[Psychological consequences of severe overweight in teenagers].

sugarannoyedUrban and Civil

Nov 16, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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Ugeskr

Laeger.

2011 Jun 20;173(25):1785
-
91.

[Psychological consequences of severe overweight in
teenagers].

[Article in Danish]

Grønbæk

HN
,

Holm

JC
.

Source

Pædiatrisk Afdeling, Enheden for Overvægtige Børn og Unge, Holbæk Sygehus, Smedelundsgade 60, 4300 Holbæk,
Denmark. hngr@regionsjaelland.dk

Abstract

Obese adolescents are adversely affected by the psychosocial consequences of their obesity, which
affects their identity development negatively. Further, the obesity
-
associated psychosocial consequences
deteriorate increasingly as the children grow older. Obese adolescents have poor health related quality of
life and tend to develop serious emotional a
nd social problems, and a negative body image compared to
normal weight peers. Obese adolescents represent approximately 5% of all youths in Denmark, but the
treatment options available do not meet the demands of this vulnerable group.


West

J

Emerg

Med.

2011 Jul;12(3):305
-
9.

Pre
-
Teen Alcohol Use as a Risk Factor for Victimization and
Perpetration of

Bullying

among Middle and High
School Students
in Georgia.

Swahn

MH
,

Topalli

V
,

Ali

B
,

Str
asser

SM
,

Ashby

JS
,

Meyers

J
.

Source

Georgia State University, Institute of Public Health, Atlanta, GA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

We examined the association between pre
-
teen alcohol use initiation and the victimization and
perpetration of

bullying

among middle and high school students in
Georgia.

METHODS:

We computed analyses using data from the 2006 Georgia Student Health Survey (N=175,311) of
students in grades 6, 8, 10 and 12. The current analyses were limited to students in grades 8, 10 and 12
(n=122,434). We used multilogistic
regression analyses to determine the associations between early
alcohol use and reports of both victimization and perpetration of

bullying
, perpetration only, victimization
only, and neither victimization or perpetration, while controlling for demographic
characteristics, other
substance use, peer drinking and weapon carrying.

RESULTS:

Pre
-
teen alcohol use initiation was significantly associated with both

bullying

perpetration and
victimization relative to non drinkers in bivariate analyses (OR=3.20 95%CI:3
.03
-
3.39). The association
was also significant between pre
-
teen alcohol use initiation and perpetration and victimization
of

bullying

in analyses adjusted for confounders (Adj.OR=1.74; 95%CI:1.61
-
1.89). Overall, findings were
similar for boys and girls.

C
ONCLUSION:

Pre
-
teen alcohol use initiation is an important risk factor for both the perpetration and victimization
of

bullying

among boys and girls in Georgia. Increased efforts to delay and reduce early alcohol use
through clinical interventions, educatio
n and policies may also positively impact other health risk
behaviors, including

bullying
.


West

J

Emerg

Med.

2011 Jul;12(3):316
-
23.

A case study
with an identified bully: policy and practice
implications.

Huddleston

LB
,

Varjas

K
,

Meyers

J
,

Cadenhead

C
.

Source

Georgia State University, Counseling and Psychological Services, Atlanta, GA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Bullying

is a serious public health problem that may include verbal or physical injury as well
as social
isolation or exclusion. As a result, research is needed to establish a database for policies and
interventions designed to prevent

bullying

and its negative effects. This paper presents a case study that
contributes to the literature by describin
g an intervention for bullies that has implications for practice and
related policies regarding

bullying
.

METHODS:

An individualized intervention for an identified bully was implemented using the Participatory Culture
-
Specific Intervention Model (PCSIM; Na
stasi, Moore, & Varjas, 2004) with a seventh
-
grade middle school
student. Ecological and culture
-
specific perspectives were used to develop and implement the
intervention that included psychoeducational sessions with the student and consultation with the p
arent
and school personnel. A mixed methods intervention design was used with the following informants: the
target student, the mother of the student, a teacher and the school counselor. Qualitative data included
semi
-
structured interviews with the parent,

teacher and student, narrative classroom observations and
evaluation/feedback forms filled out by the student and interventionist. Quantitative data included the
following quantitative surveys (i.e., Child Self Report Post Traumatic Stress Reaction Index
and the
Behavior Assessment Scale for Children). Both qualitative and quantitative data were used to evaluate
the acceptability, integrity and efficacy of this intervention.

RESULTS:

The process of intervention design, implementation and evaluation are des
cribed through an illustrative
case study. Qualitative and quantitative findings indicated a decrease in internalizing, externalizing
and

bullying

behaviors as reported by the teacher and the mother, and a high degree of acceptability and
treatment integri
ty as reported by multiple stakeholders.

CONCLUSION:

This case study makes important contributions by describing an intervention that is targeted to specific
needs of the bully by designing culture specific interventions and working with the student's uniq
ue
environmental contexts. Contributions also are made by illustrating the use of mixed methods to
document acceptability, integrity and efficacy of an intervention with documented positive effects in these
areas. In addition, implications for policy and p
ractice related to the treatment of students identified as
bullies and future research needs are discussed.


J

Sch

Health.

2011 Jul;81(7):393
-
9. doi: 10.1111/j.1
746
-
1561.2011.00607.x.

Different forms of

bullying

and their association to smoking and
drinking behavior in Italian adolescents.

Vieno

A
,

Gini

G
,

Santinello

M
.

Source

U
niversity of Padova, Italy. alessio.vieno@unipd.it

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Using data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School
-
aged Children (HBSC) survey, the prevalence of 6
forms of

bullying

(physical, verbal, relational, sexual, cyber, and racist), and the

role of smoking and
drinking in

bullying

was examined among Italian adolescents for this study.

METHODS:

The sample was composed of 2667 Italian middle and secondary school students (49.9% girls) randomly
selected. The revised Olweus Bully/Victim Question
naire was used to measure physical, verbal,
relational, sexual, cyber, and racist forms of

bullying
. For each form, 3 categories were created and
compared with students "not involved in

bullying
": bully, victim, and bully
-
victim. Logistic regressions were
applied to test the connections among the 3 forms of involvement in different types of

bullying

and
smoking and drinking.

RESULTS:

Prevalence of having been bullied or having bullied others at school at least once in the last 2 months
was 11.6% for physica
l, 52% for verbal, 47.9% for relational, 18.5% for sexual, 19.4% for cyber, and 9.4%
for racist

bullying
. Compared to girls, boys were more likely to be involved in physical

bullying
; moreover,
boys were more involved as bullies in verbal, sexual, cyber, a
nd racist

bullying
. In contrast, girls were
more likely to be victims of verbal, relational, sexual, and cyber

bullying

than were boys. Logistic
regressions showed the connection between the different forms of involvement in

bullying

and smoking
and drinki
ng.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results indicate that all forms of

bullying

behavior are associated with legal substance use.
Implication for prevention program was discussed.


J

Psychol.

2011 Jul
-
Aug;145(4):313
-
30.

The role of affective and cognitive empathy in physical, verbal,
and indirect aggression of a Singaporean sample of boys.

Yeo

LS
,

Ang

RP
,

Loh

S
,

Fu

KJ
,

Karre

JK
.

Source

Psychological Studies Academic Group, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang
Walk, Singapore 637616. laysee.yeo@nie.edu.sg

Abstract

Bullying

behavior is a serious form of school violence, affecting many children. This study investigated the
contributions of 2 specific components of empathy (affective and cognitive empathy) on the 3 forms of
aggressive behaviors in a sample of 241 Grade 4 and G
rade 5 boys from Singapore. The 2 components
of empathy differed in their relation with the 3 types of aggression. After accounting for cognitive empathy,
affective empathy was associated with physical aggression. Neither affective empathy nor cognitive
em
pathy was associated with verbal aggression. With control for affective empathy, cognitive empathy
was associated with indirect aggression. Results suggest that empathy training based on specific deficits
may be helpful in intervention and prevention of sp
ecific aggressive behaviors.


Hawaii

Med

J.

2011 Jul;70(7 Suppl 1):4
-
10.

Adolescent at
-
risk weight (overweight and obesity) prevalence in
Hawai'i.

