GIS For Location Based Services

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Nov 12, 2013 (4 years ago)

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GIS For Location Based
Services

Shashika Biyanwila

Independent Study Presentation

As partial fulfillment of M. Sc. Degree


GIS for Location Based Services

Outline



What is LBS?



What is GIS?



Desktop GIS



Web GIS



Mobile GIS



Summary


GIS for Location Based Services

What is LBS ?



Provide personalized services to mobile users based on
their current location



Where am I?



What is the nearest restaurant, cinema ect.

Monitoring


Tracking


Assistance


Information




Range of applications


Operator
services


GIS for Location Based Services

What is LBS ?

Mobile Devices

http://www.geo.unizh.ch/

GIS for Location Based Services

What is LBS ? …



Definition

1

(Virrantaus

et

al
.

2001
)

LBSs

are

information

services

accessible

with

mobile

devices

through

the

mobile

network

and

utilizing

the

ability

to

make

use

of

the

location

of

the

mobile

device
.






Definition

2

(OGC,

2005

)

A

wireless
-
IP

service

that

uses

geographic

information

to

serve

a

mobile

user
.

Any

application

service

that

exploits

the

position

of

a

mobile

terminal
.



GIS for Location Based Services

What is LBS ? …

http://www.geo.unizh.ch/publications/cartouche/
lbs_lecturenotes_steinigeretal2006.pdf



LBS as an intersection of three technologies



LBS need to deal with GIS …

GIS for Location Based Services

What is GIS ?


A

Geographic

Information

System

(GIS)

is

an

organized

collection

of

computer

hardware,

software,

geographic

data,

methods,

and

personnel

designed

to

efficiently

capture,

store,

update,

manipulate,

analyze

and

display

all

forms

of

geographically

referenced

information”

[ESRI,
1996
]
.


GIS services
(OpenGIS Guide [Buehler & McKee, 1998])




Geodata Services



Geoprocessing Services



GIS for Location Based Services

Key Features of GIS




Information from different sources


Computer databases



Digital maps



GPS receiver



Satellite image



Data integration


http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/gis_poster/

GIS for Location Based Services

Key Features of GIS …



Projection



Information retrieval



Data output


Overlay



Topological modeling




http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/gis_poster/


GIS for Location Based Services

Data Representation



Raster Data



Represent images as a collection of pixels



A grid of cells covering an image / area



Higher data volume



Example of raster formats



GeoTiff



ARC/INFO ASCII Grid



ARC/INFO GRID



ECW



IMG


GIS for Location Based Services

Data Representation…



Vector Data



Use geometrical shapes (Lines, Points, Polygons)



Low data volume



Example of vector formats



Shape files



MapInfo TAB



NTF



TIGER




GIS for Location Based Services

Types of GIS



GIS is moving from Desktop systems to Distributed system


OpenGIS concept



Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC)

[
http://www.opengeospatial.org]

Develop specifications to increase the interoperability of geospatial data and
geoprocessing software components


GIS

Desktop GIS

Web GIS

Mobile GIS

GIS for Location Based Services

Desktop GIS



Represents the real world on a computer




Limited to the desktop Computer



Not everyone can access the applications



Desktop GIS Functionalities


View data on a map



Analyze data



Create publication quality, professional maps




GIS for Location Based Services

Desktop GIS Software


GIS Software




Proprietary Software



-

ArcGIS Desktop (ESRI)



-

Envision (Autodesk)



-

MapInfo Professional




Free and Open Source Software (FOSS)



-

GRASS GIS



-

Quantum GIS (QGIS)


GIS for Location Based Services

Proprietary Software

1. ArcGIS Desktop (ESRI)






Includes four software components.



ArcReader



ArcView



ArcEditor



ArcInfo



http://www.esri.com/products.html


GIS for Location Based Services

Proprietary Software

1. ArcGIS Desktop …





ArcReader

-
An easy
-
to
-
use desktop mapping application

-

Allow users to view, explore and print maps



ArcView

-

A full featured GIS software

-

Allow users to view, analyze, manage and create
geographic data



GIS for Location Based Services

Proprietary Software

1.

