STEELMAKING THROUGH EAF ROUTE AND ITS EFFECT ON ENVIRONMENT

subduedlockMechanics

Nov 5, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDIAN STEEL INDUSTRY:
“CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES”

23
rd

-
24
th

MARCH 2012

M.N. Dastur & Company (P) Ltd


STEELMAKING THROUGH EAF ROUTE
AND ITS EFFECT ON ENVIRONMENT


BY

DURBA TALUKDAR & SOMNATH GUPTA


M.N.DASTUR & COMPANY (P) LTD,

KOLKATA


INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDIAN STEEL INDUSTRY:
“CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES”

23
rd

-
24
th

MARCH 2012

M.N. Dastur & Company (P) Ltd


CO
2

EMISSIONS BY GLOBAL STEEL INDUSTRY



2

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDIAN STEEL INDUSTRY:
“CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES”

23
rd

-
24
th

MARCH 2012

M.N. Dastur & Company (P) Ltd


ENERGY INTENSITY OF STEEL INDUSTRY

World-avg
India
S. Korea
Japan
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Energy Intensity, Gcal/tcs

3

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDIAN STEEL INDUSTRY:
“CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES”

23
rd

-
24
th

MARCH 2012

M.N. Dastur & Company (P) Ltd


SPECIFIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION (Unit : GCal/TCS)

Plant

2007
-
08

2008
-
09

2009
-
10

2010
-
11

(Apr


Dec 2010)

SAIL

6.95

6.74

6.72

6.82

BSP

6.72

6.5

6.56

6.66

DSP

6.94

6.5

6.55

6.78

RSP

7.39

7.09

6.97

6.89

BSL

6.89

6.83

6.74

6.88

ISP

8.14

8.18

8.18

8.23

RINL
(GCal/TLS)

6.21

6.54

6.09

6.18


4

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDIAN STEEL INDUSTRY:
“CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES”

23
rd

-
24
th

MARCH 2012

M.N. Dastur & Company (P) Ltd


SPECIFIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION(Unit : GCal/TCS)

(Continued
)

Source:

1. Sail News


February


June 2010


2. Annual report 2010
-
11, Ministry of Steel, Govt. of India

Note: **BF and Sinter Plant were under capital repair for approx 6 months.

Plant

2007
-
08

2008
-
09

2009
-
10

2010
-
11

(Apr


Dec 2012)

TaTa Steel

6.555

6.587

6.173
(Apr
-
Dec 2009)

NA

JSW Steel

6.847

6.704

6.495

6.31

JSPL

7.68

7.25

7.14

6.98

Essar Steel

5.99

5.81

NA

NA

IIL

5.73

5.42**

5.46

(Apr
-
Sept 2009)

Merged with
JSW


5

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDIAN STEEL INDUSTRY:
“CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES”

23
rd

-
24
th

MARCH 2012

M.N. Dastur & Company (P) Ltd


STEEL PRODUCTION THROUGH ELECTRIC
FURNACES IN INDIA

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Total Crude

Steel Production

(Million tons)

27.291

28.814

31.779

32.626

45.780

49.450

53.468

57.791

63.527

68.321

Production

Of Crude

Steel in Electric
Furnaces

(Million tons)

9.980

10.850

12.680

14.300

24.780

27.650

31.300

34.800

36.200

41.300

% of Steel

Production in

Electric Furnaces

36.5

37.7

39.9

43.8

54.1

55.9

58.5

60.2

57.0

60.4


6

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDIAN STEEL INDUSTRY:
“CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES”

23
rd

-
24
th

MARCH 2012

M.N. Dastur & Company (P) Ltd


MAJOR WASTE GENERATED FROM EAF



Solid waste



Slag



Dust



Sludge



Refractory debris



Skull




7

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDIAN STEEL INDUSTRY:
“CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES”

23
rd

-
24
th

MARCH 2012

M.N. Dastur & Company (P) Ltd


MAJOR WASTE GENERATED FROM EAF ( Continued)


Gaseous waste



Carbon
-
monoxide



Carbon
-
dioxide



Sulphur
-
dioxide



Oxides of Nitrogen



Particulate matter



Liquid waste



Polluted water



8

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDIAN STEEL INDUSTRY:
“CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES”

23
rd

-
24
th

MARCH 2012

M.N. Dastur & Company (P) Ltd


EAF SLAG


COMPOSITION



Main constituent


Calcium Oxide and Iron



Other minor constituents
-

Magnesium, Manganese, Silicon, Aluminium





APPLICATION



Land Filling



Road Construction



Aggregate for concrete



Clinker Kilns as a replacement for mined limestone



Reuse in internal processes



Soil conditioner



Making prefabricated shapes for sewerage


9

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDIAN STEEL INDUSTRY:
“CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES”

23
rd

-
24
th

MARCH 2012

M.N. Dastur & Company (P) Ltd


EAF DUST


COMPOSITION



Main constituent


Iron



Other constituents


Zinc in the form of oxide/sulphide/chloride




Lead as oxide, Cadmium, other metals, halides




and fluxes




Treatment


Recycling back into the furnace


High temperature metal recovery processes


Hydrometallurgical and pyro
-
metallurgical processes



APPLICATION



Reuse in EAF



Landfilling



Extraction of Zinc



Use in rotary hearth furnace



10

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDIAN STEEL INDUSTRY:
“CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES”

23
rd

-
24
th

MARCH 2012

M.N. Dastur & Company (P) Ltd


GASEOUS EMISSIONS


Harmful Substances


Oxides of carbon



Oxides of nitrogen



Oxides of sulphur



Cyanides



Fluorides


Measures adopted



Improved Fume extraction system and control
technologies



Furnace off gas analysis system


11

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDIAN STEEL INDUSTRY:
“CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES”

23
rd

-
24
th

MARCH 2012

M.N. Dastur & Company (P) Ltd


DEVELOPMENTS IN EAF PROCESS ROUTE


Development of Shaft Furnace, Consteel
Process and other processes



The processes developed lead to :



Lower noise level



Lower dust content in off gases



Reduced off
-
gas volume



Full heat incineration of carbon
-
monoxide


12

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDIAN STEEL INDUSTRY:
“CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES”

23
rd

-
24
th

MARCH 2012

M.N. Dastur & Company (P) Ltd


TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN EAF

Period

Technological

Development

Tap
-
to
-
Tap
Time

Electricity
Consumption
(kWh/t)

Electrode
Consumption

(kg/t)

1965
-
70

Oxygen lancing

180

630

6.5

1970
-
80

-
Water cooled panels

-
High power operation
(UHP)

105

490

3.5

1980
-
85

-

Ladle furnace

-

Foamy slag

-

Eccentric bottom tapping

-

Scrap pre
-
heating

80

450

2.5

1985
-
95

-
Oxygen carbon injecton


( lance manipulator)

-

Pneumatic bath stirring

60

410

2.0

1995
-
2005

-
Oxygen carbon/oxyfuel


side wall injection

-
Use of hot metal as charge


material

55

250
-
300

1.6


13

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDIAN STEEL INDUSTRY:
“CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES”

23
rd

-
24
th

MARCH 2012

M.N. Dastur & Company (P) Ltd


TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN EAF
(Continued)



The technological developments lead to :



Reduced energy consumption



Resource savings



Reduction of carbon footprints



Cost savings


14

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDIAN STEEL INDUSTRY:
“CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES”

23
rd

-
24
th

MARCH 2012

M.N. Dastur & Company (P) Ltd


15






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