End-of-Summer Report

sunglowcitrineUrban and Civil

Nov 15, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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Marius Maduta
,
Klein Forest High School, Klein ISD, Houston, TX,
Physics, 11
th

grade
,

8

instructional days


End
-
of
-
Summer Report


Project
overview and purpose


The main focus of
Dr. Sy
-
Bor Wen’s research,
Experimental and Theoretical
Analysis for Optical Induced Thermal Energy Transport in Nano
-
Optical Systems with
Pulsed
Light Sources
,
was on
the analysis of the interaction between energy (generated by
various pulsed laser light sources) and a variety of materials.
My students will be able to
relate to the some of the aspects in this study because of their familiarity with

everyday
application of laser technology. From the laser used in their CD players, to laser surgery
(Lasik and Endovenous Laser Ablation), and security systems, the students are
encountering a wide range of applications of lasers. Biomedicine has proven,
in recent
years, to greatly benefit from the

application of nanotechnology.


Waves is one of the major units of study in the first year Physics. In this unit the
students are expected to become familiar not only with the general properties of the waves,
but also with sound and light. Light properties and behavior is an important pa
rt of this
unit. Due to my E3 RET experience, I would like to modify the study of optics and
approach from a different perspective. Since lasers have become more prevalent in recent
years, the students may benefit from studying the electromagnetic spectrum
, wavelength,
frequency, amplitude, reflection, refraction, etc., in the context of lasers. My students will
research and discover the principles of light reflection and refraction using lasers. We will
use laser pointers in a variety of ways in order to d
esign setups that will provide the basis
for the application and explanation of these rules.


Education Standards

The pertinent STAAR and TEKS applicable:


The student will demonstrate an understanding of waves and quantum phenomena.


(P.7)
Science conce
pts
. The student knows the characteristics and behavior of
waves. The student is expected to (A) examine and describe oscillatory motion and wave
propagation in various types of media;
Supporting Standard

(B) investigate and analyze
characteristics of wave
s, including velocity, frequency, amplitude, and wavelength, and
calculate using the relationship between wave

speed, frequency, and wavelength;
Readiness
Standard

(C) compare characteristics and behaviors of transverse waves, including
electromagnetic waves and the electromagnetic spectrum, and characteristics and behaviors
of longitudinal waves, including sound waves;
Supporting Standard

(D) investigate
behaviors o
f waves, including reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, resonance,
and the Doppler effect;
Readiness Standard

(E) describe and predict image formation as a
consequence of reflection from a plane mirror and refraction through a thin convex len
s;
and
Supporting Standard

(F) describe the role of wave characteristics and behaviors in
medical and industrial applications.
Supporting Standard




(P.8)
Science concepts.
The student knows simple examples of atomic, nuclear, and
quantum phenomena. The s
tudent is expected to (A) describe the photoelectric effect and
the dual nature of light;
Readiness Standard

(B) compare and explain the emission spectra
Marius Maduta
,
Klein Forest High School, Klein ISD, Houston, TX,
Physics, 11
th

grade
,

8

instructional days

produced by various atoms;
Supporting Standard

(C) describe the significance of mass
-
energy equivalenc
e and apply it in explanations of phenomena such as nuclear stability,
fission, and fusion; and
Supporting Standard

(D) give examples of applications of atomic
and nuclear phenomena such as
radiation therapy, diagnostic imaging, and nuclear power
and examp
les of applications of quantum phenomena such as digital cameras.
Supporting
Standard



The recently revised Science TEKS: (7)
Science concepts
. The student knows the
characteristics and behavior of waves. The student is expected to: (A) Examine and
descri
be oscillatory motion and wave
propagation in various types of media
; (B) Investigate
and analyze
characteristics of waves
, including velocity, frequency, amplitude, and
wavelength, and calculate using the relationship between wave speed, frequency, and
wavelength; (C)
C
ompare characteristics and behaviors of transverse waves, including
electromagnetic waves and the
electroma
gnetic spectrum
, and characteristics and behaviors
of longitudinal waves, including sound waves; (D)
I
nvestigate behaviors of waves,
including
reflection, refraction, diffraction
, interference, resonance, and the Doppler Effect;
(E)
D
escribe and predict im
age formation as a consequence of reflection from a plane
mirror

and refraction through a thin convex
lens
; and

(F)
D
escribe the role of wave characteristics and behaviors in medical and
industrial
a
pplications
.


Physics principles touched upon by this st
udy


Laser (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) is a particular
application of light (waves, optics). However, in order to understand some of the
implications and applications of laser, one must draw upon various topics in Physics, suc
h
as energy transfer, optics, nature of light, reflection of light, refraction, diffraction. The
students with which I plan to use this project will be in the Pre
-
AP Physics, mostly juniors,
with a few seniors. Due to the fact that this is a first
-
year Phy
sics class, it will be important
to define all the
fundamental
Physics principles and ideas that apply.




