EXTENDED SECURITY FOR BANKING

succasunnakalamazooElectronics - Devices

Nov 25, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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ER.PERUMAL MANIMEKALAI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

EXTENDED SECURITY FOR BANKING

SECTOR USING EMBEDDED SYSTEM




PRESENTED BY




JAIMITHRA.P





AMREEN
TAJ.A


111
-
EC
E



111
-
EEE

Contact no
:7708906087

Contact no:9566376393

Jaimithraias3@gmail.com

aamreentaj01@gmail.com



























EXTENDED SECURITY FOR BANKING SECTOR USING




EMBEDDED SYSTEM



ABSTRACT



The world of today has high become a place with very high security but there
are hackers (code breakers) and thieves who are trying to bring down this securit
y system. So
we need keep updating our security system. Here one of the system which is presently in
function could be more secured using Biometrics and Embedded System. In this paper we
have used the biometrics (finger print recognition) for security purp
ose and embedded system
to automate the complete process. There many methods in providing security using
biometrics we have gone for the finger print recognition. In embedded system we have gone
for PIC micro controller (
PIC
16F877). Here our project is hel
ping the banking sector to safe
keep the credit cards so called the plastic money, ATM cards and the bank lockers. We have
taken into consideration all factors that affect the security of the present system in those
sectors and have given an updated versio
n of security for them .The biometrics have been
used as the lock in providing security and the embedded system has been interface that
connect the user and the automated system. We hope to give an better security for the society
which needs to be a secure
d place live for us. We believe that our idea provides better
security than the existing system.










1.
INTRODUCTION


E
mbedded system is defined as the
system into which the user’s logic or ideas
are
embedded. Embedded systems include a variety of
hardware and software components, which
perform specific functions in host system, for
example satellites, Washing machine, handheld
telephones and automobiles. Embedded systems
have become increasing dig
ital with a non
-
digital
peripheral (analog power) and therefore both
Hardware and software coding signs are relevant.
We are going for micro controller called the PIC
micro controller. The PIC micro controller has the
following advantages.



Cost effectivene
ss



Low power



Highly user interactive



A High level of system integration


2.PERIPHERAL INTERFACE
CONTROLLER


The PIC
16F877

Micro controller
belongs to the midrange PIC. ThePIC
16F87X

Micro controller (MCU) Family provides a
migration path from OTP to FLA
SH in
28

to
44
-
pin packages, with a wide range of peripheral
integration options. This family features a
14
-
bit
instruction set,
5

to
8

channels of
10
-
bit Analog
-
to
-
Digital Converters, interrupt handling
capability, various serial interface capabilities,
C
apture/Compare/PWM, Brown
-
out Detection
and an 8
-
level deep stack.

The PIC
16F87X

family provides
performance and versatility to meet the most
demanding requirements of today’s cost
-
sensitive
analog designs. Plus, with FLASH program
memory, PIC
16F87X

devices can be
reprogrammed over the entire operating voltage
range. The PIC
16F87X
family is ideally suited for
high
-
speed applications. The PIC
16F8
is a 40
-
pin
package and the pin details are shown.

FIG.1

Some of the core features of PIC micro control
ler
is as follows.


2a. High
-
Performance RISC CPU



Only
35
instructions are there to
implement the user’s logic.



All instructions are single cycle (200 ns)
except branch instructions which requires
two
-
cycles.



128

to
368

bytes of user RAM.



Up to
256
bytes of data EEPROM memory
(internal), but we can interface max of
512
KB of memory externally.



Erase/write endurance.



14
-
bit wide instructions.



8
-
level deep hardware stack.



Direct, indirect and relative addressing
modes.



22

to
33
I/O pins.



Processor read/
write access to program
memory.


2b. Peripheral Features



Includes
3

timers


Timer
0
, Timer
1

and
Timer
2.



Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) modules



10
-
bit multi
-
channel Analog
-
to
-
Digital
Converter



Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with I2C
(Master/Slave)



Universal
Synchronous Asynchronous
Receiver



Transmitter (USART) with
9
-
bit address
detection.


2c. Special Micro controller Features



Power
-
on Reset (POR), Power
-
up Timer
(PWRT) and


Oscillator Start
-
up Timer (OST).



Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on
-
chip RC o
scillator for reliable operation.



Programmable code protection



Power saving SLEEP mode



Selectable oscillator options.



