BIOMETRIC STANDARDIZATION - TERENA Networking ...

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Feb 23, 2014 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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B
IOMETRIC STANDARDIZATION

Prof John Larmouth

Univ
ersity of Salford, UK

e
-
mail:

j.larmouth@salford.ac.uk


Abstract

This paper supplements the presentation by providing a list of all parts of the ISO/JTC1 SC3
7
(Biometrics) Work Programme at the time of the conference, with a brief summary of the expected
content of each resulting Standard or Technical Report.

1

Background on Biometrics standardization

NOTE
-

Some key acronyms and terms and abbreviations used i
n the biometric work are provided in clause 9.

Much of biometrics standardisation was initiated in the USA, but in 2002 a new ISO/IEC JTC1 Sub
-
committee
was established
-

SC37, and first met in Orlando in December 2003. The following is from the SC37 Web
site.

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical
Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National Bodies that are members of
ISO or IEC participate in the

development

of International Standards through technical committees established
by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity.

ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international organi
zations,
government and non
-
governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC also take part in the work.

In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a Joint Technical Committee 1: ISO/IEC
JTC 1 on Information Technology. In June 2002, JT
C 1 established a new Subcommittee 37 on Biometrics. The
goal of this new JTC 1 SC is to

ensure a high priority, focused, and comprehensive approach worldwide for the
rapid development and approval of formal international biometric standards. These stand
ards are necessary to
support the rapid deployment of significantly better, open

systems standard
-
based security solutions for purposes
such as homeland
defence

and the prevention of ID theft.

The intende
d area of work is the standardization of generic bio
metric technologies pertaining to human beings to
support interoperability and data interchange among applications and systems. Generic human biometric
standards include: common file

frameworks; biometric application programming interfaces; biometric data

interchange formats; related biometric profiles; application of evaluation criteria to biometric technologies;
methodologies for performance testing and reporting and cross

jurisdictional and societal aspects.

2

Layers or areas of biometric standardisatio
n

and Working Groups

The presentation identified layer 1 as BDB
(Biometric Data Block)
format standards, layer 2 as
CBEFF
(
Common Biom
etric Exchange

Formats Framework)
data elements and BIR format
s
, layer 3 as the BioAPI
(Biometrics Application Programming

Interface)
architecture and standard int
erfaces for a biometric system,

and
layer 4 as
the
BIP (
Biometric Interworking

Protocol
)

for interchanges between
biometric
systems.

The presentation also identified other areas (related to societal and privacy issu
es) in which standards or
technical reports are being produced.

The work is organized into the following Working Groups:

WG1
-

Harmonized Biometric Vocabulary and Definitions

WG2
-

Biometric Technical Interfaces (Layer 2, 3, and 4 Standards)

2

WG3
-

Biometri
c Data Interchange Formats (Layer 1 Standards)

WG4
-

Study Group on Profiles for Biometric Applications

WG5
-

Biometric Testing and Reporting

WG6
-

Study Group on Cross
-
Jurisdicti
o
nal and Societal Aspects

3

Layer 1 Standards in preparation

19794
-
1: Biomet
ric Data Interchange Format: Framework

19794
-
2: Biometric Data Interchange Format: Finger Minutiae Data

19794
-
3: Biometric Data Interchange Format: Finger Pattern Spectral

Data

19794
-
4: Biometric Data Interchange Format: Finger Image Data

19794
-
5: Biom
etric Data Interchange Format: Face Image Data

19794
-
6: Biometric Data Interchange Format: Iris Image Data

19794
-
7: Biometric Data Interchange Format: Signature/Sign Behavioral

Data

19794
-
8: Biometric Data Interchange Format: Finger pattern Skeletal

Dat
a

19794
-
9: Biometric Data Interchange Format: Vascular Biometric Image

Data

19794
-
10: Biometric Data Interchange Format: Hand Geometry Silhouette

Data

19794
-
11: Biometric Data Interchange Format: Signature/Sign processed

dynamic data

4

Layer 2 Standards i
n preparation

19785
-
1: Common Biometric Exchange Formats Framework (CBEFF): Data

Element Specification

19785
-
2: Common Biometric Exchange Formats Framework (CBEFF):

