Ch 4- Modern Genetics Packet - TeacherWeb

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Dec 12, 2012 (4 years and 7 months ago)

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Chapter 4
-

Unit 3. D
-

Modern Genetics


1



Section 1
-

Human Inheritance

Objective
: Understand how humans inherit their traits form their parents.

Homework
: Pages 1
-
4

Patterns of Human Inheritance

1.

The different traits you see are determined by a variety of
__________________________________.

2.

Some
human traits are controlled by ____________________ genes with
__________________ alleles, and others by ___________________ genes
with ________________ allele, and other traits are controlled by
___________________ genes that act _________________________
___.

Single Genes With Two Alleles

3.

When traits are controlled by a single gene with one ___________________
allele and one _________________________ allele, the traits have two
distinctively different _____________________________, or physical
appearances.

For example a widows peak or straight hair line.

Single Genes With Multiple Alleles

4.

Some genes may have more than two alleles, called ___________________
__________________, such as blood.

5.

Although a gene may have multiple alleles, a person can only carry

_______________ of those alleles, because chromosomes exist in
_______________________________.

6.

There are ____________ main blood types ______,_______,________, and
______.

7.

The alleles for ______(I
A
) and ______(I
B
) are codominante. Where O is
recessive s
o is written as ________.

8.

When a child is born with I
A

from one parent and I
B

From the other parent,
what is its blood type? _______________.

9.

How
do you get type O blood?___________________________________

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Modern Genetics


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Traits Controlled by Many Genes

10.

Some traits have

more than ___________ phenotypes, such as height. These
genes act together as a group to produce a _________________ trait.

11.


At least 4 genes control height in humans, so there are __________ possible
combinations of genes and __________________.

12.


Other
than height, what is another trait that is controlled by many genes?
____________________

The Sex Chromosomes

13.

Sex chromosomes carry genes that determine whether a person is
__________________ or ____________________, as well as genes that
determine ________________________________.


14.


How many pairs of sex chromosomes do humans have? ______________

Girl or Boy?

15.


S
ex chromosomes are the only pair that do not _______________________.


16.


A girl has _________________________ chromosomes and a boy has
one________________ and one_____________________ chromosomes.

Sex Chromosomes and Fertilization

17.


Since a female has 2 x

chromosomes, her eggs will only be ____________.


18.


Since a male has an x and a y chromosome, his sperm will be
______________________ and ______________________________.


19.


What determines if the offspring is a girl or boy? ___________________
___________
__________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________


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Sex
-

Linked Genes

20.


The genes for some human traits are carried on the sex chromosomes and
are called
_________________________________________________.


21.


An example of a sex
-
linked trait is ___________________________
colorblindness.





22.


Since X and Y have different genes, if the X has the gene for
colorblindness
, the boy will be colorblind since ther
e is no dominant gene on
the y to mask it, like there would be for the X for the girl. So, colorblindness
will come from the ________________________ because it is on the X
chromosome.

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Inheritance of Colorblindness

23.


Are there more males or females that are colorblind since the trait is
controlled by a recessive allele in the X chromosome? _________________


24.


What is a carrier? ______________________________________________
____________________________________________
_________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

Father (normal vision)






X
C



Y



X
C
X
c


X
C



(Mother Carrier)




X
c


The
Effect of Environment

25.


Many of a person’s characteristics are determined by an interaction between
____________________ and the _________________________________.


26.



Is height only influenced by genes? ____________


27.


What else can affect a person’s height? ___________________________
____________________________________________________________

Objective Recap:

How much genetic material comes from your mother? From your
Father? Can some of your traits be affected by th
e environment?






X
C
Y

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Section 2
-

Human Genetic Disorders

Objective
:

Learn about various genetic disorders and how they can be traced back
through generations, and be detected using different tools.

Homework

5
-
8

Causes of Genetic Disorders

1.

What is a genetic
disorder? _______________________________________
_____________________________________________________________


2.

What are the 2 causes of genetic disorders?

a.

________________________________________________________
__________________________________________
______________

b.

________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

Cystic Fibrosis

3.

Cystic Fibrosis is a _______________ disorder in which the body produces
abnormally ____________________________
_____ in the _____________
and ________________________.


4.

What happens to the person with Cystic Fibrosis? ___________________
____________________________________________________________


5.

What is the cause of Cystic Fibrosis? _____________________________
__
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

Sickle
-
Cell Disease

6.

Sickle
-
cell Disease affects _________________________________, which
is a ____________________ in ____________
_ blood cells that carries
_______________________.

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7.

Sickle
-
Shape red blood

cells _________________ blood vessels and cannot
carry as much __________________ as normal cells.

8.

What is the cause of sickle
-
cell disease? _____________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

9.

A person with one sickle
-
cell allele and one normal allele will
____________________________________ of the disease.

Hemophilia

10.


Hem
ophilia is a genetic disorder in which a person’s blood _____________
__________________________________.


11.