XT: Standard crystal/resonator



HS: High
-
speed crystal/resonator



LP: Power saving, low frequency crystal



3. BIOMETRICS



Biometrics is d
efined as an
automated method of identifying or authenticating
the identity of a living person based on the
physiological characteristics. It offers inherently
stronger security than any other methods like iris,
face and voice recognition. Basic steps invo
lved in
recognition systems are as follows:



A mechanism to scan and capture



Compression, Processing and
Comparison



Interfacing with the application
system.

4. FINGER PRINT VERIFICATION SYSTEM

In order to have safety over the property,
the people living in

all parts of a country go for
“Fully Secured Banking system”. But there are
hackers and thieves who steel out of our own
credit cards and debit cards People mainly look for
the protective measures provided by the bankers.
So to strengthen this system, we

had chosen
fingerprint of the user as the credit and debit cards
along with an password for better security.


Since, the fingerprints of all the human
beings are unique in nature, we had prescribed it
as key factor. But there are other factors, which
are unique like that of fingerprint. They are face,
iris, signature and voice. Iris recognition system
has the highest accuracy in finding the fraudulent
persons and to have the lowest error rate. But it
has a disadvantage of high cost. Hence we
selected the next better factor (fingerprint), as it
has moderate cost and high accuracy.

The statistics o
f various recognition
techniques used are as follows:


FIG.2

5.

Various Recognition Systems
-

Comparison

Here according to the statistic we can see
from the graph that iris recognition has the
maximum security but we have chosen the
fingerprint technique.
Since finger print
recognition has the next best security system to the
iris recognition. The cost of the finger print
recognition system is comparably less and most
reliable among the various recognition system


The above reasons that have made us go
for
fingerprint instead of the other biometrics
technique for security system. This security
techniques have made the credit or debit cards,
ATM cards and bank lockers more secured.
As per
the above statistics, finger print recognition
technique gains advantage

than any other
recognition techniques specified above.

The basic features of fingerprint are as
follows.



Uniqueness



Permanency


6. BASIC BLOCK DIAGRAM




The five ports of the PIC micro controller which
are interfaced to five different module



FIG.3

The blocks are

1. LCD display module

2. CCD scanner module

3 .Keypad module

4. Memory cards module

6a. LCD DISPLAY





Two line liquid crystal

display
-
each line can
hold
16
characters




Displays the characters with a bright
background (yellow).




A potentiometer is varied to adjust the brightness of
characters.




LCD consists of 16 pins to provide interfacing with

PIC.



INTERFACING LCD
AND PIC:

FIG.4


The LCD is interfaced through the PORT B of the
PIC MCU. The port pins are connected to the data
lines of a two row LCD. The three control pins
ENABLE, READ/WRITE & READ SELECT are
connected to the port pins RE
0
, RE
1
, RE
2

of the
PIC MCU.


6
b. CCD SCANNER MODULE


This module is used to scan the user
fingerprint. Then the user is asked for the certain
password that has been provided by the bank.
Here the password is used as filename which
holds the information of the card

holder and their
fingerprint. The fingerprint obtain from the user is
compared with fingerprint for that corresponding
password code which is stored in the computer.
The data comparison is done by certain techniques
using MATLAB for simulation.

6c, KEYPAD

MODULE




The hex keypad consists of 16 keys
to input the alphabets and numerals. This
4 X 4

matrix keypad is formed by using the D port
of the PIC MCU
16F877.
Here the port pins
RD0, RD1, RD2, RD3

act as input pins and
RD4,
RD5, RD6, RD7

act as output pins. The pins are
connected to the power supply and when both the
pins become high i.e., when the switch
corresponding to both the pins is pressed then the
corresponding letters (that are pre assigned in the
program) are read from the progra
m and input to
two row LCD through the data lines. At the same
time these letters are also got for processing.



The diagrammatic view of the hex
keypad is shown below followed by the functions
of each special keys.









In our system each key (switch)
is
programmed to input multiple characters.



This can be explained by taking an
example of the first key (i.e.,) the switch
provided at the intersection of the pins
RD0 & RD4.



S
o on the first press of this key ‘A’ would
be input to the system. And on pre
ssing it
again a ‘B’ would be input and the next
press would input a ‘0’.



The next press would again insert an ‘A’
and so on
.