ArcGIS Desktop …





ArcEditor

-

A powerful GIS desktop system

-

Provide all the functionality of ArcView

-

Provide data edit capability

-

Supports single user editing OR collaborative process




GIS for Location Based Services

Proprietary Software

1. ArcGIS Desktop…





ArcInfo

-

The

most

complete

GIS


-

Includes

all

the

functionality

of

ArcEditor,

ArcView,

and

ArcReader


-

Provide

advanced

spatial

analysis,

extensive

data

manipulation,

and

high
-
end

cartography

tools





GIS for Location Based Services

Proprietary Software

2. Envision (Autodesk)






Integrates GIS spatial data and AutoCad design data




Perform civil engineering tasks such as

-

calculating elevations

-

cut/fill volumes

-
running flood analyses




AutoDesk Raster Design is used to edit, modify, and enhance
raster data

GIS for Location Based Services

Proprietary Software

3. MapInfo Professional







A full featured Desktop geospatial solution



Comes with easy
-
to
-
use software and a powerful
software tool



Vertical Mapper third party add
-
on for raster data

GIS for Location Based Services

FOSS Software

1. GRASS GIS







GRASS
-

Geographic Resources Analysis Support
System



Supports various platforms


Supports for both raster & vector formats


GIS for Location Based Services

FOSS Software

1. GRASS GIS…





Functionalities

-

geospatial data management and analysis

-

image processing

-

graphics/maps production

-

spatial modeling

-

visualization

GIS for Location Based Services

FOSS Software

2. Quantum GIS (QGIS)




Support multiple platforms

-

Linux, Unix, Mac OSX, and Windows



Support multiple data formats

-
vector, raster, database formats

-
GRASS layers




Extendable functionality using plug
-
ins


http://qgis.org/brochure/qgis_brochure_en.pdf


GIS for Location Based Services

Applicability for LBS



Issues…


Limited to a Desktop PC


Cannot access remotely



LBS deals with mobile users


Need remote access to GIS


Transfer information between user and the GIS



Desktop GIS not suitable for LBS

GIS for Location Based Services

Web GIS


Web

GIS

is

a

Geographic

Information

System

distributed

across

a

networked

computer

environment

to

integrate,

disseminate,

and

communicate

geographic

information

visually

on

the

World

Wide

Web

over

the

Internet
.


[Gillavry,

2000
]



Disseminate

geospatial

data

and

processing

tools




Possible

to

Process

geo
-
related

information

with

no

location

restrictions
.


GIS for Location Based Services

Web GIS Architecture

Web GIS

Client
-
Server

Architecture

Distributed Architecture

GIS for Location Based Services

1. Client


Server Architecture


Geoprocessing


Server side & Client side tasks


Typical three tier architecture

1.
Presentation tier

-

Contains user interface

2.
Application logic tier

-

Model & process GIS data

3.
Storage tier

-

Databases that store GIS data



GIS for Location Based Services

Web
Browser

Client

Web
Server

Internet Map
Server

(IMS)

GIS
software

GIS
database

Server

Internet

Middle Ware

Spatial request

HTML,Image,Map..

1. Client


Server Architecture …



A typical client
-
server architecture




Two types


-

Thin client architecture


-

Thick client architecture

GIS for Location Based Services

2. Distributed Architecture



Both data and processing components

are distributed



The client and server do not refer to a specific machine



“Geodata anywhere, Geoprocessing anywhere”

model



Distributed object architectures

-

Microsoft's Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM)

-

Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA)

-

Java Remote Method Invocation (Java RMI)

GIS for Location Based Services

IMS Software



Allow users to access spatial data via a web browser interface



Interact with web server and spatial database


Proprietary software

-

ArcView IMS (ESRI)

-

MapObjects IMS (ESRI)

-

ArcIMS (ESRI)

-

MapGuide (Autodesk)



FOSS software

-

Minnesota Map Server

-

Open
-
GIS Multiviewer

-

GIS Viewer


GIS for Location Based Services

Proprietary software

1.
ArcView IMS (ESRI)


Extension of ESRI's Desktop
-
GIS application
-

ArcView


One of the first available Map Server systems


Requires an open session of ArcView running on the Web
server with IMS ArcView middleware


Client cannot change the composition of the received map

GIS for Location Based Services

Proprietary software

2. MapObjects IMS (ESRI)


Integrate three applications :
MapObjects IMS, MapObjects
Professional, and ArcExplorer


Can consider as a programming platform


For GIS applications
-

Visual Basic, Visual C + +, Delphi


For client applications
-

HTML (JavaScript), ActiveX


Supports Windows or UNIX
-
based Web servers


Uses modern three
-
tier architecture

GIS for Location Based Services

Proprietary software

3. ArcIMS (ESRI)


Most widely used Proprietary IMS software


A three tier architecture

http://gisweb.ciat.cgiar.org/sig/ims
-
technology
-
esri.htm

GIS for Location Based Services

Proprietary software

3. ArcIMS …


The components of the ArcIMS server

:

-
Spatial Server

-
Applications Server

-
Connectors to the Applications Server
[Servelets, ColdFusion,
ActiveX ]

-
Administrator


Tool for designing map services


need not to program client


Client receives instructions suitable for processing

GIS for Location Based Services

Proprietary software

4. MapGuide (Autodesk)


Similar capacities to those of ArcIMS


Provide tools for basic geographical operations


Own data format

SDF


Extensions required to convert other formats to SDF format

GIS for Location Based Services

FOSS software

1. Minnesota Map Server


World’s leading open source Web
-
Mapping tool


Originally developed for the University of Minnesota (UMN)


Supported platforms : Linux/Apache, Windows NT/98/95


A CGI program that sits inactive on a Web Server


Uses information passed in the URL and the Map File to
process the request

GIS for Location Based Services

FOSS software

1. Minnesota Map Server



The MapServer architecture



Client

-

Web browser


Server





-

HTTP Server (Apache, IIS)



-

MapServer CGI (
mapserve.exe
)


-

Map Files


-

Geographic Data


[ESRI Shape files, GeoTIFF]


Illustrated according to diagram from
http://mapserver.gis.umn.edu/new_users/msappdiagram/


GIS for Location Based Services

FOSS software

1. Minnesota Map Server…

How MapServer works?

Web
Server

Mapserver

(CGI)

Mapfiles


http://
<location of the mapserver program>
<location of the mapfile>
<other parameters>

http://
192.8.10.52/cgi
-
bin/
mapserve.exe
?
map=/ms4w/apps/app1/htdocs/
test.map


Request

Request

test.map

Result


Web

Browser

GIS for Location Based Services

FOSS software

1. Minnesota Map Server



Advantages of using MapServer

-
Comes as a standard package which bundles
MapServer
and many required supporting tools

-
No dedicated hardware is required

-
Client is only a web browser

-
Not bounded to any specific language

-
Compliant to the
OGC
Specification

-
Support for database access (
PostGIS, MySql
)

GIS for Location Based Services

FOSS software

2. GIS VIEWER


Developed by the University of California, Berkeley at "UC
Berkeley Digital Library Project”


Supported platforms : Unix, Linux, Windows NT


Display geographical information by means of a window
(viewfinder)

GIS for Location Based Services

Applicability for LBS


Key features of web GIS:

-
Distribute geospatial data over the Internet or an Intranet

-
Limited to hardwired networks


Features of Mobile devices:

-
Use wireless Internet (low bandwidth, low connection speed)

-
Limited processing power

-
Diversity nature





Web GIS not suitable for LBS


GIS for Location Based Services

Mobile GIS


Mobile GIS

is an integrated software/hardware framework for the
access of geospatial data and services through mobile devices via
wireline or wireless networks.”
[http://map.sdsu.edu/publications/Tsou2
-
CaGIS
-
final
-
short.pdf]




Mobile GIS can be taken as a sub new research area in Web GIS



Address issues such as….

-

moving client side

-

wireless internet

-

limited hardware resources in moving client side

GIS for Location Based Services

Mobile GIS Architecture



Similar to the traditional client/server architecture in Web GIS



Use “ Thin Client” structure

Client:

-

Mobile GIS receiver

-

Positioning System

-

Mobile GIS software

Server :

-

Geospatial data

-

GIS content server

http://map.sdsu.edu/publications/Tsou2
-
CaGIS
-
final
-
short.pdf

GIS for Location Based Services

Mobile GIS Applications



Two major application areas:


1. Location Based Services


2.

Field based GIS

GIS for Location Based Services

Mobile GIS Technologies for LBS


Integrate the wireless Internet with GIS


Two main technologies:

1.
WAP

2.
JAVA



LBS deals with cellular phones and vehicle
based computers


V
ery diverse in nature


GIS for Location Based Services


Proposed by Wang Fangxiong and Jian Zhiyong


Use WAP along with J2EE



1. WAP based Mobile GIS



Four tier architecture

1.
Presentation tier
-

UI

2.
WAP service tier
-

WAP gateway +Web server

3.
Application tier


Application server

4.
Data service tier


Spatial database




WAP
microbrowser /

J2ME application

Wireless network

WAP
gateway

Internet

Web Server

Application
Server

Mobile
Position
Center

Spatial
Database

WAP

HTTP

MLP

Mobile Client

RMI

Server

GIS for Location Based Services

2. JAVA based Mobile GIS


Proposed by Xiaoqing Zhou, Xinming Tang, Zhao Fan and
Zhongping Wang


Client side


J2ME


Server side


J2EE


Three tier architecture

1.
Client tier

2.
Web service tier

3.
Data tier



GIS for Location Based Services

Mobile GIS Technologies for Field
applications


Need computationally intensive devices with large display
screens.