Procedures for the Operation of the
Biometrics Registration Authority

19785
-
3: Common Biome
tric Exchange Formats Framework (CBEFF): Patron

Format Specifications

5

Layer 3 Standards in preparation

19784
-
1: BioAPI
-

Biometric Application Programming Interface: BioAPI

Specification

19784
-
2: BioAPI
-

Biometric Application Programming Interface:

Biom
etric Archive Function Provider
Interface

24709
-
1: BioAPI Conformance Testing: Methods and Procedures

24709
-
2
: BioAPI Conformance Testing: Test Assertions

24722: Multi
-
Modal Biometric Fusion

6

Layer 4 Standards in preparation

24708: Biometric Interworking
Protocol (BIP)

7

Other Standards and Technical Reports in preparation

Harmonized Biometric Vocabulary

Biometric Vocabulary Corpus



3

19795
-
1: Biometric Performance Testing and Reporting: Principles and

Framework

19795
-
2: Biometric Performance Testing and Repo
rting: Testing

Methodologies

19795
-
3: Biometric Performance Testing and Reporting: Specific Testing

Methodologies

19795
-
4: Biometric Performance Testing and Reporting: Specific Test

Programmes

24713
-
1: Biometric Profiles for Interoperability and Data Inter
change:

Biometric Reference Architecture

24713
-
2: Biometric Profiles for Interoperability and Data Interchange:

Biometric Based Verification and
Identification of Employees in a Highly

Secure Environment

24714: Multi
-
part Technical Report on Cross Jurisdic
tional and

Societal Aspects of Biometric Technologies

8

A brief summary of each of the above Standards or Technical Reports

NOTE
-

The length of the summary is generally correlated with the maturity of the work. Short summaries reflect work
which is not y
et near final standardisation.

8.1

Biometric Data Interchange Format: Framework

This Standard sets the context for the standardisation of BDBs and their use in other biometrics data structures.
It discusses the issues involved in the capture, feature extr
action, and use of biometric data at the BDB level,
including the distinction between a BDB containing image data and one based on feature extraction. It also
discusses some of the requirements for a sensor, some of the terminology used in multi
-
modal wor
k (multiple
BDBs, possibly using different biometrics), and the BDB format identifier registration mechanism.

8.2

Biometric Data Interchange Format: Finger Minutiae Data

This Standard defines a data structure (called a Biometric Data Block

format) that co
ntains a digital record of the
features that can be identified and extracted from from a digitised fingerprint, and recorded.

These features are called finger minutiae. Most people are aware that I you examine finger you will a pattern of
ridges and valu
es, with points where a single ridge splits into two ridges, creating a new value (ridge bifurcation)
or where a ridge ends, with the valleys on either side merging into a single value. The points where this occurs
are called finger minutiae
.

Here is a t
ypical fingerprint:


By identifying these minutiae, and then recording their position relative to each other, particularly a count of the
number of ridges between pairs of them, a very compact digital representation can be obtained which can be
used to c
ompare two fingerprints to see if they are virtually certain to have been produced by the same
individual. The use of finger minutiae is a very mature technique for matching fingerprints.

4

The Standard

specifies how the
minutiae are to be identified, and t
heir relative positions recorded, but most
importantly the data format to be used to record this information. (Note that this is not a full digital image of the
finger
-
print, merely a record of the relative positions of its minutiae, but it is sufficient
for very accurate
matching.

This Standard enables equipment from one vendor to produce a finger

minutiae

data block format that can be
compa
red directly with a finger minutiae
data block produced by equipment from a different vendor without any

collaborati
on between the two vendors (open interworking).

Associated matching algorithms are not standardised,
but there are examples and guidelines for matching
algorithms in an Annex.
.