Activities in which the students will engage:

Topics
: There will be two main areas of concentration in the project: Energy (heat) transfer
and Optics (a study of ray diagrams for reflection and refraction).

A.

The students will
be part of designing
a set
-
up that will show heat transfer
. The
instructor will be

actively involved in this process, as the students will not
possess enough experience in order to safely handle laser pointers.

One possible
set up will involve the laser pointers and balloons, in order to test if the laser
beam has sufficient energy to ‘
burn’ a small hole in the balloon.

It may be
necessary to use a lens in order to further focus the laser beam for added power.
Another possibility would be to light up a match stick with the laser beam. The
transfer of energy for this experiment would have

to be sufficient to light up the
match (the flash point of the match tip would have to be pre
-
determined. These
two experiments will involve cooperative learning, visuals, simulations, demos
and technology integration.

B.

A light sensor will be provided, ten
tatively, in order for the students to compare
the light intensity from a laser beam to the light intensity from the fluorescent
Marius Maduta
,
Klein Forest High School, Klein ISD, Houston, TX,
Physics, 11
th

grade
,

8

instructional days

lights in the room. This may have to be performed with a low
-
power laser, since
the light sensor may not be able to measure the

high power beam of some
pointers.

C.

Using laser beams, various lenses and mirrors,
or a ray box that will be provided
in the classroom,
the students will design a set
-
up to show
light refraction and
collimation. In the process, the students will become fam
iliar with beam
convergence and beam divergence.

Collimation
is another term the students will
have to research. A setup will be required for collimation.

A working diagram
(on paper) will be provided by each team. This diagram will have measurements
of an
gles and distances, focal lengths and other elements that describe reflection
and refraction. The benefit of this experiment would be that the students will
have to research and understand reflection and the principles that govern it,
refraction and the in
dex of refraction. The students will end up ‘discovering

through experiments or research most of the light and optics laws and principles.


Once the students are familiar with the law of reflection, with Snell’s law, with the ray
diagrams, they will have to begin applying some
engineering design

to perform their
activities. This will give the instructor the opportunity to address some of the d
esign ideas.


Day 1
: A brief introduction of Lasers, definitions and terms. An introduction to laser safety
will be presented (possibly a pre
-
test). The students must first pass the laser safety test (will
allow two days for preparation for this test).

Day 2
: Engineering Design lesson


a brief overview of some of the basic concepts and
principles. The groups will be assigned (three to four students per group).

Day 3
: Laser safety test will be administered. One or two laser demonstrations will be
perform
ed. Students will begin their collaboration with their teams. The design problem
will be two
-
fold: a heat transfer design and a reflection / refraction set up will be required.
They will also be asked to design a set up (using mirrors and lenses) in order
to measure the
focal length of a designated lens, as well as a set up to measure laser beam divergence and
convergence. Additionally, the students may be asked to use the light sensor in order to
analyze the laser beam.

Day 4
: Student design time


the stu
dents will collaborate with their teams to find solutions
and come up with design ideas.

Day 5

and 6
: Design trial and re
-
design time. Realistically, we will need two days for this
phase. Since each group will need some set
-
up time, we will need approxima
tely 20
minutes for each group to set up and perform their demonstrations.

Day
7
: Final design presentations


15 minutes per team.

Day
8
: Post
-
test


terms, definitions, problems.


Each class will be divided into three groups …

and each group will desig
n one setup and then present it before the class.



Group 1



Design a set
-
up that shows total internal reflection. This group will have

one or two laser pointers (different colors), one water bottle and water.

Marius Maduta
,
Klein Forest High School, Klein ISD, Houston, TX,
Physics, 11
th

grade
,

8

instructional days


Questions to answer:
What is reflection? Wh
at is total internal reflection? What

are some applications in technology of total internal reflection?



Group 2

-

Design a set
-
up that shows total internal reflection for optical fiber. This

group will be given a laser pointer and a piece of optical
fiber.


Questions to answer:
What is

Fiber Optics? How does an Optical Fiber transmit

light? What are some applications of Fiber Optic technology?




Group 3

-

Design a set
-
up that shows light transmission through optic fibers, and a

measurement of both
the initial intensity as well as the intensity of the light as it is

emitted from the optic fiber.


Questions to answer:
How do the two intensity measurements compare? What

accounts for the difference in intensity? Is light “lost” in the optic fiber? Wha
t

happens when the optic fiber is bent excessively? What is different between the red

laser and the blue laser?



All Groups

-



Refraction



In groups of three, design two experiments using any materials

available in the lab in order to show refraction
. Explain and diagram the law of

refraction (Snell’s Law).


Collimation

with two convex lenses. In groups of three, design and diagram an

experimental set up using the ray box available in the lab, or two laser pointers, as

well as two convex lenses.
Explain the ray geometry involved.


