Instructor: Dema Alorini

sunfloweremryologistData Management

Oct 31, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Instructor:
Dema

Alorini


Database Fundamentals IS 422 Section: 7|1


Understand
the basics of databases.


Recognize
the role of databases in
different
organizations
.


Recognize
the types database models.


Use
one of the real world
database
management
systems.


Build
database structure.


Present
logical solutions for solving different
problems.


Demonstrate
basic knowledge of the
database structure.


Database Fundamentals IS 422 Section: 7|1


Database: set of data (information) that is
organized so it can be easily accessed,
managed, and updated.


Data:
a collection of
facts


Database includes data with different tables


tables contains columns called
fields

and
rows called
records



data
dements
to be
stored in each record.

Database Fundamentals IS 422 Section: 7|1


Query
:


Retrieve the transcript ( a list of all courses
and grades) of
Smith.


Update:


Create
a new section for the database course
for this semester.

Database Fundamentals IS 422
Section: 7|1



Definition: collection
of programs that
enables users
to create and maintain a
database.



Examples:


-

Oracle


(
the hardest)



-

Microsoft SQL
(Structured Query Language)

Server



-

IBM DB2





Database Fundamentals IS 422
Section: 7|1


SELECT

student_number

FROM

grade_report

Results:
Student_Number

17

17

8

8

8




Database Fundamentals IS 422
Section: 7|1


Keep data consistent


Easy Access to data


Easy data retrieval: using simple queries and
reports example: search for student name, list
students with grades above 90,
etc


Modify data: insert, delete, update content


Multiple User Interfaces


Restrict authorized access


Storage for data


Represent complex relationships among data


Control Redundancy

`
Backup and restore data


Database Fundamentals IS 422
Section: 7|1

Database Fundamentals IS 422
Section: 7|1

A
field that is repeated in two or more tables.


Main costs of using a DBMS
:

-

High initial investment in hardware,
software, training and
possible
need for additional hardware.

-

Overhead for providing generality, security, recovery, integrity, and


concurrency control.

-

Generality that a DBMS provides for defining and processing data.


When
a DBMS may be unnecessary
:

-

If the database and applications are simple, well defined, and not


expected to change.

-

If there are stringent real
-
time requirements that may not be met


because of DBMS overhead.

-

If access to data by multiple users is not required.

Database Fundamentals IS 422
Section: 7|1


The DBMS software together with the data
itself.

Database Fundamentals IS 422
Section: 7|1

Database Fundamentals IS 422
Section: 7|1


Mini
-

world example
:
Part of a UNIVERSITY environment
.


Data (entities):


-

STUDENTs


-

COURSEs


-

SECTIONs (of COURSEs)


-

(academic) DEPARTMENTs


-

INSTRUCTORs


Relationships among data:


-

SECTIONs are of specific COURSEs


-

STUDENTs take SECTIONs


-

COURSEs have prerequisite COURSEs


-

INSTRUCTORs teach SECTIONs


-

COURSEs are offered by DEPARTMENTs


-

STUDENTs major in DEPARTMENTs

Database Fundamentals IS 422
Section: 7|1


Structure of the record


STUDENT
( Name , Number, Class, Major)


COURSE
( Name , Number, Credit, Dept.)


Data
type of data element


Name
: a string of characters


Number
: integer


Grade
: {A,B,C,D,F,I}


Database Fundamentals IS 422
Section: 7|1


Database Administrators
(DBAs
):
Responsible
for managing the database
system,
authorizing
access, coordinating
&
monitoring
uses, acquiring resources
.


Database designers
are responsible for
identifying the data to be stored in the
database and
for choosing appropriate
structures to represent and store this data
.


End Users:

The persons that use the database
for querying, updating,
generating reports
,
etc.


Database Fundamentals IS 422
Section: 7|1


Define a database?


In a database columns are called .......


In a database rows are called ……


Database system is …….. Together with ….


Users of database are

1.
……….

2.
……….

3.
……….


List 3 advantages of using DBMS?

Database Fundamentals IS 422
Section: 7|1


T/F

1.
A field that is repeated in two or more tables is
called data redundancy ( )

2.
End users are responsible for choosing
structures to represent data( )

3.
The main goal of using database is to organize
information in a way that it can be easily
accesses ( )

4.
DBMS provide multiple interfaces ( )

5.
Queries are used to manipulate data in database
( )

6.
A database design may be based on existing
data ( )




Database Fundamentals IS 422
Section: 7|1