Normally a BDB would be "captured" (produced) when a human subject (a

person) i
s "enrolled" (registered with
an organization), and archived

(stored) with some additional meta
-
data about the time of capture, the

equipment
used, and so on. It might be (only) archived on a smart
-
card

to be carried by the human subject, or it might be
(
only) archived on a

central database, or it might be archived on both. These options for

archiving are subject to
privacy concerns that might be expressed by the

individual or in national legislation, and to the need to maintain

backups.


This internation
al standard has two main data formats. The first provides rapid and easy matching, the second is
a more compressed format that is more suitable where the BDB is stored on a smart card (and the matching
perhaps performed by the card.

8.3

Biometric Data Int
erchange Format: Finger Pattern Spectral Data

This standard
is based on highly mathematical transformation of an image into so
-
called "spectral components"
for uniform
-
sized regions of the image. Spectral components are obtained using

Discrete Fourier Tra
nsform
s

and

(single
-
scale) Gabor Filter components, extracted from
both overlapping and

non
-
overlapping uniform
-
sized
r
egions of the original

image.

The discussion of these mathematical concepts is beyond the scope of this text.

(
There are fingerprint rec
ognition algorithms that use s
pectral data directly for
matching

a stored template with a
newly
-
captured template
.
)

8.4

Biometric Data Interchange Format: Finger Image Data

This Standard defines a data structure (called a Biometric Data Block

format) that
contains a digital record of
the image of one or more

fingers (or of a palm).

It specifies how the image is to be acquired, and how it is to be

converted to a digital representation, with a full
specification of the

digital format.

This Standard enables e
quipment from one vendor to produce a finger

image data block format that can be
compared directly with a finger image

data block produced by equipment from a different vendor without any

collaboration between the two vendors (open interworking).

Associate
d matching algorithms are not standardised, and are generally

company confidential.

Normally a BDB would be "captured" (produced) when a human subject (a

person) is "enrolled" (registered with
an organization), and archived

(stored) with some additional me
ta
-
data about the time of capture, the

equipment
used, and so on. It might be (only) archived on a smart
-
card

to be carried by the human subject, or it might be
(only) archived on a

central database, or it might be archived on both. These options for

arc
hiving are subject to
privacy concerns that might be expressed by the

individual or in national legislation, and to the need to maintain

backups.

8.5

Biometric Data Interchange Format: Face Image Data

This Standard defines a data structure (called a Biomet
ric Data Block

format) that contains a digital record of
the image of a face.

It specifies how the image is to be acquired (including lighting, pose

of the subject
-

smiling, head
-
dress, etc etc),
and how it is to be

converted to a digital representation,

with a full specification of the

digital format.



5

This Standard enables equipment from one vendor to produce a face

image data block format that can be
compared directly with a face image

data block produced by equipment from a different vendor without any

collaboration between the two vendors (open interworking).

Associated matching algorithms are not standardised, and are generally

company confidential.

Normally a BDB would be "captured" (produced) when a human subject (a

person) is "enrolled" (registered

with
an organization), and archived

(stored) with some additional meta
-
data about the time of capture, the

equipment
used, and so on. It might be (only) archived on a smart
-
card

to be carried by the human subject, or it might be
(only) archived on a

cent
ral database, or it might be archived on both. These options for

archiving are subject to
privacy concerns that might be expressed by the

individual or in national legislation, and to the need to maintain

backups.

8.6

Biometric Data Interchange Format: Ir
is Image Data

This Standard defines a data structure (called a Biometric Data Block

format) that contains a digital record of
the image of an iris.

It specifies how the image is to be acquired, and how it is to be

converted to a digital representation, wi
th a full
specification of the

digital format.

Two BDB formats are defined. The first is relatively verbose, but

requires minimal processing of the image to
produce it. The second is

more compact and requires more processing to produce it.

This Standard
enables equipment from one vendor to produce an iris

image data block format that can be
compared directly with an iris image

data block produced by equipment from a different vendor (provided that

they both produce either the verbose or the compact format
) without any

collaboration between the two vendors
(open interworking).

Associated matching algorithms are not standardised, and are generally

company confidential.