6d. MEMORY CARD MODULE


This module has memory card reader and
data editor. Every bank are provided with separate
memory cards where re amount that have been credited
or debited using banks credit or debit card is stored.
This memory card holds the database a
s the account
number and the amount debited or credited for the card.
At the end of the day these memory cards are given to
the corresponding banks the amount for the cards can be
collected by the shopkeepers.



7. LOCKER MODULE BLOCK DIAGRAM


We are providing the same security system
for the bank lockers here the fingerprints are compared
to the existing the file. The comparison results in
executing a serious of actions like opening the main
door and also there individual l
ockers



FIG.5

From the above block diagram we can see the
various blocks of the locker sub system .the blocks
are

1.

Keypad and display unit (Entry
subsystem)

2.

The PIC MCU controlled Locker.

3.

The fingerprint matching system
(simulation)



But some

of the modules are already
discussed above. So we are discussing only the
locker accessing sub system below


7a. LOCKER ACCESSING SUB
-
SYSTEM



This system is made up of two
subsystems. They are The PIC MCU controlled

1) Electronic lock

2) The alarm subsystem.


7a.1. ELECTRONIC LOCK



This electronic lock is controlled
by the PIC MCU port pin RC0.Whenever the lock
(corresponding to the account number) is to be
opened then the high signal is given through this
pin(RC0). If the lock is to
be opened then a high
signal is given through this pin and this energizes
the solenoid coil. This solenoid is placed in a
direction such that the current flowing through it
causes the iron rod passing through the center of
the solenoid coil to move in a di
rection that
releases the lock. Thus as shown in the figure the
spring is now compressed and it is under tension.



After the user has completed
accessing the locker he presses the close button.
This in turn cuts of the supply given through the
port pin(RC
0).now the solenoid coil is de
-
energized and the iron rod is pushed in the
opposite direction so that the spring gets released
of the tension. Thus the locker is now closed.




Solenoid Coil

FIG.6

7a.2. ALARM SUBSYSTEM


The al
arm subsystem sounds a
buzzer if there is any misuse of the system. This is
used to prevent any malpractices. The alarm is
sounded for two reasons


1) If the customer makes any mistake in
entering his details.


2) If a person accesses the locker more
than
a specified time.


This subsystem is controlled using the
pic’s port pin (ra2). If any of the above two cases
is met then a high signal is given through this pin.
The alarm sound is stopped only after pressing the
specified key. Here the enter key is used
to stop
the alarm in the first case and for the second case a
close key needs to be pressed.

8. ALGORITHMS



An algorithm is defined as the step
-
by step procedure of instructions involved in the
processing. We had used MATLAB to compare
two fingerprint images. We had employed this
fingerprint recognition system by simulation. In
our actual system, we have planned

to use a CCD
camera to get the fingerprint from the user. But we
have

not implemented that part, since high precision
cameras are too expensive. As already mentioned,
we have developed two algorithms for comparing
fingerprint impressions. They are as fol
lows:



Direct Comparison Of Pixels



Rotational Algorithm


In the former method, the pixels of two
images are compared directly based on the
position of pixels. In the second method, the
image is rotated either to clockwise or anti
-
clockwise direction depending on the tilt of input
image.


8a. D
IRECT COMPARISON OF PIXELS


In this algorithm, we are going to
compare the pixel(gray values) of the two images,
directly. The result of this algorithm is based on
number of pixels that are matched. The algorithm
is given below.

8a.1. Algori
thm

1.

Get the input from the user.

2
. Retrieve the already stored fingerprint
image from the database, corresponding to the
account number.

3.

Pre
-
process the two images.

4.

Modify the two images by cutting the
borders.

5
. For the first 10 pixels in Y
-
ax
is of both
the images, count the number of pixels
matched and unmatched. Let they be ‘M’
(matched) and ‘UM’ (unmatched).

6.

Find the difference between M and UM.


7
. Repeat the process for next
10

pixels in
y
-
axis and so on for entire image.

8.
Display the ‘differences’ obtained from
comparing of each block.

9.

If the number of negative difference is
greater than or equal to TWO (>
=2), then display
that the two images are not matching. (At the
same time give the alarm signal to the alarm
circuit).

10.

Else display that the images are
matching and provide the control signal to debit
or credit the amount from the account.

For the foll
owing two fingerprints (one from
the database and other from the user) the result is

Finger Prints Are Matched”,
since

they are
exactly
,
same.