Ex : Pocket & Tablet PCs



Available Software :

-

Cross platform

-

Independent of hardware devices


ArcGIS Mobile (ESRI)


ArcPad (ESRI)


MapInfo MapXtend


IntelliWhere
(Intergraph )


Onsite



GIS for Location Based Services

Applicability for LBS


Mobile GIS developed for LBS !


GIS for Location Based Services

Summary



Introduction to LBS



Introduction to GIS



Different types of GIS
(Desktop GIS, Web GIS, Mobile GIS)


-

Overview


-

Available Architectures


-

Available software / technologies


-

Applicability for LBS


GIS for Location Based Services

References



Stefan

Steiniger,

Moritz

Neun

and

Alistair

Edwardes,

Foundations

of

Location

Based

Services,

CartouCHe
1

-

Lecture

Notes

on

LBS,

V
.

1
.
0



Geographic

information

system

[online]
.

Available

from
:




Wikipedia

<

http
:
//en
.
wikipedia
.
org/wiki/Geographic_information_system>



Geographic

information

system

(GIS)

poster
.

Available

from

:


<

http
:
//erg
.
usgs
.
gov/isb/pubs/gis_poster/

>



Product

overview

[online]
.

Available

from
:

<

http
:
//www
.
esri
.
com/products
.
html>



Desktop

GIS

software

for

Hydrological

Application

[online]
.

Available

from

:


<

http
:
//www
.
swhydro
.
arizona
.
edu/archive/V
3
_N
3
/featurette
2
.
pdf>



Geographic

Resources

Analysis

Support

System

[online]
.

Available

from
:
<

http
:
//grass
.
itc
.
it/
>



QGIS

brochure

[online]
.

Available

from

:

<

http
:
//qgis
.
org/brochure/qgis_brochure_en
.
pdf
>



A
.
A
.

Alesheikh,

H
.
Helali,

H
.
A
.
Behroz,

Web

GIS
:

Technologies

and

Its

Applications,

Symposium

on

Geospatial

Theory,

Processing

and

Applications,

Ottawa

2002



Hussein

Helali,

Design

and

Implementation

of

a

Web

GIS

for

the

City

of

Tehran,

Master’s

Thesis,

Department

Of

Geodesy

And

Geomatics

Engineering,

K
.
N
.
Toosi

University

Of

Technology,

September

2001



GIS for Location Based Services

References





Internet

Map

Services

[online]
.

Available

from

:



<http
:
//gisweb
.
ciat
.
cgiar
.
org/sig/internet
-
map
-
services
.
htm>



Map

Object

Internet

Map

Server

version

2

brochure

[online]
.

Available

from


<

http
:
//www
.
esri
.
com
>



MapServer

New

Users

[online]
.

Available

from


http
:
//mapserver
.
gis
.
umn
.
edu/new_users



Nimalika

Fernando,

Web

GIS

based

Post

-
Tsunami

Recovery

Management

tool

for

Sri

Lanka,

Master’s

Thesis
,

Keele

University,

September

2006



Li

Luqun,

Li

Minglu,

A

Research

on

Development

of

Mobile

GIS

Architecture,

Environmental

Infomatics

Archives
,

ISEIS

2004



Ming
-
Hsiang

Tsou,

Integrated

Mobile

GIS

and

Wireless

Internet

Map

Servers

for

Environmental

Monitoring

and

Management,
2004



Ye

Lei,

Lin

Hui,

Which

One

Should

be

Chosen

for

the

Mobile

Geographic

Information

Service

Now,

WAP

vs
.

i
-
mode

vs
.

J
2
ME?,

Springer

Science
,

2006



Wang

Fangxiong

,

Jiang

Zhiyong,

Research

on

A

Distributed

Architecture

of

Mobile

GIS

Based

on

Wap



Xiaoqing

Zhou,

Xinming

Tang,

Zhao

Fan,

Zhongping

Wang,

Research

of

LBS

Based

on

Java

and

An

Application

Solution



ArcGIS

Mobile

brochure

[online]
.

Available

from
:

http
:
//www
.
esri
.
com/arcgismobile



ArcPad
:

Mobile

GIS,

An

ESRI

White

Paper

,

September

2004

GIS for Location Based Services

QUESTIONS ???

THANK YOU !!!