for raster-based data with
ArcGIS Spatial Analyst software's vector-based spatial operators brings unprecedented
seamless analysis, modeling, visualization, and mapping capabilities to your
organization. ArcGIS Spatial Analyst allows you to

„ Query Maps: Perform queries across grids, allowing you to ask questions that span
multiple data types and levels of information (e.g., What areas are zoned for
residential development and have a high water table on a steep slope greater than
15 percent?).

„ Perform advanced Map Algebra: Calculate algebraic functions such as converting
raster cells to integers.

„ Combine Raster Data Sets: Calculate optimal suitability by combing various real-
world maps such as slope, potability, and pollution levels.

„ Assign Weights: Assign weights to raster data sets to reemphasize the importance of
certain variables.

„ Assess Grid Statistics: Analyze spatial data with a variety of grid statistics tools.
These statistics and distributions can be utilized to foresee where possible problems
may occur or where solutions can be implemented. For example, by using cell-based
statistics, the user can visualize where a desert may be encroaching over a 10-year
period.

Three-Dimensional
Visualization and
Analysis
Once you have analyzed your data with the advanced raster–vector analysis options in
ArcGIS Spatial Analyst and created optimal surfaces with your sample data in ArcGIS
Geostatistical Analyst, ArcGIS 3D Analyst gives you the ability to effectively visualize
your data in a real-world environment. You can combine terrain maps, vector maps,
images, and surfaces all in a three-dimensional way to see how all your data comes
together in the real world.

Visualization
Visualize your data at an entirely new level with interactive perspective viewing
including pan and zoom, rotate, tilt, and fly-through simulations. Create high-quality,



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ESRI White Paper 9
three-dimensional scenes that can easily be turned into stunning animation sequences that
make the presentation of your analysis even more compelling.

Analysis
With the variety of tools provided, the user can perform three-dimensional modeling and
analysis. The user can also perform viewshed and line-of-sight analysis coupled with
spot height interpolation and profiling.

Conclusion
ArcGIS Spatial Analyst, ArcGIS 3D Analyst, and ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst were
designed to work together easily and efficiently. Each of these extensions also has
powerful stand-alone tools that build on this common working environment. Depending
on the task at hand, many GIS users will utilize some of the functionality of all three
extensions to achieve their goals. By creating advanced surfaces with sophisticated tools
in ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst, completing advanced raster–vector analysis in ArcGIS
Spatial Analyst, and, finally, bringing these analyses all together for advanced three-
dimensional visualization in ArcGIS 3D Analyst, the user gains a new quantitative and
qualitative interpretation and understanding of their geospatial data.