Nigg

C
,

Shor

B
,

Tanaka

CY
,

Hayes

DK
.

Source

Joh
n A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i, Honolulu, HI, USA. cnigg@hawaii.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To present prevalence rates of adolescents in Hawai'i at
-
risk weight (85 percentile or higher = overweight
or obese) and the relationship with
comorbidities.

METHODS:

The Hawai'i Youth Risk Behavior Survey aggregated for 2005, 2007, and 2009 was analyzed addressing
at
-
risk weight prevalence by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade. Comorbidities were related to at
-
risk weight
using regression.

RESULTS:

Over 1/4 of Hawai'i adolescents were at
-
risk weight. There were no differences by grade, but boys had
higher prevalence (31.0%) than girls (22.4%). Overall, Other Pacific Islanders and Hawaiians had the
highest prevalence (43.9% and 37.4%, respectively), f
ollowed by multi
-
race (27.1%), Filipino (25.7%),
and Whites with the lowest (16.1%). Most associations between at
-
risk weight and various co
-
morbidities
(including sexual behavior, nutrition, physical activity, mental health,

bullying
, alcohol, and other
drug use)
were not significant (p>.05). However, girls and boys trying to lose weight; and boys with 3+ hours of
screen time (TV, video, or computer games) each day were at increased odds of at
-
risk weight (p<.05).

CONCLUSION:

Adolescent gender and ethnic
disparities exist such that a single intervention approach (one size fits all)
may be counterproductive. More research is required on the determinants and mechanisms to guide
weight management interventions.


Dev

Psychol.

2011 Jul;47(4):1090
-
107. doi: 10.1037/a0023769.

Adolescents' implicit theories predict desire for vengeance after
peer conflicts: correlational and experimental evidence.

Yeager

DS
,

Trzesniewski

KH
,

Tirri

K
,

Nokelainen

P
,

Dweck

CS
.

Source

School of Education and Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. dyeager@stanford.edu

Abstract

Why do some adolescents respond to interpersonal conflicts vengefully, whereas others seek more
positive solutions? Three studies investigated the role of implicit theories of personality in predicting
violent or vengeful responses to peer conflicts among
adolescents in Grades 9 and 10. They showed that
a greater belief that traits are fixed (an entity theory) predicted a stronger desire for revenge after a
variety of recalled peer conflicts (Study 1) and after a hypothetical conflict that specifically
invo
lved

bullying

(Study 2). Study 3 experimentally induced a belief in the potential for change (an
incremental theory), which resulted in a reduced desire to seek revenge. This effect was mediated by
changes in bad
-
person attributions about the perpetrators,

feelings of shame and hatred, and the belief
that vengeful ideation is an effective emotion
-
regulation strategy. Together, the findings illuminate the
social
-
cognitive processes underlying reactions to conflict and suggest potential avenues for reducing
v
iolent retaliation in adolescents.


Child

Adolesc

Psychiatr

Clin

N

Am.

2011 Jul;20(3):447
-
65. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2011.03.004.

Corner
ed: an approach to school

bullying

and cyberbullying, and
forensic implications.

Bostic

JQ
,

Brunt

CC
.

Source

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA. jbostic@partners.org

Abstract

Bullying

is an abuse of power and control that can cause significant harm to individuals. School systems
have the difficult task of trying to police this behavior to maintain a safe learning environment for their
students. Although there may be an
identified bully, the ramifications of the behavior affect the system as
a whole. Bullies, targeted victims, and bystanders play an integral role in ameliorating this problem. A
change of culture within the school system is often the best, yet often the mo
st difficult, intervention. In
addition, cyberbullying has become a powerful avenue for

bullying
, resulting in significant morbidity within
schools.


Can

J

Public

Health.

2011 Jul
-
Aug;102(4):258
-
63.

Prevalence and risk indicators of depressed mood in on
-
reserve
first nations youth.

Lemstra

ME
,

Rogers

MR
,

Thompson

AT
,

Redgate

L
,

Garner

M
,

Tempier

R
,

Moraros

JS
.

Source

Department of Psychiatry, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK. mark.lemstra@usask.ca

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The first objective
was to determine the prevalence of depressive mood in First Nations youth in school
grades 5 through 8 in seven on
-
reserve communities. The second objective was to determine the
unadjusted and adjusted risk indicators associated with depressed mood in thes
e youth.

METHODS:

Students in grades 5 through 8 in the seven reserve communities of the Saskatoon Tribal Council were
asked to complete a paper and pencil, comprehensive youth health survey in May 2010. An eight
-
stage
consent protocol was followed prior
to participation.

RESULTS:

Out of 271 students eligible to participate, 204 youth completed the survey for a response rate of 75.3%.
Using the Center for Epidemiological Studies of Depression scale, 25% of the youth had moderate
depressive symptoms. After
cross
-
tabulation, 1 socioeconomic variable, 10 social variables, 3 social
support variables, 1 self
-
esteem variable, 5 parental relationship variables and 3

bullying

variables were
associated with depressed mood. Logistic regression was used to determine f
our independent risk
indicators associated with having depressed mood in First Nations youth, including: 1) not having worked
through things that happened during childhood, 2) not having someone who shows love and affection, 3)
having a lot of arguments wi
th parents and 4) being physically bullied at least once per week.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our study found high rates of depressed mood in on
-
reserve First Nations youth. These youth are now at
increased risk for problems later in life unless successful interventions

can be implemented.


Sleep

Med.

2011 Aug;12(7):652
-
8. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2010.11.012. Epub 2011 May 26.

Aggressive behavior,

bullying
, snoring, and sleepiness in
schoolchildren.

O'Brien

LM
,

Lucas

NH
,

Felt

BT
,

Hoban

TF
,

Ruzicka

DL
,

Jordan

R
,

Guire

K
,

Chervin

RD
.

Source

Sleep
Disorders Center, Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109
-
0845, USA.
louiseo@med.umich.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

To assess whether urban schoolchildren with aggressive behavior are more likely than peers to have
symptoms
suggestive of sleep
-
disordered breathing.

METHODS:

Cross
-
sectional survey of sleep and behavior in schoolchildren. Validated screening assessments for
conduct problems (Connor's rating scale),

bullying

behavior, and sleep
-
disordered breathing (pediatric
sl
eep questionnaire) were completed by parents. Teachers completed Connor's teacher rating scale.

RESULTS:

Among 341 subjects (51% female), 110 (32%) were rated by a parent or teacher as having a conduct
problem (T
-
score

65) and 78 (23%) had symptoms sugges
tive of sleep
-
disordered breathing. Children
with conduct problems,

bullying
, or discipline referrals, in comparison to non
-
aggressive peers, more
often had symptoms suggestive of sleep
-
disordered breathing (each p<0.05). Children with vs. without
conduct
problems were more likely to snore habitually (p<0.5). However, a sleepiness subscale alone,
and not a snoring subscale, predicted conduct problems after accounting for age, gender, a measure of
socioeconomic status, and stimulant use.

CONCLUSIONS:

Urban s
choolchildren with aggressive behaviors may have symptoms of sleep
-
disordered breathing with
disproportionate frequency. Sleepiness may impair emotional regulation necessary to control aggression.


Psychol

Rep.

2011 Aug;109(1):167
-
8.

Higher rates of victimization to physical abuse by adults found
among victims of school

bullying
.

Björkqvist

K
,

Osterman

K
,

Berg

P
.

Source

Abo Akademi University, Vasa, Finland. kaj.bjorkqvist@abo.fi

Abstract

Retrospective reports of exposure to physical abuse by an adult during childhood was
assessed in 874
adolescents (426 boys, 448 girls; M age = 11.5 yr., SD = 0.8) who also reported whether they had been
victimized by school

bullying
. Having been hit by an adult was significantly more common among victims
of school

bullying

(39.5%) than amo
ng adolescents not victimized by school

bullying

(16.8%). No sex
difference was found. The finding raises questions about whether victimization by physical abuse puts a
child at greater risk for developing a "victim personality".


J

Youth

Adolesc.

2011 Aug;40(8):1052
-
67. doi: 10.1007/s10964
-
011
-
9639
-
5. Epub 2011 Mar 4.

Specifying type and location of peer victimization in a national
sample of children and youth.