Normally a BDB would be "captured" (produced) when a human subject (a

person) is "enrolled
" (registered with
an organization), and archived

(stored) with some additional meta
-
data about the time of capture, the

equipment
used, and so on. It might be (only) archived on a smart
-
card

to be carried by the human subject, or it might be
(only) archi
ved on a

central database, or it might be archived on both. These options for

archiving are subject to
privacy concerns that might be expressed by the

individual or in national legislation, and to the need to maintain

backups.

8.7

Biometric Data Interchan
ge Format: Signature/Sign Behavioral Data

T
his standard specifies a
BDB format for data captured when a person writes a signature or adds a personal sign,
such as initialising a paragraph or document (a generalisation of the concept of a signature).

The d
ata recorded is a time series recording, at different times, data about the position of the pen. This includes
the

position of the tip of the pen

(including "off the paper" and "on the paper")
, the pressure exerted, the velocity
and acceleration at each t
ime sample, the "tilt" of the pen, and any acoustic emission such as would be produced
by a pronounced "full
-
stop"
. The
time series
is
intended to be produced
using devices such as digitizing tablets
or

advanced pen systems

that can sense

the
"pressure" a
nd the "tilt" of the pen
.

8.8

Biometric Data Interchange Format: Finger pattern Skeletal Data

The term "skeletal" here means that the BDB is based on reducing the image to a series of one
-
pixel
-
wide lines
that represent the ridges of a finger print, and t
hen producing either minutiae or
spectral data from that
"skeleton". It thus incorporates much of the text and concepts of both the Finger Minutiae Data and the Finger
Spectral Pattern Data standards.

8.9

Biometric Data Interchange Format: Vascular Biomet
ric Image Data

This standard defines a BDB format for recording "vascular data" taken from any of several parts of the human
body. "Vascular data" means an image (usually taken using sensors operating in the near
-
infra
-
red) of the
pattern of blood
-
vessels

in that part of the human body. The parts of the human body considered are the back of
the
hand, the palm, the finger
-
tip, or the retina of an eye.

6

8.10

Biometric Data Interchange Format: Hand Geometry Silhouette Data

This Standard defines a BDB format f
or the recording of the silhouette of a hand.
Imagine shining

a bright light
onto a hand with the fingers spread
-
out, positioned over a light
-
sensing surface and record black or white for the
image on the surface.
In practice, a camera placed above a han
d placed on a "
platen
" with pins to separate the
fingers is commonly used. The BDB records a simple line that traces the outline of the silhouette from a start
-
point to an end
-
point.
Both top
-
bottom and side silhouettes are supported.

The outline of the
silhouette is what is recorded in the data, producing a relatively small BDB, but permitting
measurements to be made of various characteristics of the silhouette for the purpose of matching.

8.11

Biometric Data Interchange Format: Signature/Sign processed
dynamic

data

This is essentially an extension of 19794
-
7 that allows sampling at random times rather than at fixed time
intervals, and records a variety of statistics related to the captured data.

8.12

Common Biometric Exchange Formats Framework (CBEFF): D
ata Element

Specification

A number of Standards are specifying the detailed format of a digital

representation of various parts of the
human body (finger prints, face,

iris, etc
-

see ISO/IEC 19794)
-

a Biometric Data Block (BDB), but for

archiving (storag
e) purposes it is normally desirable to add to this

Biometric Data Block some meta
-
data
recording the time that the BDB was

captured (produced using some appropriate hardware and software),

identification of the equipment doing the capture, an expiry date,

and so

on. This meta
-
data, when added to a
BDB forms a Biometric Information

Record (BIR), which is what is normally archived (stored) on a smart
-
card

or database, not the raw BDB.

This Standard specifies a range of data elements (meta
-
data) that can

be
included in a BIR.

The specification in
this Standard is of a series of abstract

types (data elements) and their semantics.

It does not define their bit
-
level
encoding. (But see 8.14
-

CBEFF Patron Formats
completely specifies

(at the bit
-
level) several

generally
-
useful
BIR formats for storage or

transfer.
)


This Standard also specifies transformation rules between BIR formats that support different sets of CBEFF data
elements.

