Biotech Questions to Consider

stubbornnessuglyBiotechnology

Dec 12, 2012 (4 years and 9 months ago)

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Questions to Consider:









Lisa Blackburn



1.

Know the general work and findings of the following scientists:

a.

Gregor Mendal
:
Founder of the science of genetics. He did an experiment that showed that the
inheritance of certain traits in pea plants follow particular patters: called Mendelian inheritance.

b.

Edward Jenner
:
Pioneer of the smallpox vaccine. Called the “father of immunol
ogy.”

c.

Watson and Crick
:
Two scientists who discovered the structure of DNA.

d.

Cohen and Boyer
:
Invented a method of cloning genetically engineered molecules in foreign cells.

e.

Erwin Chargoff
:
Discovered double helix structure of DNA.

f.

Rosalind Franklin
:
X
-
ray
crystallographer who made critical contributions to the understanding of the
fine molecular structures of DNA, RNA, viruses, coal, and graphite.

g.

Craig Ventner


2.

What are three main parts of a DNA nucleotide?


a.

Five carbon sugar, nitrogen base, and a phosphat
e group.

3.

What are the three bases found within DNA?

a.

Adenine, Cytosine, Thymine, and Guanine.

4.

What are the DNA base pair rules?

a.

Adenine bonds with Thymine and Cytosine bonds with Guanine.

5.

If one side of a DNA helix reads AAATCG what does its complimentary s
trand read?

a.

TTTAGC

6.

How does a DNA double helix, chromosomes and genes relate to one another?

a.

A gene is a part of DNA

that codes for a polypeptide or for an RNA chain that has a function of an
organism. A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA. It is a

single piece of coiled DNA containing
many genes.

7.

How do DNA and proteins relate to one another?

a.

A protein contains one or more polypeptides which is what a gene of DNA codes for.

8.

What is the overall charge of a strand of DNA?

a.

The overall charge of a
strand of DNA is negative.

9.

How does DNAs charge help in electrophoresis?

a.

The negative charge of DNA causes the DNA to move towards the positive side and away from the
negative side.

10.

What is the goal of DNA electrophoresis?

a.

The goal of DNA electrophoresis i
s to spate the DNA fragments by size.

11.

What is BLAST and what does it do?

a.

Basic Local Alignment Search Tool compares primary biological sequence information. It helps us know
decipher unknown DNA.

12.

What are restriction enzymes

and how are they used in genet
ic engineering?

a.

A restriction enzyme is an enzyme that cuts DNA at specific nucleotide sequences. It is used in genetic
engineering because when one knows the sequence of the gene, one is able to make targeted cuts to
extract specific parts. This can be us
ed in cloning.

13.

What are “sticky ends” and how do they relate to restriction enzymes.

a.

“Stick ends” refers to the properties of the end of a molecule of DNA.

This relates to restriction enzymes
because when the DNA is cut by the restriction enzymes and place
d into DNA by a vector, it has a sticky
end so the DNA will attach easier.


14.

What is bioinformatics and how does it relate to the human genome project?

a.

Bioinformatics of methods for storing, retrieving, and analyzing biological date, such as protein
sequence, structure, function, pathways, and genetic interactions. This is related to the human genome
project because by storing all this information it is easier to identify the human genes.

15.

What basic characteristics are used to identify different finge
rprints?

a.

Loop, Arch, Whirl are the basic characteristics used to identify different fingerprints.

16.

What is the difference between a latent and patent fingerprint?

a.

Latent fingerprints are fingerprints not seen by the naked eye and you need to use graphite du
st to take
the fingerprint. Patent fingerprints are fingerprints you can see with the naked eye are you can take a
picture of such print.


Be able to:

1.

Describe the process of gene splicing to create recombinant DNA.

a.

The process of gene splicing to create
recombinant DNA is resulted from the use of laboratory methods
to bring together genetic material from a source and placing it into another DNA sequence and making
gene sequences that are not otherwise found in biological organisms.

2.

Identify fingerprints.

a.

By looking at the fingerprint you can find out if the fingerprint has a loop, arch, or whirl.

3.

Read a DNA electrophoresis gel.

a.

The shorter molecules move faster than the longer molecules.

4.

Describe the process of DNA electrophoresis.

a.

You place the DNA into a

well of the gel and charge the gel. The DNA moves away from the negative side
(where the wells are) towards the positive side due to the negative charge of DNA. The shorter strands
move faster than the longer strands causing gaps of the strands.


Vocabula
ry


Amino Acid

a) The basic building block of proteins (or polypeptides). Containing
a basic amino group, an acidic carboxyl (COOH) group and a side
chain (R
-

of a number of different kinds) attached to an alpha
carbon atom. b)The fundamental building blo
cks of a protein
molecule.

Angstrom

A unit of length equal to one ten
-
thousandth of a micron (10
-
4
micron) or 10
-
10 of a meter with adenine.

Bioinformatics

a) Refers to the generation or creation, collection, storage (in
databases), and efficient
utilization of data or information from
genomics, combinatorial chemistry, proteomics, and DNA
sequencing research. b) Examples of the data or information that is
manipulated and stored include gene sequences, biological activity
or function, pharmacologic
al activity, biological structure, molecular
structure, protein
-
protein interactions, and gene expression products
or amounts.

Bioluminescence

The emission of visible light by living organisms such as the firefly
and various fish, fungi, and bacteria.

Biopharmaceutical

A therapeutic product created through the genetic manipulation of
living things, including (but not limited to) proteins and
monoclonalantibodies, peptides, and other molecules that are not
chemically synthesized, along with gene therapie
s, cell therapies,
and engineered tissues.

Bioprocessing

Using organisms or biologically derived macromolecules to carry out
enzymatic reactions or to manufacture products.

Bioreactor

A container used for bioprocessing.

BLAST

Basic Local Alignment Searc
h Tool (BLAST) is a sequence
comparison algorithm optimized for speed used to search sequence
databases for optimal DNA sequence alignments.

CODIS

Combined DNA index system.

DNA Analysis

The testing of DNA samples that exists on the evidence collected
fr
om a crime scene.

DNA Fingerprinting

DNA fingerprinting is an individual's unique sequence of DNA base
pairs, determined by exposing a sample of the person's DNA to
molecular probes.

DNA Replication

The process of making an identical copy of a section of

duplex
(double
-
stranded) DNA, using existing DNA as a template for the
synthesis of new DNA strands.

Double Helix

The normal structural configuration of DNA consisting of two helices
winding about the same axis.

Electroporation

A process utilized to
introduce a foreign gene into the genome of an
organism.

Forensics

Involves the collection, analysis, and interpretation of evidence to
solve crimes; its purpose is to create doubt as to the testimony of the
witness.

Forensic Scientist

A professional tha
t analyzes and interprets DNA samples as well as
other forms of evidence collected from a crime scene.

Genetic Engineering

a) The selective, deliberate alteration of genes. b) The direct
manipulation of genes for practical purposes. c) The technique of
removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule in order to
change the information it contains.

Pathogen

Refers to a virus, bacterium, parasitic protozoan, or other
microorganism that causes infectious disease by invading the body
of an organ
ism (e.g., animal, plant, etc.) known as the host.

Plasmid

An autonomous self
-
replicating genetic particle is usually of circular
double
-
stranded DNA.

Protein

A large molecule composed of one or more chains of amino acids in
a specific order, required fo
r the structure, function, and regulation of
the body's cells, tissues, and organs.

Transformation

The modification of a genome by the external application of DNA
from a cell of different genotype.