The student computers (with internet access) are already available to each student. We also
have one or two sets of optical lenses and meter sticks. We will purchase three or four laser
pointers, a light sensor and additional lenses in order to have at lea
st five or six set
-
ups.
Also, balloons, matchsticks, and other basic Physics lab equipment, will be needed.


Finally, since the Scope and Sequence for the Physics curriculum is prescribed in
our district, my focus will have to be on using this project in
order to implement some (or
all) of the requirements in the Scope and Sequence, so that my classes may follow the same
pace as the other Physics in the district.

Summary


The students will become familiar with the basic principles of optics (and be able to

construct ray diagrams) through this project.
As a result of this project, the students will
first research and attempt to understand the basic principles of ray optics. The Law of
Reflection and Snell’s Law will become familiar to the students. They shou
ld be able to
measure the incident and predict the reflection angles. Also, they should be able to make
calculations of the index of refraction and the critical angle (from Snell’s Law).


The students will also begin to make connections between visible li
ght color and
wavelength (and frequency) of light. They should be able to understand the connection
between the electromagnetic spectrum and energy. Since there is so much emphasis on
energy, the students should be able to understand aspects of heat transf
er (energy transfer).



Below is a copy of the Pre
-

and Post
-
test
.


Marius Maduta
,
Klein Forest High School, Klein ISD, Houston, TX,
Physics, 11
th

grade
,

8

instructional days

Laser Challenge Pre
-
Test



1. What does the acronym LASER stand for
?

A.

Light Altering through Static Electricity Reduction

B.

Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation

C.

Light Augmentation by Synchronizing Energy Radiation

D.

Light Authentification by Sonar Energy Randomization


2.
Visible light can be given off when ____ move between energy levels of an atom.

A.

protons

B.

photons

C.

neutrons

D.

electrons


3.
Most objects do not produce their
own light, but instead _______
light f
rom
other sources,

which allows us to see the objects.

A.

reflect

B.

absorb

C.

refract

D.

polarize


4.
Which type of material filters
light so only waves vibrating in one direction can
pass through it?


Marius Maduta
,
Klein Forest High School, Klein ISD, Houston, TX,
Physics, 11
th

grade
,

8

instructional days

6


A.

prism

B.

refractor

C.

polarizer

D.

diffraction grating


5.
A lemon appears yellow when white light is shown on it because the lemon ________
yellow light.

A.

bends

B.

reflects

C.

refracts

D.

absorbs


6.
Which of the following colored cans would absorb the greatest amount of heat?

A.

red

B.

black

C.

white

D.

yellow


7.
When light passes from air through glass and water, it _________.

A.

bends

B.

changes color

C.

is completely absorbed

D.

travels in a straight line


8.
If a persons eye focuses the light
before

it reaches the retina, they would need a
_________ lens.

A.

lane

B.

convex

C.

concave

D.

polarize


9.
Which of the following is used to play music from a CD?

A.

laser light

B.

ultraviolet light

C.

fluorescent light

D.

incandescent
light


10.
White light is made up of ________.

A.

red and green

B.

all wavelengths

C.

the absence of color

D.

blue and yellow

Marius Maduta
,
Klein Forest High School, Klein ISD, Houston, TX,
Physics, 11
th

grade
,

8

instructional days

7



11.
Light rays bounce off of a surface according to the law
o
f

__________.

A.

Reflection

B.

R
efraction

C.

D
iffraction

D.

B
ending


12.
Night vision
cameras can 'see in the dark' because they detect

A.

ultraviolet

B.

microwave

C.

infrared

D.

gamma


13.
Compared with infrared waves, ultraviolet waves ____________.

A.

travel slower

B.

travel quicker

C.

carry less energy

D.

carry more energy


14.
What determines the color of an

object?

A.

the light intensity

B.

the wavelength of light reflected

C.

the wavelength of light absorbed

D.

it’s amplitude


15.
The lens show
n below

is a ____ lens and will ____ the light rays.

A.

concave; diverge

B.

concave; converge

C.

convex; diverge

D.

convex; converge


16.
What body part is most susceptible to damage from lasers?

A.

Arms


B.

Feet

C.

Ears

D.

Eyes


17.
Select all the fields that use lasers:

A.

LASIK eye surgery

B.

Welding

C.

Video recording

D.

Printing

Marius Maduta
,
Klein Forest High School, Klein ISD, Houston, TX,
Physics, 11
th

grade
,

8

instructional days

8



18.
Thinking about the equation ν =
λ
∙f, wave A is traveling at the same
speed as wave B,
but wave A has a longer wavelength than wave B. What can you determine about wave A?

A.

It has a higher frequency

B.

It has a lower frequency

C.

It is moving through a gas

D.

It is moving through space


19.
What objects would you recommend to focus l
aser light?

A.

Convex lens


B.

Concave lens

C.

Convex mirror

D.

Concave mirror