Turner

HA
,

Finkelhor

D
,

Hamby

SL
,

Shattuck

A
,

Ormrod

RK
.

Source

Crimes Against Children Research Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA.
heather.turner@unh.edu

Abstract

Much of the existing research on the prevalence and consequences of peer victimization focuses on
"
bullying
" at school, often omitting from consideration non
-
bullying

types of peer victimization as well as
events that occur
outside of school. The purpose of this study was to examine past
-
year exposure to
peer
-
perpetrated victimization, occurring both within and outside of school contexts, among school
-
aged
children in the United States. The study is based on a representative
sample of 2,999 youth ages 6
-
17
(50% female; 45% non
-
white) from the 2008 National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence
(NatSCEV). Findings revealed age, gender, race, and family structure variations in many forms of peer
victimization and demonstrate
d significant independent and cumulative effects of six different types of
peer victimization (physical assault, physical intimidation, emotional victimization, sexual victimization,
property crime, and internet harassment) on trauma symptoms. Findings als
o showed that, although
victimization at school is substantial, a considerable proportion of peer victimizations occur away from
school contexts. The findings highlight the importance of comprehensive measurement of multiple forms
of peer victimization tha
t occur both at school and elsewhere, rather than focusing exclusively on
traditional measures of school
-
focused

bullying
.


J

Sch

Psychol.

2011 Aug;49(4):385
-
98.

doi: 10.1016/j.jsp.2011.04.002. Epub 2011 Apr 20.

Parental strategies and trajectories of peer victimization in 4 to 5
year olds.

Bonnet

M
,

Goossens

FA
,

Schuengel

C
.

Source

Department of Clinical Child and Family Studies, Faculty of Psychology and Education, EMGO Institute for Health and Care
Research, VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands. m.bonnet@psy.vu.nl

Abstract

This study was designed to examine how parental
strategies contribute to explaining trajectories of peer
victimization in young children. A total of 73 4 and 5 year old children identified as victims of peer
aggression in the fall semester and their parents were recruited from 46 classrooms in 18 school
s in the
Netherlands. All children were followed
-
up twice in order to determine for whom victimization was stable.
Hypothetical vignettes describing various forms of victimization were presented to one parent of each
child in order to assess parental respo
nses to victimization events. Findings indicated that autonomy
supporting and autonomy neutral strategies were associated with a decrease of victimization in the first
semester of the school year. No protective effects were found in the second semester. Au
tonomy
undermining strategies were not related to the course of peer victimization. These findings underscore the
importance of joint and coordinated efforts of teachers and parents as partners in supporting victimized
young children at school.


J

Sch

Psychol.

2011 Aug;49(4):443
-
64. doi: 10.1016/j.jsp.2011.04.005. Epub 2011 May 18.

Stability of peer victimization in early adolescence: effects of
timing and duratio
n.

Rueger

SY
,

Malecki

CK
,

Demaray

MK
.

Source

Northern Illinois University, Department of Psychology, DeKalb, IL, USA. syurueger@gmail.com

Abstract

The current study inv
estigated the stability of peer victimization and the impact of the timing and duration
of victimization on psychological and academic outcomes for boys and girls on a sample of 863 middle
school students. Results demonstrated strong support for the onset
hypothesis and concurrent effects of
maladjustment in anxiety, depression, self
-
esteem, poor school attitude, GPA, and attendance. Support
for the cessation hypothesis was mixed, depending on the outcome and gender: boys demonstrated
recovery from internal
izing distress, whereas girls demonstrated residual effects, even after the cessation
of victimization. Girls also demonstrated residual effects of victimization on grades, and both boys and
girls evidenced residual effects of victimization on attendance.
Regarding duration of victimization, there
was strong support for the life
-
events model of stress and coping across almost all outcomes, suggesting
that even temporary experiences of victimization could have a negative impact on psychological and
academic
outcomes. Overall, results demonstrated the importance of considering the timing and duration
of victimization in understanding the risks and damaging effects of victimization. The results from this
study also highlight both the need and the potential to i
ntervene during early adolescence when peer
relationships are taking on increasing importance, as well as the importance of helping students regain
social
-
emotional and academic functioning, even after victimization ceases.


J

Adolesc.

2011 Aug;34(4):639
-
52. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2010.09.008.
Epub 2010 Dec 17.

Negative school perceptions and involvement in school

bullying
: a
universal r
elationship across 40 countries.

Harel
-
Fisch

Y
,

Walsh

SD
,

Fogel
-
Grinvald

H
,

Amitai

G
,

Pickett

W
,

Molcho

M
,

Due

P
,

de

Matos

MG
,

Craig

W
;

Members

of

the

HBSC

Violence

and

Injury

Prevention

Focus

Group
.

Collaborators

(7)

Source

The International Research Program on Adolescent Well
-
Being and Health, School of Education, Bar Ilan University, Ramat
Gan, Israel.

Abstract

Cross
-
national analyses explore the consistency of

the relationship between negative school experiences
and involvement in

bullying

across 40 European and North American countries, using the 2006 (40
countries n = 197,502) and 2002 (12 countries, n = 57,007) WHO
-
HBSC surveys. Measures include two
Cumulati
ve Negative School Perception (CNSP) scales, one based on 6 mandatory items (2006) and
another including an additional 11 items (2002). Outcome measures included

bullying

perpetration,
victimization and involvement as both bully and victim. Logistic regres
sion analyses suggested that
children with only 2
-
3 negative school perceptions, experience twice the relative odds of being involved
in

bullying
as compared with children with no negative school perceptions. Odds Ratios (p < 0.001)
increase in a graded fas
hion according to the CNSP, from about 2.2 to over 8.0. Similar consistent effects
are found across gender and almost all countries. Further research should focus on the mechanisms and
social context of these relationships.


Int

J

Public

Health.

2011 Aug;56(4):419
-
27. doi: 10.1007/s00038
-
011
-
0258
-
4. Epub 2011 May 5.

Experiences of violence among adolescents: gender patterns
in
types, perpetrators and associated psychological distress.

Landstedt

E
,

Gillander

Gådin

K
.

Source

Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall. evelina.landstedt@miun.se

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To explore the psychological distress associations of
experiences of several types of violence and the
victim
-
perpetrator relationship of physical violence, a gender analysis was applied.

METHODS:

Data were derived from a cross
-
sectional questionnaire study among 17
-
year
-
old upper secondary school
students
(N

=

1,663). Variables in focus were: self
-
reported psychological distress, experiences of
physical violence, sexual assault,

bullying

and sexual harassment. Logistic regressions were used to
examine associations.

RESULTS:

Experiences of physical violence,

sexual assault,

bullying

and sexual harassment were associated with
psychological distress in boys and girls. The perpetrators of physical violence were predominately males.
Whether the perpetrator was unknown or known to the victim seem to be linked to p
sychological distress.
Victimisation by a boyfriend was strongly related to psychological distress among girls.

CONCLUSIONS:

Experiences of several types of violence should be highlighted as factors associated with mental health
problems in adolescents. Th
e victim
-
perpetrator relationships of violence are gendered and likely
influence the psychological distress association. Gendered hierarchies and norms likely influence the
extent to which adolescents experience violence and how they respond to it in terms

of psychological
distress.


Indian

J

Pediatr.

2011 Aug;78(8):987
-
92. doi: 10.1007/s12098
-
010
-
0350
-
4. Epub 2011 Jan 11.

Prevalence of peer

bullying

in high
school students in Turkey and
the roles of socio
-
cultural and demographic factors in
the

bullying

cycle.

Arslan

S
,

Savaser

S
,

Yazgan

Y
.