8.13

Common Biometric Exchange Formats Framework (CBEFF): Procedures for

the

Operation of the Biometrics Registration Authority

This is quite a short Standard. ISO/IEC 19794 defined a variety of

Biometric Data Block formats (a digital
record of a fingerprint, palm,

face, or iris etc. ISO/IEC 19785
-
1 defined some meta
-
data elemen
ts that

could be
associated with the BDB to form a Biometric Information Record

(BIR). ISO/IEC19785
-
1 will define a number
of BIR formats.

It is necessary to allocate world
-
wide globally unique identifiers for

BDB formats, BIR formats, and biometric
produc
t types (software and

hardware) of various sorts. This Standard specifies the operation of a

Biometric
Registration Authority that provides the registration (and

publicat
i
o
n) of the unique identification (using an
ASN.1 Object

Identifier
-

see ISO/IEC 882
4 and ISO/IEC 9834) of such formats and

products, and their
definition.

8.14

Common Biometric Exchange Formats Framework (CBEFF): Patron Format

Specifications

This Standard recognises the varying needs for particular domains of use to incorporate a minimum

set or a full
set of CBEFF data elements in their BIRs.

This Standard speci
fies six (currently) BIR formats (CBEFF Patron
Formats). These include formats that use both byte
-
orientation and more compact formats that use bit
-
fields for
data elements, form
ats that include only a minimal set of CBEFF data elements and formats that include them
all, and formats that include a bit
-
map to indicate which elements are present and which are absent.

Some are defined in English text with tables (tabular notation), s
ome are defined more formally using ASN.1.



7

8.15

BioAPI
-

Biometric Application Programming Interface: BioAPI

Specification

This (quite large) Standard specifies internal interfaces in a

computer system using biometrics, and allows
system integration of

sof
tware components from different vendors (some with associated

hardware).

The first and major software component is the BioAPI Framework (one

BioAPI Framework per computer
system). This is responsible for routing C

programming
-
language calls from one or mo
re applications running
on the

system
-

the second set of software components
-

to one or more Biometric

Service Provider modules
(that may have associated hardware)
-

the third

set of software components.

The Biometric Service Provider modules are dedicat
ed to biometric

functions such as capturing a Biometric Data
Block (a digital

representation of a human finger, palm, face, or irise etc
-

see ISO/IEC

19794), or matching a
captured image with an archived image captured some

time earlier, for the purposes
of biometric authentication
of an

individual.

The interface between applications and the BioAPI Framework is called

the API (Application Programming
Interface), which gives the name to the

Standard. The interface between the BioAPI Framework and Biometric

Service Provider modules is called the SPI (Service Provider Interface)

Both the API and the SPI are specified in detail as a series of C

(programming language) function calls and
parameters of those function

calls. (But modules can be written in Java or

C++, for example, so long

as they
exhibit the defined C programming interface in their API and SPI

interactions.)

8.16

BioAPI
-

Biometric Application Programming Interface: Biometric

Archive Function
Provider Interface

This part of the BioAPI standard is
the first of what is intended to be a series of Parts, each defining the interface
to a particular type of Biometric Function Provider (BFP). A more detailed discussion is outside the scope of
this text, and requires an understanding of the BioAPI archite
cture.

8.17

BioAPI Con
formance Testing: Methods and Procedures

This Standard provides the notation and methodology for specifying conformance test suites that will enable the
conformance of BioAPI components (particularly BSPs) to be tested by embedding th
em in a test
-
harness on the
platform they are designed for.

8.18

BioAPI Con
formance Testing: Test Assertions

This Standard (still not well
-
developed) gives a detailed specification of the tests to be performed.

8.19

Multi
-
Modal Biometric Fusion

It is recog
nised today that biometric identification can be better performed if more than one biometric is involved
in the matching process.
This is called "multi
-
modal" use of biometrics.
This can relate to multiple samples of
the same biometric, or
(more commonly
)
to the use of different biometrics (such as a finger
-
print combined with
an iris image). The way matching scores should be combined when multiple biometric templates are available

is
difficult and is called "fusion" of the scores. This is a Technical R
eport that is defining multi
-
modal terminology
and recommending the way multiple modal should be supported in BDBs, CBEFF and BioAPI. It will in due
course result in amendments to some Standards, and probably a few new ones.

