1. All of the following are examples of risk factors that increase the tendency to become delinquent except a) antisocial peers. b) socioeconomic disadvantage. *c) single parenting. d) maltreatment. 2. In psychological research, are said to be

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1. All of the following are examples of risk factors that increase the tendency to become
delinquent except

a) antisocial peers.

b) socioeconomic disadvantage.

*c) single parenting.

d) maltreatment.

2. In psychological research, are said to be


b) hardy.

c) adaptable.

d) sociable.

3. Research indicates
children who adapt and show no ill effects after exposure to many risk

a) display a number of unique and special qualities.

b) have numerous social relationships.

c) are very sp

d) are
not particularly extraordinary.

4. Life experiences, abilities and events that help a child resist engaging in chronic, serious
antisocial behavior are called

a) prot
ective factors.

b) genotropic resistance.

c) resilient qualities.

d) so
cial skills.

5. Traditionally, psychological research has

a) focused on the normal person.

b) concentrated on risk factors that lead to mala
djustment and problem behavior.

c) focused on human adaptation and development.

d) concentrated on studying juven
ile delinquents.

6. Competence results from

a) a complex interaction between a per
son and his or her environment.

b) repeatedly excelling in many of life’s arenas.

c) a combination of intelligence and social support.

d) practicing

a task until it is mastered.

7. Individuals who have not been exposed to many risk factors can

be called

_____ but not _____.

*a) competent; resilient.

b) resilient; adaptable.

c) resilient; delinquent.

d) adaptable; delinquent.

8. Which statement(s) b
est describe(s) juvenile delinquent behavior?

a) It has multiple manifestations and can range in frequency and severity.

b) It is easy defined.

c) It is a rite of passage for many youngsters.

d) Both a

and c.

9. The scientific study of the conditions and

variables that influence the neurological, biological,
mental, emotional and social development of children is referred to as

a) the ecological perspective.

b) integrative theory.

c) the

developmental perspective.

d) social theory.

10. Which developmen
tal pathways approach is clearly supported by research?

a) generalist approach

b) developmental trajectories approach

*c) multiple pathways approach

d) biological approach

11. The term juvenile delinquency

a) is a legal term defined by the court.

b) is
often ambiguous and imprecise.

c) has multiple definitions and meanings.

*d) all of the above

12. Which status offense has substantially increased in recent years?

a) underage sexual activity

*b) underage drinking

c) truancy

d) running away

13. Which st
ates allow juveniles to be tried as adults in criminal courts under certain conditions
and for certain offenses?

a) New York, Illinois, Ohio, and California

*b) All fifty states

c) Texas, Ohio and South Carolina

d) Florida and New York


14. A child del
inquent is

a) betwee
n the ages of seven and twelve.

b) under age seven.

c) between the ages of six and thirteen.

d) under age fourteen.

15. According to Loeber et al. (2003), child delinquents _______ compared to adolescents who
begin offending in their


a) are two to three times more likely to become serious violent and chronic offenders

b) commit more serious offenses

c) are twice as likely to have a diagnosed mental illness

d) are three times more likely to have an undiagnosed mental illness

In this textbook, the term
is used when discussing developmental research and
term _____ is used for the youth who has been adjudicated as such by the courts.

a) delinquent; juvenile delinquent

antisocial behavior; delinquent

c) delinq
uency; delinquent

d) juvenile delinquency; antisocial delinquent

17. Arrest may not be a sufficient indicator of juvenile offending because

a) many antisocial behaviors go undetected by law enforcement.

b) the legal definition of delinquency is inadequate

c) police may be taking the wrong individual into custody.

*d) both a and c.

18. Which of the following is

an internalizing disorder?

a) depression

b) eating disorder

c) attenti
on deficit/hyperactivity

d) anxiety

19. The most common and persiste
nt forms of childhood maladjustment are

a) internalizing disorders.

b) e
xternalizing problem behaviors.

c) masking disorders.

d) school behavioral problems.

20. Conduct disorders often go hand in hand with ___ during adolescence

*a) depression


c) personality disorders

d) grisi siknis

21. Which of the following is an example of a conduct disorder?

a) animal cruelty

b) firesetting

c) stealing

*d) all of the above

Which home environment characteristic is

correlated with

conduct disorders?

a) hostility and conflict.

b) lack of parental monitoring.

c) low parental competence.

*d) strict parental discipline.

23. Psychologists are able to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment programs through

*a) quantitative methods.

) qualitative methods.

c) factor analysis.

d) trait analysis.

24. In order to understand delinquents, it is important to understand what they see and
understand. This statement is from the perspective of a _____ researcher.

a) longitudinal

*b) qualitative

c) cross

d) quantitative

All of the following are limitations
retrospective research except

a) m

b) biases.

c) missing records.

*d) expense.

26. Wolfgang’s studies defined delinquency as


the number of police contacts.

b) juvenile court record.

c) more than two criminal acts.

d) antisocial behavior that starts before age twelve.

One of the critical findings in the Rochester Youth Development Study was



the impact of family

high throughout adolescence.

children more attached to and involved with parents were less involved in delinquency

c) delinquent behavior had little or no effect on family dynamics within the home.

d) delinquent peers had little effect on the

development of antisocial behavior.

28. Gottfredson

and Hirschi (1987) were unusual in that they believed

a) most individuals do not age out of crime.

b) longitudinal research is critical in understanding delinquency.

cross sectional

studies are mo
re efficient methods of studying c
rime than longitudinal

d) numerical data was not as important as verbal data in the study of crime.

29. There

is strong evidence that aggressive and violent behavior may be well developed at age

*a) eight.

b) th

c) twelve.

d) sixteen.

30. Research literature demonstrates that which of the following is important in understanding

a) social learning theory

b) integrating theories

c) a multi
system approach

d) the cognitive perspective

*e) all of

the above