Source

Department of Nursing, School

of Health, Duzce University, Duzce, Turkey. sevdaarslan@duzce.edu.tr

Abstract

This research was conducted as a descriptive and relational study to determine the frequency
of

bullying

among high school students and the relationships between some of their
characteristics and
their roles in the

bullying

cycle. The research data were obtained from 1670 students in the 9th and 10th
grades of six high schools in Istanbul province. The data were analyzed with percentage distribution, Chi
square, t test, correlat
ion and Tukey test.The Determination of Peer

Bullying

Scale and a Personal
Information Form were used for data collection in the research. According to the Determination of
Peer

Bullying

Scale 17% of the students were in a

bullying

cycle (5.3% as bully, 5.
9% as victim, and 5.8%
as both bully and victim). The boys used more direct methods of

bullying

and girls more indirect methods
of

bullying
. The rate of

bullying

behavior was also higher in boys and being a victim was higher in girls;
the majority of the g
irls were bullied by girls and the majority of the boys were bullied by boys. More of
those involved in

bullying

incidents had unexcused absenteeism from school and stated that they did not
like school. The results obtained from this research show that the

prevalence of

bullying

in high schools in
Turkey is similar to the results in other countries. Determination of the causative factors that support and
maintain

bullying

behavior for implementation of prevention programs is required.


Child

Psychiatry

Hum

Dev.

2011 Aug;42(4):495
-
506. doi: 10.1007/s10578
-
011
-
0222
-
9.

Is exposure to domestic violence and violent crime associated
with

bullying

behaviour
among underage adolescent psychiatric
inpatients?

Mustanoja

S
,

Luukkonen

AH
,

Hakko

H
,

Räsänen

P
,

Säävälä

H
,

Riala

K
;

STUDY
-
70

workgroup
.

Collaborators

(13)

Source

Department of Psychiatry, University of Oulu, Finland.

Abstract

We examined the relationship of exposure to domestic violence and violence

occurring outside home
to

bullying

behaviour in a sample (508; 40.9% males, 59.1% females) of underage psychiatric inpatient
adolescents. Participants were interviewed using K
-
SADS
-
PL to assess DSM
-
IV psychiatric diagnoses
and to gather information about
domestic and other violence and

bullying

behaviour. Witnessing
interparental violence increased the risk of being a victim of

bullying

up to 2.5
-
fold among boys. For girls,
being a victim of a violent crime was an over 10
-
fold risk factor for being a bully
-
victim. Gender
differences were seen in witnessing of a violent crime; girls were more likely to be bullies than boys.
Further, as regards being a victim of a violent crime outside home and physical abuse by parents at
home, girls were significantly more
often bully
-
victims than boys. When interfering and
preventing

bullying

behaviour, it is important to screen adolescents' earlier experiences of violence.


Am

J

Public

Health.

2011 Aug;101(8):1481
-
94. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2009.190009. Epub 2011 Jun 16.

A meta
-
analysis of disparities in childhood sexual abuse,
parental physical abuse, and peer victimization among sexual
minority and sexual nonminority individuals
.

Friedman

MS
,

Marshal

MP
,

Guadamuz

TE
,

Wei

C
,

Wong

CF
,

Saewyc

E
,

Stall

R
.

Source

Department of Behavioral and Community Health Sciences and the Center for Research on Health and Sexual Orientation,
Graduate Scho
ol of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. msf11@pitt.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

We compared the likelihood of childhood sexual abuse (under age 18), parental physical abuse, and peer
victimization based on sexual orientation.

METHODS:

We conducted a meta
-
analysis of adolescent school
-
based studies that compared the likelihood of
childhood abuse among sexual minorities vs sexual nonminorities.

RESULTS:

Sexual minority individuals were on average 3.8, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.4 times more

likely to experience sexual
abuse, parental physical abuse, or assault at school or to miss school through fear, respectively.
Moderation analysis showed that disparities between sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals
were larger for (1) males

than females for sexual abuse, (2) females than males for assault at school, and
(3) bisexual than gay and lesbian for both parental physical abuse and missing school through fear.
Disparities did not change between the 1990s and the 2000s.

CONCLUSIONS:

T
he higher rates of abuse experienced by sexual minority youths may be one of the driving mechanisms
underlying higher rates of mental health problems, substance use, risky sexual behavior, and HIV
reported by sexual minority adults.


AIDS

Patient

Care

STDS.

2011 Aug;25 Suppl 1:S39
-
45. doi: 10.1089/apc.2011.9877. Epub 2011 Jun 20.

Racial and sexual identity
-
related maltreatment among minority
YMSM
: prevalence, perceptions, and the association with
emotional distress.

Hightow
-
Weidman

LB
,

Phillips

G

2nd
,

Jones

KC
,

Outlaw

AY
,

Fields

SD
,

Smith

JC
;

YMSM

of

Color

SPNS

Initiative

Study

Group
.

Source

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. lisa_hightow@med.unc.edu

Abstract

Bullying

is a form of violence characterized as an aggressive behavior that is unprovoked and intended to
cause harm. Prior studies have found that
lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth
experience high levels of

bullying

related to their sexuality and this harassment can lead to engagement
in risk behaviors, depression, and suicide. Ethnic/racial minority young men who have sex with men

(YMSM) may experience dual levels of stigma and maltreatment due to both their sexuality and their race.
The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence and perceptions of racial and sexual identity
-
based abuse among a sample of minority YMSM, a
nd whether this maltreatment plays a role in the
emotional distress of these youth. We found that overall 36% and 85% of participants experienced racial
and sexuality
-
related

bullying
, respectively. There was a significant association between experiencing
a
high level of sexuality
-
related

bullying

and depressive symptomatology (p=0.03), having attempted
suicide (p=0.03), and reporting parental abuse (p=0.05). We found no association between
racial

bullying

and suicide attempts. In a multivariable logistic r
egression model, experiencing any
racial

bullying

and high sexuality
-
related

bullying

were significant predictors of having a CES
-
D score ≥16;
adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.83 and 2.29, respectively. These findings contribute to the existing literature
regard
ing the negative experiences and daily stressors facing LGBT youth with regard to both their
minority status and LGBT identities. Future interventions for racial/ethnic minority YMSM should provide
assistance to achieve a positive view of self that encompa
sses both their racial and sexual identities.


Brain

Res

Bull.

2011 Aug 10;86(1
-
2):123
-
8. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2011.06.009. Epub 2011 Jun 30.

Adolescent social

defeat alters markers of adult dopaminergic
function.

Novick

AM
,

Forster

GL
,

Tejani
-
Butt

SM
,

Watt

MJ
.

Source

Neuroscience Group, Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota,
Vermillio
n, 57069
-
2390, USA.

Abstract

Stressful experiences during adolescence can alter the trajectory of neural development and contribute to
psychiatric disorders in adulthood. We previously demonstrated that adolescent male rats exposed to
repeated social
defeat stress show changes in mesocorticolimbic dopamine content both at baseline and
in response to amphetamine when tested in adulthood. In the present study we examined whether
markers of adult dopamine function are also compromised by adolescent experi
ence of social defeat.
Given that the dopamine transporter as well as dopamine D1 receptors act as regulators of
psychostimulant action, are stress sensitive and undergo changes during adolescence, quantitative
autoradiography was used to measure [(3)H]
-
GB
R12935 binding to the dopamine transporter and [(3)H]
-
SCH23390 binding to dopamine D1 receptors, respectively. Our results indicate that social defeat during
adolescence led to higher dopamine transporter binding in the infralimbic region of the medial pre
frontal
cortex and higher dopamine D1 receptor binding in the caudate putamen, while other brain regions
analyzed were comparable to controls. Thus it appears that social defeat during adolescence causes
specific changes to the adult dopamine system, which

may contribute to behavioral alterations and
increased drug seeking.


J

Youth

Adolesc.

2011 Sep;40(9):1106
-
17. doi: 10.1007/s10964
-
011
-
9684
-
0. Epub 2011 Jun

12.

Early adolescent peer ecologies in rural communities:

bullying

in
schools that do and do not have a transition during the middle
grades.

Farmer

TW
,

Hamm

JV
,

Leung

MC
,

Lambert

K
,

Gravelle

M
.