8.20

Biometric Interworking Pr
otocol (BIP)

This is a Standard that essentially provides bits
-
on
-
the
-
line communication from an application in one system to
BSPs (for example, capture devices or a biometric databases) in remote systems.

In essence, it takes the C
-
function calls of BioAP
I and converts them into messages defined using ASN.1.
Conformance only requires that the correct bits
-
on
-
the
-
line are used, but the text relies heavily on the BioAPI
architecture and function calls. It could be described as providing a "distributed BioA
PI".

It enables a complete biometric application (for example, turn
-
style control at a sports event or theme park to be
provided by systems from multiple vendors at the different access points and at the central site. It also enables a
8

central (probably g
overnment
-
operated) database repository of biometric templates to interwork with capture and
verification or matching systems at geographically remote sites, provided by different vendors.

8.21

Harmonized Biometric Vocabulary

This work is attempting to agr
ee (harmonize) definitions of biometric terms used in the various SC37 Standards.
It concentrates on terms that are used in multiple Standards
, and seeks to achieve a common definition.

8.22

Biometric Vocabulary Corpus

This work attempts to relate the con
cepts behind various biometric definitions, and to present them in a
structured way so that relationships between different terms can be clearly identified, and their definitions
coordinated.

8.23

Biometric Performance Testing and Reporting: Principles and

Framework

This Standard describes the principles and provides a framework for
the scientific ‘technical performance
testing’

of biometric systems and
devices.

Technical performance testing seeks to determine error and
throughput rates, with the goal of

u
nderstanding and predicting the real
-
world error and throughput performance
of
a biometric system
.

The error

rates include both false positive
(false match)
and false negative
(false non
-
match)
decisions, as well as failure
-
to
-
enrol and failure
-
to
-
acquire

rates

across the test population. Throughput
rates refer to the number of users processed per unit time based

both on computational speed and human

machine interaction.

It is concerned with the way in which performance testing should be conducted (size of

sample population, etc),
but also with the way in which the results should be reported in statistical and graphical form.

8.24

Biometric Performance Testing and Reporting: Testing Methodologies

This standard identifies approaches to performance testing, a
nd provides guidelines for the organization and
conduct of tests, and the reporting of results.

8.25

Biometric Performance Testing and Reporting: Specific Testing

Methodologies

This Standard provides a taxonomy for classifying biometric applications relate
d to the way their performance
should be tested. (Note that here "application" is used in a very general sense
-

"the use of biometrics for some
purpose", not in the BioAPI computer
-
oriented sense of the application program part of a biometric system.) I
t
identifies the appropriate testing method for each element in the taxonomy.

8.26

Biometric Performance
Testing and Reporting: Performance and Interoperability
Testing of Interchange Formats

This standard is concerned principally with the testing of the i
nteroperability of systems using specific BDB
formats.

8.27

Biometric Profiles for Interoperability and Data Interchange:

Biometric Reference
Architecture

This Standard discusses a biometric system in terms of the base functions it performs (rather than in

the BioAPI
architecture terms of software components)

and includes administrative functions related to the operation of that
system
.

It is in some ways another tutorial on biometric applications
, and interestingly includes the concept
of a "Watchlist" th
at is not present in other SC37 Standards.

It contains a layer diagram (not the same as that in this tutorial!) showing the relationship of the different SC 37
Standards. It is recommended supplementary reading for those that want a broader view of the SC

37 Standards
and architecture.



9

8.28

Biometric Profiles for Interoperability and Data Interchange:

Biometric Based
Verification and Identification of Employees in a Highly

Secure Environment

One of the concerns in this Standard is with the process of issui
ng "tokens" (typically a smart
-
card) to employees
wanting access to secure areas, including the use of Watchlists.