A person with this disorder do not produce ____________ of the
____________________ needed for normal blood clotting.


12.


Why is this so dangerous? _______________________________________
_____________________________________________________________


13.


What is the cause of hemophilia? _________________________________
__________________________________________________________
___
_____________________________________________________________


14.


Who is more likely to get hemophilia? ________________________


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Down Syndrome

15.


In down syndrome, a person’s cells have an
__________________________ of ________________________________,
wh
ich means instead of a pair of chromosomes, they have ______________.


16.


What is the cause of down syndrome? ______________________________
_____________________________________________________________

Pedigrees

17.


A pedigree is a ______________________________________________
that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait.


18.


How could this have helped a family who was having a child before there
were genetic testing? _________________________________
__________
____________________________________________________________


19.


Find one trait that you have and make a pedigree chart of your family to
trace it back.


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Managing Genetic Disorders

20.


Many years ago, doctors used the pedigree chart to predict if
a child may
have a ______________________________. Now, however, they can use
_____________________________ to help diagnose genetic disorders.


21.


Why is it important for doctors to know about genetic disorders for
children? ___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

Karyotypes

22.


To detect chromosomal disorders, such as down syndrom
e, a doctor uses
__________________________________.


23.


A karyotype is a __________________________ of all the chromosomes in
a cell.

Genetic Counseling

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24.


If a couple has a family history of a genetic disorder, they may turn to a
_________________________________________ for advice.


25.


Genetic counselors use tools such as ______________________________,
______________________________, and ___________________
_______
to help them in their work.

Dealing With Genetic Disorders

26.


What are some ways people born with a genetic disorder can get help?
_____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
____
_____________________________________________________________

Objective

Recap:

What are 2 way a genetic disorder can occur? What are the 3
ways a doctor or genetic counselor can predict a genetic disorder?



Section 3
-

Advances in Genetics

Objective
:

Learn how selective breeding is used. And how scientists are trying to
understand genetics.

Homework

9
-

Selective Breeding

1.

_______________________________ have enabled people to produce
organisms with desirable traits.


2.

What are 3 methods for developing
organism with desirable traits?
_____________________________________________________________


3.

Selective breeding is ____________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________


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4.

What are 2 selective breeding t
echniques? ___________________________
_____________________________________________________________

Inbreeding

5.

Inbreeding is __________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

Hybridization

6.

Hybridization is ________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

Cloning

7.

For some organisms, ______________________ can be used to produce
offspring with desired traits.


8.

A _______________ is a
n organism that has exactly the same
__________________ as the organism from w
hich

is was produced.


9.

Some plants like the ______________________ are easy to clone. You just
have to cut the _________________ form one plant, and put it in the soil
and water

it.




10.


Researchers have also cloned animals such as _______________________
___________________________________________. This is more
complex. The researcher has to take the __________________________ of
an animal’s body cell and use it to produce a
new ____________________.



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Genetic Engineering

11.


Genetic engineering is another powerful technique for producing organisms
with desired ____________________.


12.


Genetic engineering is taking _______________ from one organism and
transferring them into the ______________ of another organism.


13.


Genetic engineering can produce _______________________ and improve
___________________________________.

Genetic Engineer
ing in Bacteria

14.


One type of genetically engineered bacteria produces a protein called
_________________________________.


15.


Who uses insulin? ___________________________________________



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Genetic Engineering in Other Organisms

16.


Scientists can also use ge
netic engineering techniques to insert genes into
__________________________.


17.


For example, human genes can be inserted into the cells of
_____________, who then produce the human __________________ form
which the gene codes in their ___________________
___. This produces the
blood clotting protein needed by people with
________________________________.


18.


Genes have also been inserted into plants, such as ________________ and
________________________, which enable the plant to survive in
_________________
_____________or _____________________________
or resist _____________________________________________

Gene Therapy

19.


Gene therapy is using genetic engineering to _________________________
___________________________________, which is not yet possible.


20.


Gene therapy involves inserting copies of genes _____________________
____________________________________________________________
.

Concerns About Genetic Engineering

21.


Some people think genetically engineered crops may __________________
________________
__________, thinking that these crops may
__________________________________________ or cause
________________________________________________________.

Learning About Human Genetics

22.


The Human Genome Project and DNA fingerprinting are 2 applications that
enabled scientists to ____________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________.


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The Human Genome Project

23.


A genome is ______________
____________________________________
_____________________________________________________________


24.


The main goal of the Human Genome Project is to ____________________
_____________________________________________________________


25.


Scientist have learned

that humans have at least _________________ genes,
and each gene has about _________________ bases.

DNA Fingerprinting

26.


DNA technology used in the Human Genome Project can also identify
__________________ and show whether people are __________________.


27.


DNA from a person’s cells is broken down into
__________________________, which to produce a pattern called a
_______________________________________________.


28.


No two people have the exact same DNA fingerprint, except for
_________________________________
__________.

Objective

Recap:

What are some ways scientists can select traits they want? What
is the Human Genome Project?