Sourc
e

Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA. twf2@psu.edu

Abstract

The transition to middle school is considered to be a heightened period for involvement
in

bullying

because the lack of a defined dominance hierarchy is thought to promote
jockeying for social
positions among students. Accordingly, this study examined

bullying

in peer ecologies at the beginning of
the middle grade years in rural schools that did and did not have a transition to middle school. Thirty
-
six
schools (20 with tran
sitions, 16 without transitions) participated in this research with a sample of 1,800
participants (52% female) who were in sixth grade during the second year of data collection. Overall, 67%
were White, 19% African American, 7% Latino, 2% Native American,

and 5% other (multi
-
racial, Asian,
unknown). Compared to schools without a transition, schools with a transition had fewer bullies following
the move from fifth to sixth grade and the social dynamics in schools with a transition appeared to be less
suppor
tive of

bullying
. Further, students in schools with a transition reported being bullied less frequently
in sixth grade and they perceived the sixth grade peer ecology as being more protective
against

bullying

than did students in schools without a transiti
on. In addition, proportionally more youth
had controversial sociometric status in schools without a transition during sixth grade than in schools with
a transition. Collectively, these findings suggest that risk for involvement in

bullying

may be elevated

in
schools that do not have a transition to middle school. They also bring into question the conventional view
of the small K
-
8 or K
-
12 rural school as a peaceful and supportive peer community
.


J

Sch

Health.

2011 Sep;81(9):552
-
9. doi: 10.1111/j.1746
-
1561.2011.00626.x.

Frequent fliers, school phobias, and the sick student: school
health personnel's percept
ions of students who refuse school.

Torrens

Armstrong

AM
,

McCormack

Brown

KR
,

Brindley

R
,

Coreil

J
,

Mc
Dermott

RJ
.

Source

Navarre, FL 32566, USA. bandaarmstrong@gmail.com

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

This study explored school personnel's perceptions of school refusal, as it has been described as a
"common educational and public health problem" that is less
tolerated due to increasing awareness of the
potential socioeconomic consequences of this phenomenon.

METHODS:

In
-
depth interviews were conducted with school personnel at the middle school (N = 42), high school (N =
40), and district levels (N = 10). The f
indings focus on emergent themes from interviews with school
health personnel (N = 12), particularly those themes related to their perceptions of and role in working
with school
-
refusing students.

RESULTS:

Personnel, especially school health services staff
, constructed a typification of the school
-
refusing student
as "the sick student," which conceptualized student refusal due to reasons related to illness. Personnel
further delineated sick students by whether they considered the illness legitimate. School
health
personnel referenced the infamous "frequent fliers" and "school phobics" within this categorization of
students. Overarching dynamics of this typification included parental control, parental awareness, student
locus of control, blame, and victim sta
tus. These typifications influenced how personnel reacted to
students they encountered, particularly in deciding which students need "help" versus "discipline," thus
presenting implications for students and screening of students.

CONCLUSIONS:

Overall, find
ings suggest school health personnel play a pivotal role in screening students who are
refusing school as well as keeping students in school, underscoring policy that supports an increased
presence of school health personnel. Recommendations for school hea
lth, prevention, and early
intervention include the development of screening protocols and staff training.


J

Pediatr

Psychol.

2011 Sep;36(8):868
-
77. doi: 10.
1093/jpepsy/jsr025. Epub 2011 Jun 17.

Longitudinal associations among peer victimization and physical
and mental health problems.

Biebl

SJ
,

Dilalla

LF
,

Davis

EK
,

Lynch

KA
,

Shinn

SO
.

Source

School of
Medicine, Southern Illinois University, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

This study examined how chronic experiences of peer victimization throughout childhood relate to mental
and physical health outcomes in adolescence.

METHODS:

Children were tested in a laborat
ory playroom at the age of 5 years. They completed questionnaires at
time 2, between the ages of 10 and 18 years, and a telephone interview at time 3, between the ages of 12
and 20 years. A total of 70 youth participated at all three time periods. Chronic
victims were defined as
having high levels of peer victimization at all three time points.

RESULTS:

Youth who were chronically victimized reported experiencing significantly more mental and physical
health problems than youth categorized as desisters or
nonvictims. Also, for girls only, chronic victims
reported more specific health problems (headaches, sleep problems) than did nonchronic victims.

CONCLUSIONS:

The present findings may assist health professionals in assessing and treating physical and menta
l health
problems that appear to be related to peer victimization.


J

Interpers

Violence.

2011 Sep;26(13):2619
-
34. doi: 10.1177/0886260510388286. Epub 2010
Dec 13.

Normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator of narcissistic
exploitativeness and cyberbullying.

Ang

RP
,

Tan

KA
,

Talib

Mansor

A
.

So
urce

Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. rpang@ntu.edu.sg

Abstract

The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic
exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapor
e and Malaysia.
Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative
beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs about aggression were significantly and positively
associated with cyberbullying. Norm
ative beliefs about aggression were a significant partial mediator in
both samples; these beliefs about aggression served as one possible mechanism of action by which
narcissistic exploitativeness could exert its influence on cyberbullying. Findings extend
ed previous
empirical research by showing that such beliefs can be the mechanism of action not only in offline but
also in online contexts and across cultures. Cyberbullying prevention and intervention efforts should
include modification of norms and belie
fs supportive of the legitimacy and acceptability of cyberbullying.


J

Adolesc

Health.

2011
Sep;49(3):294
-
9. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2010.12.018. Epub 2011 Feb 18.

Peer relational victimization and somatic complaints during
adolescence.

Nixon

CL
,

Linkie

CA
,

Co
leman

PK
,

Fitch

C
.

Source

Department of Psychology, Penn State Erie, The Behrend College, Erie, Pennsylvania 16563, USA. cln5@psu.edu

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To develop effective prevention and intervention efforts that optimize adolescent health, factors must be
identified that affect health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between
somatic symptomatology and experienc
es with relational victimization (RV).

METHODS:

We prospectively tested the unique role of relational peer victimization in predicting adolescents' somatic
complaints (SC), while accounting for their previous physical symptoms and peer victimization
experi
ences (i.e., relational and physical victimization), as well as concurrent experiences with physical
victimization (PV). Questionnaires were administered to 1,595 students (52% females) from eight schools
in one school district (grades, 5
-
8) in the Midwest
ern part of the United States during the fall and spring
sessions of the academic school year. Self
-
reported measures included demographic characteristics,
victimization experiences, and assessment of SC.

RESULTS:

RV was a unique predictor of increased som
atic symptoms, even after controlling for adolescents' sex,
grade level, initial SC, previous victimization experiences, and concurrent experiences with PV. Notably,
RV was a stronger predictor of somatic symptoms than was PV.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings und
erscore the need for a comprehensive approach when addressing adolescents' physical
health symptoms. Adolescents may benefit from clinicians looking beyond the obvious and using gentle
probing to uncover how unique experiences with RV may be associated wit
h overall health.


Int

J

Offender

Ther

Comp

Criminol.

2011 Sep;55(6):846
-
62. doi: 10.1177/0306624X10374638. Epub 2010 Ju
l
16.

Program effectiveness of a Restorative Whole
-
school Approach
for tackling school

bullying

in Hong Kong.

Wong

DS
,

Cheng

CH
,

Ngan

RM
,

Ma

SK
.

Source

City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, China. dennis.wong@cityu.edu.hk

Abstract

With

bullying

in schools high on policy makers' agendas,
researchers are looking for effective strategies
to tackle its disruptive effects. The present study sets out to address this issue. First, the prevalence
of

bullying

is examined in Hong Kong High Schools, and second, the effectiveness of a Restorative
Who
le
-
school Approach (RWsA) in reducing

bullying

is examined in a quasi
-
experimental design. The
RWsA emphasizes the setting up of restorative goals, clear instructions, team building, and good
relationships among students, parents, and teachers. Over the co
urse of 2 years, and across four
schools, the effectiveness of this program was observed by comparing an intervention group with a partial
intervention group (which did not receive the full treatment) and a control group (which received no
treatment whatso
ever). The group that received the RWsA treatment exhibited a significant reduction
of

bullying
, higher empathic attitudes, and higher self
-
esteem in comparison to the partial intervention and
the control group.

Child

Care

Health

Dev.

2011 Sep;37(5):692
-
702. doi: 10.1111/j.1365
-
2214.2010.01181.x. Epub 2010 Dec
28.

Peer relationships and suicide ideation and attempts among
Chinese adolescents.