8.29

Multi
-
part Technical Report on Cross Jurisdictional and Societal Aspects of Biometric
Technologies

This Technical Report intends to prov
ide guidance, examples of best practice and pointers to further information
regarding the cross
-
jurisdictional and societal aspects in the introduction and use of biometrics.

It aims to address issues of:



Accessibility (challenges posed by those who ar
e sufficiently impaired to affect their usage of a
biometric solution).



Health and safety (including misconceptions of the risks involved in the use of biometrics and
inferences about ethnic grouping, medical condition and gender from the biometric fea
ture).




Support of legal requirements and acknowledgement of cross
-
jurisdictional and societal
considerations pertaining to personal information and privacy.

The document is designed specifically for operators and system integrators who are considering t
he
introduction of such systems in the private sector.

9

Some terms and definitions used in biometrics Standards

API



Application Programming Interface

BDB



Biometric Data Block

BFP


Bio
API

Function Provider

BIR



Biometric Information Record

BIT



Biom
etric Information Template

(a BIR stored on a card)

BSP



Biometric Service Provider

CBEFF



Common Biometric Exchange Formats Framework

FMR



False Match Rate

FNMR



False Non
-
Match Rate

FPI


Function Provider Interface

GUI



Graphical User Interface

MOC



Match on Card

PID



Product ID

SB
-

Security Block

SBH



Standard Biometric Header

SPI



Service Provider Interface

UUID



Universally Unique Identifier


9.1

adaptation

template adaptation

use of a BIR produced from a newly captured and verified biometr
ic sample to automatically update or refresh a
reference template

10

NOTE: This procedure is used to minimize the effects of template aging.


9.
2

a
ttach session

a
temporary association between an application, a single BSP, and a set of BioAPI Units that ar
e managed either
directly or indirectly by
that

BSP


9.
3

BioAPI component

a
component of the BioAPI architecture with a defined interface that can be supplied by a separate vendor and
which is subject to conformance testing

NOTE: BioAPI components
include

BioAPI applications, the BioAPI Framework, BSPs, and BFPs.


9.4

BioAPI Function Provider

BFP

a component that manages one or more BioAPI Units of a specific category

NOTE 1: Interfaces to BioAPI Function Providers are standardized in subsequent parts of
this international standard.

NOTE 2: BFPs are categorized according to the category of BioAPI Units that they manage.


9.
5

BioAPI
U
nit

abstraction of a hardware or software resource that is directly managed by a BSP or BFP

NOTE: BioAPI
U
nits
are categori
zed
and include
sensor units, archive units, matching
-
algorithm units and processing
-
algorithm units.


9.6

biometric
(used only as an adjective)


pertaining to the field of biometrics


9
.7

Biometric Data Block

BDB

a block of data with a defined format t
hat contains one or more biometric samples or biometric templates

NOTE 1: There is
no

requirement that a BDB format be self
-
delimiting.

NOTE 2: Each part of ISO/IEC
19794

standardises one or more BDB formats. Vendor specific formats can also be
specifie
d and identified.

NOTE 3: Within BioAPI, the BDB is “opaque” to the application and is therefore sometimes referred to as an opaque
biometric data block.


9.8

Biometric Information Record

BIR

a data structure containing one or more BDBs, together with inf
ormation identifying the BDB formats, and
possibly further information such as whether a BDB is signed or encrypted


9.8.1

reference BIR

a
BIR whose BDB(s) contain one or more biometric templates


9.8.2

sample BIR

a
BIR whose BDB(s) contain only biometric

samples that are not templates



11


9.9

biometric sample

information obtained from a biometric sensor, either directly or after further processing

NOTE See also raw biometric sample,
intermediate

biometric sample, and processed biometric sample.


9.9.1

biome
tric template

a
biometric sample or combination of biometric samples that is suitable for storage as a reference for future
comparison


9.9.2

intermediate biometric sample

a
biometric sample obtained by processing a raw biometric sample, intended for fur
ther processing

9.9.3

processed biometric sample

a
biometric sample suitable for comparison

9.9.4

raw biometric sample

a
biometric sample obtained directly from a biometric sensor

NOTE: The formats for raw biometric
samples

are not currently standardised,

and depend on the nature of the
biometric device and the vendor of that device. They may in the future be standardised as part of the
standardisation of specific biometric devices.