Image from the Database


Input Image







D
ire
ct Comparison of Pixels

FIG.7

8a.2. Advantage

The main advantage of this algorithm is its
simplicity in comparing the images. The program
is very simple to implement and to understand.

8a.3. Disadvantage


Since we are comparing the images


directly,

this algorithm has a disadvantage that if
the input image of the user is tilted, then the result
displayed may be faulty. For example, consider
the following two images (one of which is tilted)
to be compared. The result of the comparison is
“Finger print
s are not matching”.


Image from the Database


Input Image

from user









Direct Comparison of Pixels


FIG.8


In order to overcome this difficulty, we
have developed another algorithm called
ROTATIONAL algorithm, which is as follows


8b. ROTATIONAL ALGORITHM

In this algorithm, the images are modified in
such a way that the borders are also tilted
(rotated) in the direction of input image’s tilt.
The algorithm is as follows. Assume that the
fingerprint of the user has been tilted in
clockwise direction.

8b.1. A
lgorithm

1. Get the input from the user.

2
. Get the already stored fingerprint image
from the database corresponding to the account
number.

3.

Pre
-
process the two images.

4.

Take the first image (already stored) and
modify it by cutting the borders.

5
. Ta
ke the second image (input image)
and cut the borders in such a way that all the four
border are tilted towards the clockwise direction.
Now the entire image is rotated in CW direction.

6
. Next count the number of black and
white pixels in both the images.

7.

Calculate the difference in the total
black and white pixels. Let it be ‘B_diff’ and
‘W_diff’.

8
. If the W_diff is greater than B_diff, then
display that the images are not matching. Provide
an alarm signal to the alarm circuit. Since we are
finding th
e differences and we are mainly
concerned with the black pixels, the above
condition is developed.

9.

Else display the images are matching
and then provide the control signal to open the
locker.

8b.2. Advantage


As already mentioned this algorithm
gives additional security in avoiding the entry of
fraudulent persons and to allow the correct user to
access his/her locker, even when the user’s
fingerprint image is tilted. The Efficiency of this
algo
rithm is “NEARLY
80
%”. If we combine the
two above
-
mentioned algorithms, we can have the
efficiency of “NEARLY
90% “


8b.3. Disadvantage




In this algorithm, there is a
disadvantage that care should be taken in finding
wh
ether the image is tilted in clockwise or in anti
clock direction


9. COMPARISON OF ALGORITHMS



W
e can compare the two
algorithms based on the method of comparison,
efficiency and several other factors. Both the
algorithms provide minimum efficiency when we
compare it with the other recognition systems like
iris. But we can increase the efficiency by
combining the algorithms. We can also provide a
new algorithm based on the type of impression. If
we combine this algorithm with the other two, we
can have efficiency exceeding
95%
.



10. CONCLUSION



As already mentioned before,
Embedded System i
s the field which has been
developing more rapidly than any other fields.
There are many micro controllers which help the
user to embed his/her logic. Many real
-
time
systems in our day today life are employing
embedded systems. One such system is our idea
which is aiming to improve the credit and debit
card scheme.



Since we have provided an
automated system using embedded system, it can
serve the people up to its maximum ability.
Nowadays, we can’t see a system, providing the
credit and debit card like wh
at we have provided
here. Hence, we decided to provide this system
similar to that of ATM’s.



We had chosen fingerprint
recognition system to provide security for the user
to access his/her locker. Since PIC micro
controllers have many advantages like low

cost,
minimum execution time, RISC architecture, etc..,
we had used this MCU as the controlling unit.
Hardware parts of our project are implemented
using PIC MCU, whereas the Software parts are
implemented using MATLAB and HITEC
-
C (C
language for PIC MCU)
.


The aim of our project is to provide this
society by means of a safe credit or debit card with
high security using fingerprint recognition system.
We tried to produce 24 hours working system that
is very compatible in its structure. Since we
had
used computer for fingerprint authentication, we
cannot provide a compatible system. But, we had
reduced man power required as in conventional
banking systems.


If we use scanners directly
to match the fingerprint of
the user then we can
have a very compatible system. In the future, it
may come into exist with additional features like
automatic ON
-
OFF switch, real
-
time clock, etc.
We can control the additional features by using the
same PIC micro controller. Hence, in
the future
we can hope, a fully automated locker system will
develop.

References:
-

www.isecuritykbs.com

www.embdsecurity.com