Cui

S
,

Cheng

Y
,

Xu

Z
,

Chen

D
,

Wang

Y
.

Source

Department of Child, Adolescent and Women's Health, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Suicide is a global h
ealth concern. Therefore, studying suicide behaviour and identifying the early roots of
suicide are critical. To address these issues, the present study examined (i) the association between peer
relationships and suicide ideation and attempts among Chinese

adolescents; and (ii) whether such
associations were moderated or mediated by feeling of loneliness. We hypothesized that problems in
peer relationships were positively associated with suicide ideation and attempts, and that feeling of
loneliness would mo
derate and mediate such associations.

METHODS:

The sample included 8778 Chinese adolescents from a large survey. Measures of peer relationships,
suicide ideation and attempts, and feeling of loneliness were obtained through adolescents' self
-
reports.

RESULTS:

Results from multivariate logistic regressions suggested that specific problems in peer relationships, such
as lack of peer association and being victimized by

bullying
, were significantly related to suicide ideation
and attempts. In addition, the

moderating effects of feeling of loneliness on the association between peer
relationships and suicide ideation and attempts were found. Finally, some gender effects were also found.

CONCLUSIONS:

The present study provided strong evidence that suicide
ideation and attempts were serious problems
among adolescents in China, to which peer relationships played an important role. Further, feeling of
loneliness acted as a moderator affecting the association between peer relationships and suicide ideation
and
attempts. Finally, there were some gender differences that have important implications.


Br

J

Educ

Psychol.

2011 Sep;81(Pt 3):409
-
20. doi: 10.13
48/000709910X525804. Epub 2011 Mar 7.

Gender differences in the relationships between

bullying

at school
and unhealthy eating and shape
-
related attitudes and
behaviours.

Farrow

CV
,

Fox

CL
.

Source

School
of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, UK. c.v.farrow@lboro.ac.uk

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Previous research has found links between being a victim of

bullying

and reporting more
unhealthy eating behaviours and cognitions, particularly in girls. However, little is known about the factors
that might mediate these relationships. AIM. The present study compared the relationships
between

bullying
, emotional adjustme
nt, restrained eating, and body dissatisfaction in adolescent boys
and girls. SAMPLE/METHOD. Self
-
report data were collected from a sample of 11
-

to 14
-
year
-
olds (N=
376) on experiences of

bullying
, emotional symptoms, and unhealthy eating and shape
-
relate
d attitudes
and behaviours. RESULTS.

Bullying
, emotional symptoms, restrained eating, and body dissatisfaction
were all correlated. Emotional symptoms were found to significantly mediate the relationships between
verbal

bullying

with body dissatisfaction i
n girls but not in boys. CONCLUSIONS. Findings suggest that
the experience of being verbally bullied places adolescent girls at risk of developing emotional problems
which can then lead to body dissatisfaction. Longitudinal research is necessary to disenta
ngle these
pathways in more detail to facilitate the development of informed interventions to support children who
are being bullied.


Body

Image.

2011 Sep;8(4):309
-
14. doi: 10.10
16/j.bodyim.2011.04.010. Epub 2011 Jun 12.

On being victimized by peers in the advent of adolescence:
prospective relationships to objectified body consciousness.

Lunde

C
,

Frisén

A
.

Source

Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
carolina.lunde@psy.gu.se

Abstract

Previous research indicates that peer victimization is tied to children's negative appearance evaluations.
The current study examines whether early peer victimization is also prospectively related to objectified
body consc
iousness. Six
-
hundred
-
and
-
two Swedish boys and girls answered questionnaires at age 10,
and again at age 18. Main findings showed that being the target of peer victimization at age 10 was
related to more habitual appearance monitoring and body shame at age

18. Gender moderated the
relations between victimization and body shame, with victimized girls experiencing stronger body shame
than victimized boys. Additionally, whereas boys experienced less body shame than girls, they were
equally likely to monitor th
eir appearance. In sum, this study provides preliminary support to the notion
that peer victimization is involved in the processes by which young adolescents' self
-
objectify. Future
studies are warranted to further validate these findings.


BMC

Public

Health.

2011 Sep 1;11:680. doi: 10.1186/1471
-
2458
-
11
-
680.

The Sydney playground project: popping the bubblewrap
--
unleashing the power of play: a cluster randomized

controlled
trial of a primary school playground
-
based intervention aiming to
increase children's physical activity and social skills.

Bundy

AC
,

Naughton

G
,

Tranter

P
,

Wyver

S
,

Baur

L
,

Schiller

W
,

Bauman

A
,

Engelen

L
,

Ragen

J
,

Luckett

T
,

Niehues

A
,

Stewart

G
,

Jessup

G
,

Brentnall

J
.

Source

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Lidcombe, Australia. anita.bundy@sydney.edu.au

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

In the Westernised world,
numerous children are overweight and have problems with

bullying

and mental
health. One of the underlying causes for all three is postulated to be a decrease in outdoor free play. The
aim of the Sydney Playground Project is to demonstrate the effectiveness

of two simple interventions
aimed to increase children's physical activity and social skills.

METHODS/DESIGN:

This study protocol describes the design of a 3
-
year cluster randomised controlled trial (CRCT), in which
schools are the clusters. The study con
sists of a 13
-
week intervention and 1 week each of pre
-
and post
-
testing. We are recruiting 12 schools (6 control; 6 intervention), with 18 randomly chosen participants
aged 5 to 7 years in each school. The two intervention strategies are: (1) Child
-
based i
ntervention:
Unstructured materials with no obvious play value introduced to the playground; and (2) Adult
-
based
intervention: Risk reframing sessions held with parents and teachers with the aim of exploring the benefits
of allowing children to engage in a
ctivities with uncertain outcomes. The primary outcome of the study,
physical activity as measured by accelerometer counts, is assessed at baseline and post
-
intervention.
Additional assessments include social skills and interactions, self
-
concept, after sc
hool time use and
anthropometric data. Qualitative data (i.e., transcriptions of audio recordings from the risk reframing
sessions and of interviews with selected teacher and parent volunteers) are analysed to understand their
perceptions of risk in play.
The control schools have recess as usual. In addition to outcome evaluation,
regular process evaluation sessions are held to monitor fidelity to the treatment.

DISCUSSION:

These simple interventions, which could be adopted in every primary school, have the

potential of
initiating a self
-
sustaining cycle of prevention for childhood obesity,

bullying

and mental ill health.


Behav

Sci

Law.

2011 Sep
-
Oct;29(5):677
-
94.

doi: 10.1002/bsl.1000. Epub 2011 Jul 24.

Gender differences in the assessment, stability, and correlates
to

bullying

roles in middle school children.

Crapanzano

AM
,

Frick

PJ
,

Childs

K
,

Terranova

AM
.

Sour
ce

Department of Psychology, Loyola University.

Abstract

The current study investigated

bullying

behaviors in 284 school children in the fourth through seventh
grades at the time of the initial assessment. Peer ratings of

bullying

behavior were obtained at

the end of
the spring semester of one school year and at the end of the fall semester of the next school year.
Importantly, peer ratings were obtained by assessing not only the level at which participants actually bully
other students but also whether par
ticipants help bullies to hurt the victim (assister), encourage bullies
(reinforce), or help the victim of

bullying

(defender). Our results did not support the utility of differentiating
between bullies, assisters, or reinforcers. Specifically, these

bully
ing

roles were highly intercorrelated,
both concurrently and across school years, and they showed similar correlations with aggression and
several characteristics often associated with aggression (i.e., conduct problems, callous
-
unemotional
traits, and pos
itive expectancies about aggression). In contrast, ratings of defending designated a
particularly prosocial group of students. Finally, whereas

bullying

appeared to be very similar in boys and
girls, it was somewhat more stable across school years and was
related to lower levels of prosocial
behavior in boys, both of which could suggest that

bullying

may be somewhat more related to social
group dynamics in girls.


Suicide

Life

Threat

Behav.

2011 Oct;41(5):501
-
16. doi: 10.1111/j.1943
-
278X.2011.00046.x. Epub 2011 Jul
27.

High school

bullying

as a risk for later depression and suicidality.