9.9.5

reference template

a
biometric template that has been stored


9.10

biometric sensor

a
biometric hardware used to capture raw biometric samples from a subject

NOTE: The term ‘biometric device’ is used interchangeably with this term.


9.11

Biometric Service Provider

BSP

a
component that
provides biometric services to an a
pplication through a defined interface by
manag
ing

one or
more BioAPI Units directly, or through interfaces to a BioAPI Function Provider


9
.12

biometrics
(noun)

automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics


9
.13

capture

the process of taking a biometric sample from an end user.


9
.
14


CBEFF biometric organization

an organization that
is

accepted for registration with the Biometric Registration Authority in accordance
with ISO/IEC 19785
-
2

12

NOTE A CBEFF biom
etric
organization

can define BDB formats, assign BDB format identifiers to them, and assign
biometric product identifiers to biometric products. If the organization is also accepted as a CBEFF patron, it can also
define CBEFF patron formats.


9
.
1
5


CBEFF

patron

a recognized standards development organization (which can be a standards body, working group, or
industry consortium) that has been accepted for registration with the Biometric Registration Authority
in accordance with ISO/IEC 19785
-
2 as a CBEFF
patron, and that can therefore specify one or more
CBEFF patron formats

9
.
1
6


CBEFF patron format

the format for a BIR that is fully
-
defined by
a CBEFF patron


9
.1
7

enrollment

the
process of collecting one or more biometric samples from an individual, an
d the subsequent construction of a
biometric reference template which can then be used to verify or determine the individual’s identity

NOTE: The reference template would normally be stored by a biometric application, a BSP supporting an archive
BioAPI Un
it, or both.


9
.1
8

False Match Rate

FMR

a
measure of the probability that a biometric matching process will incorrectly identify an individual or will fail
to reject an impostor

NOTE:
Within BioAPI, FMR is used as a means of specifying scores and thresho
lds.


9
.1
9

False Non
-
Match Rate

FNMR

a
measure of the probability that a biometric matching process will incorrectly fail to identify an individual


9.20

identify

identification

a
one
-
to
-
many process of comparing a submitted biometric sample against a refe
rence population to determine
whether the submitted biometric sample matches any of the reference templates in that reference population in
order to determine the identity of the enrollee whose template was matched


9
.
21

match

matching

a
one
-
to
-
one process

of comparing a submitted biometric sample against a single biometric reference template
and scoring the level of similarity.

NOTE 1: An accept or reject decision would then
normally

be based upon whether this score exceeds a given threshold.

NOTE 2: Mat
ching algorithms and their effect on False Match Rate and False Non
-
Match Rate scores are currently not
standardised.


9
.
22

payload

data, provided at the time of enrolment and associated with a reference template, which can be released upon a
successful bi
ometric verification.

NOTE:


Examples of payloads include user names, accounts, passwords, cryptographic keys, or digital certificates.



13


9
.
23

score

scoring

a
value indicating the degree of similarity or correlation between a biometric sample and a biomet
ric reference
template


9
.2
4

security block

a
block of data with a defined format that contains security information (for example, related to encryption or
integrity) related to a BIR

9
.2
5

self
-
contained device

a
combination device which includes a biometr
ic sensor and all or part of the BSP functionality

NOTE: A self
-
contained device may include the ability to not only capture a
biometric
, but also to process, match,
and/or store it. This functionality is typically implemented in hardware/firmware.


9
.2
6

threshold

a
predefined value which establishes the degree of similarity or correlation (that is, a score) necessary for a
biometric sample to be deemed a match with a biometric reference template


9
.2
7

verify

verification

a
one
-
to
-
one process of comparing

a single submitted biometric sample against a biometric reference template to
determine whether the submitted biometric sample matches the reference template

9 May 2005