Klomek

AB
,

Kleinman

M
,

Altschuler

E
,

Marrocco

F
,

Amakawa

L
,

Gould

MS
.

Source

School of Psychology, Interdisciplinary Center (IDC) Herzliya, Israel.

Abstract

This is the first study to examine whether high school students experiencing frequent

bullying

behaviors
are at risk for later depression and suicidality. A total of 236 studen
ts who reported
frequent

bullying

behavior without depression or suicidality during a suicide screening were interviewed 4

years later to reassess depression, suicidal ideation, attempts, substance problems, and functional
impairment and were compared to a
t
-
risk youth identified during the screen, including 96 youth who also
experienced

bullying

behavior. Youth who only reported frequent

bullying

behaviors (as bullies, victims, or
both) did not develop later depression or suicidality and continued to have f
ewer psychiatric problems
than students identified as at
-
risk for suicide. Students who experienced

bullying

behaviors and
depression or suicidality were more impaired 4

years later than those who had only reported depression
or suicidality. Thus, assessme
nt of

bullying

behaviors in screening protocols is recommended.


Percept

Mot

Skills.

2011 Oct;113(2):353
-
64.

Self
-
reported experience of

bullying

of students who
stutter:
relations with life satisfaction, life orientation, and self
-
esteem.

Blood

GW
,

Blood

IM
,

Tramontana

GM
,

Sylvia

AJ
,

Boyle

MP
,

Motzko

GR
.

Source

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, 308 Ford Building, The Pennsylvania State University, University
Park, PA 16802, U
SA. f2x@psu.edu

Abstract

Self
-
reported self
-
esteem, life orientation, satisfaction with life, and

bullying

were examined in relation to
victimization experiences among 54 students who stuttered and 54 students who did not stutter. Those
who stuttered
reported greater, i.e., clinically significant, victimization (44.4%) than students who did not
stutter (9.2%). Significant differences were found between means for self
-
esteem and life orientation, with
students who stuttered reporting lower self
-
esteem a
nd less optimistic life orientation than those who did
not stutter. In both groups of students, high victimization scores had statistically significant negative
correlations with optimistic life orientation, high self
-
esteem, and high satisfaction with lif
e scores. Given
the increased likelihood of students who stuttered being bullied, the negative relation of adjustment
variables and

bullying
, and the potentially negative long
-
term effects of

bullying
, increased vigilance and
early intervention are discuss
ed.


Nord

J

Psychiatry.

2011 Oct;65(5):323
-
9. doi: 10.3109/08039488.2010.546881. Epub 2011 Feb 25.

Exposure to teacher

bullying

in schools: a study of patients
with
personality disorders.

Monsvold

T
,

Bendixen

M
,

Hagen

R
,

Helvik

AS
.

Source

Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology
(NTNU), Trondhei
m, Norway. Toril.Monsvold@stolav.no

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The aim of this study was to examine the level and affect of exposure to teacher

bullying

in primary and
secondary schools on patients with personality disorders (PD).

METHOD:

The study group
contained 116 people (18
-
60 years old); 49 patients diagnosed with PD undergoing
psychiatric treatment in 10 different psychiatric outpatient clinics in the Southern and Middle part of
Norway, and a control group consisting of 67 people who worked in an in
stitution for somatic/elderly
people and an institution for people with drug/alcohol dependency in the Middle part of Norway. All study
participants filled out a self
-
report questionnaire, which included demographic data, one item about
whether they have b
een bullied by one or several teachers, and 28 items regarding subjection to negative
acts from teachers based on the Negative Acts Questionnaire
-
Revised (NAQ
-
R).

RESULTS:

Patients diagnosed with PD reported significantly more

bullying

by teachers in both

primary school (OR
7.3; 95% CI 1.9
-
27.7) and secondary school (OR 5.8; 95% CI 1.1
-
30.5) than healthy controls. Patients
with PD also reported a higher prevalence of negative acts from teachers than healthy controls in both
primary and secondary schools, s
uch as differential treatment, ridicule, humiliation, and being ignored or
neglected at least once weekly.

CONCLUSION:

Our findings indicate a correlation between

bullying

from teachers, as reported by PD patients, and the
development of PD in adulthood. T
he problem of teacher

bullying

deserves more attention with regard to
this possible correlation between student victimization and the development of PD.


Lang

Speech

Hear

Serv

Sch.

2011 Oct;42(4):520
-
35. doi: 10.1044/0161
-
1461(2011/10
-
0078). Epub 2011 Aug
15.

Peer victimization among students with specific language
impairment, attention
-
deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and typical
development.

Redmond

SM
.

Source

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA. sean.redmond@health.utah.edu

Abstract

PURPOSE:

The potential contributions of

behavioral and verbal liabilities to social risk were examined by comparing
peer victimization levels in children with specific language impairment (SLI) to those in children with
attention
-
deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typically developing (T
D) children.

METHOD:

Sixty children (age range: 7
-
8 years) participated in the study. Standardized verbal measures and parent
ratings of behavioral difficulties were combined with children's self
-
reports of their school and peer
environments to examine the

risk for negative peer experiences associated with clinical status.

RESULTS:

Clinical status was associated with elevated levels of victimization, especially for participants with SLI. A
potential buffering effect for number of close friendships was found

for participants with ADHD and TD
participants, but not for participants with SLI. Peer victimization was associated with elevated levels of
hyperactivity and stronger narrative skills for participants with SLI.

CONCLUSION:

These results highlight the imp
ortance of peer victimization in the social adjustment of students with
developmental language disorders.


J

Psychosoc

Nurs

Ment

He
alth

Serv.

2011 Oct;49(10):36
-
41. doi: 10.3928/02793695
-
20110831
-
03. Epub 2011
Sep 16.

What is cyberbullying & how can psychiatric
-
mental health
nurses recognize it?

Williams

SG
,

Godfrey

AJ
.

So
urce

University of South Alabama, College of Nursing, Mobile, AL, USA. sgwilliams@usouthal.edu

Abstract

Cyberbullying is an emerging issue within our society, particularly among adolescents. The phenomenon
is similar to traditional

bullying

in that it is
hurtful, repetitive behavior involving a power imbalance, often
causing psychosocial issues. With the availability of cell phones, Internet, and video gaming systems,
adolescents are constantly plugged into technology and therefore at risk of being a victi
m or a perpetrator
of cyberbullying. Both physical and mental health problems can result from cyberbullying, which, in turn,
can affect an adolescent's performance in school and other crucial areas of life. Legal action is an option,
but many times the law

is not clear. Psychiatric
-
mental health nurses are in a position to help educate
children about resources to prevent or cope with cyberbullying in a way that will help not only the patients
themselves but also parents, teachers, school administrators, and

the community.


J

Psychosoc

Nurs

Ment

Health

Serv.

2011 Oct;49(10):22
-
9. doi: 10.3928/02793695
-
20110830
-
01. Epub 2011
Sep 28.

Two
sides of the coin: the bully and the bullied.

Warren

BJ
.

Source

The Ohio State University, College of Nursing, Columbus, OH, USA.
warren.4@osu.edu

Abstract

Bullying

has become a worldwide phenomenon that produces serious individual and societal
consequences when it is ignored. There are two sides of the coin that require consideration when
psychiatric
-
mental health (PMH) nurses
conduct assessments of situations that
involve

bullying

behaviors. Both the bully and the bullied can incur serious, negative, and debilitating
psychological effects. In some cases, physical injury and/or death occurs as a result of

bullying
.
Deciphering t
he biopsychosocial mental health issues associated with

bullying

is challenging. PMH
nurses have the clinical expertise to develop coping interventions and strategies that stop

bullying
, as well
as enhance the mental health and wellness of both those who b
ully and who are bullied. This article
presents PMH nursing biopsychosocial strategies for both sides of the

bullying

coin. Exemplars are
provided to aid implementation of the strategies.


J

Couns

Psychol.

2011 Oct;58(4):597
-
609. doi: 10.1037/a0025095.

The effects of general and homophobic victimization on
adolescents' psychosocial and educational concerns: the
importance of intersecting identities and parent
support.

Poteat

VP
,

Mereish

EH
,

Digiovanni

CD
,

Koen
ig

BW
.

Source

Department of Counseling, Developmental, and Educational Psychology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467, USA.
PoteatP@bc.edu

Abstract

Many adolescents experience peer victimization, which often can be homophobic. Applying the minority
stress model with attention to intersecting social identities, this study tested the effects of general and
homophobic victimization on several educational outcomes through suicidality and school belonging
among 15,923 adolescents in Grades 7 through 12 on

account of their sexual orientation and
race/ethnicity. Parent support also was tested as a moderator of these effects. Homophobic victimization
had different effects on suicidality across groups, indicating the importance of considering individuals'
mult
iple social identities. However, homophobic victimization had universal negative effects on school
belonging for all groups. Nearly all indirect effects of general and homophobic victimization on reported
grades, truancy, and importance of graduating were
significant through suicidality and school belonging
across groups. Parent support was most consistent in moderating the effects of general and homophobic
victimization on suicidality for heterosexual White and racial/ethnic minority youth. In nearly all c
ases, it
did not moderate the effects of general or homophobic victimization for lesbian, gay, bisexual,
transgender, and questioning youth. Furthermore, in most cases, parent support did not moderate the
effects of general or homophobic victimization on s
chool belonging. Findings underscore the need for
counseling psychologists to work with parents of all youth on ways to provide support to those who
experience homophobic victimization. Furthermore, they highlight the need for counseling psychologists
to b
e involved as social justice advocates in the passage and implementation of school policies that
address homophobic

bullying

and other forms of bias
-
based

bullying

and harassment.


J

Anxiety

Disord.

2011 Oct;25(7):924
-
31. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2011.05.005. Epub 2011 May 24.

Anxiety, social skills, friendship quality, and peer victimization:
an integrated model.

Crawford

AM
,

Manassis

K
.

Source

Department of Human Development and Applied Psychology, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, 252 Bloor Street
West, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. melissa.crawford@ycdsb.ca

Abstract

This cross
-
sectional study investigated
whether anxiety and social functioning interact in their prediction
of peer victimization. A structural equation model linking anxiety, social skills, and friendship quality to
victimization was tested separately for children with anxiety disorders and nor
mal comparison children to
explore whether the processes involved in victimization differ for these groups. Participants were 8
-
14
year old children: 55 (34 boys, 21 girls) diagnosed with an anxiety disorder and 85 (37 boys, 48 girls)
normal comparison chi
ldren. The final models for both groups yielded two independent pathways to
victimization: (a) anxiety independently predicted being victimized; and (b) poor social skills predicted
lower friendship quality, which in turn, placed a child at risk for victim
ization. These findings have
important implications for the treatment of childhood anxiety disorders and for school
-
based anti
-
bullying

interventions, but replication with larger samples is indicated.


J

Adolesc.

2011 Oct;34(5):873
-
83. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2011.01.004. Epub 2011 Feb 18.

Bullying

and discrimination experiences among Korean
-
American
adolescents.

Shin

JY
,

D'Antonio

E
,

Son

H
,

Kim

SA
,

Park

Y
.

Source

Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY, USA. Jin.Y.Shin@hofstra.edu

Erratum in



J Adolesc. 2012 Apr;35(2):469. Kim, Seong
-
A [corrected to Kim, Seung
-
A].

Abstr
act

The

bullying

experiences of Korean
-
American adolescents (N

=

295) were explored in relation to
discrimination and mental health outcomes.

Bullying
experiences were assessed by the Bully Survey
(Swearer, 2005), discrimination by the Perceived Ethnic and
Racial Discrimination Scale (Way, 1997) and
depression by the Center for Epidemiological Studies
-

Depression Scale (CES
-
D). Those who reported
being bullied (31.5%) as well as those who reported both being bullied and

bullying

others (15.9%)
experienced a

higher level of depression, which was elevated beyond the clinically significant level of
CES
-
D. The results of a LISREL model suggest that the experiences of

bullying

among Korean/Asian
-
American adolescents and their related mental health issues need to
be addressed in a comprehensive
context of their discrimination experiences, acculturation, family and school environments.


J

Abnorm

Child

Psychol.

2011

Oct;39(7):1035
-
45. doi: 10.1007/s10802
-
011
-
9517
-
3.

Friendship as protection from peer victimization for girls with
and without ADHD.

Cardoos

SL
,

Hinshaw

SP
.

Source

Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, Room 3210, Tolman Hall #1650, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
stephanie.cardoos@berkeley.edu

Abstract

The goal of this study was to examine the ability of friendship to moderate the association between
behavioral risk and peer victimization for girls with attention
-
deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 140)
and
comparison girls (n = 88) in a 5
-
week naturalistic summer camp setting. Participants were an
ethnically and socioeconomically diverse group of girls ages 6
-
12. Parents and teachers reported on pre
-
summer internalizing behavior, externalizing behavior, and
social competence. Participants reported on
friendships and peer victimization through a peer report measure at the summer camps; friendship was
scored via mutual nominations. Pre
-
summer externalizing behavior, internalizing behavior, and low social
compet
ence predicted peer victimization at the summer camps. Friendship moderated the association
between behavioral risk and victimization for the entire sample, such that the presence of at least one
friend reduced the risk of victimization. Additional analyse
s suggested that girls with ADHD were no more
or less protected by the presence of a friendship than were comparison girls. Finally, preliminary analyses
suggested that girls having only friends with ADHD were not significantly less protected than girls wi
th at
least one comparison friend. Future directions and implications for intervention are discussed.


Arch

Pediatr

Adolesc

Med.

2011 Oct;165(10)
:890
-
4. doi: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.91. Epub 2011 Jun 6.

School

bullying

perpetration and other childhood risk factors as
predictors of adult intimate partner violence perpetration.

Falb

KL
,

McCauley

HL
,

Decker

MR
,

Gupta

J
,

Raj

A
,

Silverman

JG
.

Source

Department of Socie
ty, Human Development, and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave., Boston,
MA 02115, USA. kfalb@hsph.harvard.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To assess the relationship between

bullying

peers as a child and adult intimate partner violence
perpetration in a clinic
-
based sample of adult men. School

bullying

perpetration and intimate partner
violence perpetration are both thought to stem from desire for power and control over others.

DESIGN:

A cross
-
sectional survey was conducted between Janua
ry 2005 and December 2006.

SETTING:

Three urban community health centers in Boston, Massachusetts.

PARTICIPANTS:

Men aged 18 to 35 years (n = 1491) seeking services at participating community health centers.

MAIN EXPOSURE:

School

bullying

perpetration.

OUT
COME MEASURE:

Past
-
year physical or sexual violence perpetration against a female partner (intimate
-
partner violence
[IPV]).

RESULTS:

Two
-
fifths of men reported perpetrating school

bullying

as a child (n = 610; 40.9%). Men who rarely
bullied in school were

1.53 times more likely to perpetrate past
-
year IPV than men who did not bully (95%
confidence interval [CI], 1.02
-
2.29); this risk was elevated to 3.82 times more likely to perpetrate any past
-
year IPV for those men who bullied peers frequently (95% CI, 2
.55
-
5.73).

CONCLUSIONS:

The present study indicates that

bullying

peers in school as a child, especially
frequent

bullying

perpetration, is associated with increased risk for men's perpetration of IPV as an adult.
The effect remains strong after
controlling for common prior risk factors for both

bullying

and IPV
perpetration. Future research is needed to discern the mechanisms and underlying root causes of
abusive behavior, such as power and control, as a means to prevent violence perpetration acr
oss settings
and life stages.


Am

Psychol.

2011 Oct;66(7):604
-
13. doi: 10.1037/a0024609.

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual victimization in the military: an
unintended
consequence of "Don't Ask, Don't Tell"?

Burks

DJ
.

Source

Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Portland, OR 97239, USA. derekjburks@gmail.com

Abstract

The integration of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals into the U.S. military is a long
-
standing and
politically and socially divisive issue. Exclusionary and pseudo
-
inclusionary policies that restrict openly
LGB individuals from military

service are also of long duration. Yet LGB servicemembers have continued
to serve covertly in the military for many decades. Moreover, political issues and social conventions
associated with "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" (DADT) have diverted focus from imperati