computer applications - Amazon S3

stripeoddElectronics - Devices

Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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COMPUTER APPLICATIONS

Information technology helps to solve crime

Crime

has become

very sophisticated and harder to detect. Nowadays to detect these crimes,

new
types of

methods has been adopted by police.

Information used for detection must be accurate.

POLICE NATIONAL
COMPUTER (
PNC)



The police now
provide

rapid access,

day and

night to find information about

crime. The
large mainframe computer is

linked to terminals in police stations throughout the country.



Information
is

obtained within

a short time

from the

main computer.



Some

police vehicles are equipped with terminals which are used to access PNC directly.

Each particular subject held on the PNC is known as
indexes, which are

as follows:

1.

Stolen and
Suspect

Vehicle Index

As soon as a vehicle is stol
en or a car is used for

crime purposes,

the registration

number
color or model

of the car are saved in the PNC.

For Hit and Run cases also, all details are stored.


2.

Vehicle Owner Index

If the registration number is known, then the owner can be easily ident
ified or contacted. The
registration number acts as a search key.


3.

Name Indexes

The names or details of certain persons/criminals are already saved in the PNC. The persons
can be those who have done an offence, disqualified drivers and so on, thus can find

the
suspected person easily.


4.

Computerized

Fingerprint Index

Fingerprint means identifying the patterns of your ridges on your fingertips. These are
obtained and compared with the suspect’s fingerprints.
This proves

that the criminals were at
the scene of

the crime.

The PNC now uses the
computerized

system to store and match the prints.


5.

Broadcast system

It allows one police force to send
urgent

information to other police forces.






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6.

Using 3D modelling to help solve crimes

Murder cases that have been
committed several months or years before may not be easy to
identify the criminals, so the measurements of the skull need to be measured and put in a
computer. This provides likely face belonging to the skull.

As a result face can be modeled quickly.


7.

Elec
tronic security cameras

Cameras are mostly hidden or visible. It is used for traffic control at busy junctions and
motorways.


INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN SUPERMARKETS


The laser scanning system (BARCODE READING SYSTEM)



Figure
1
:
Barcode Reader

Barcode Reader is now called a laser scanner.




It improves customer service



Increase company productivity



Uses a laser beam to read the barcode on the goods



No need to type the number in the system



As the barcode

is passed across the scanner, the number, price, description of the goods
and others are read.



The barcode does not contain price, it is saved in the database instead.




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Usually the barcode consists of:

1.

Country of Origin

2.

Manufacturer’s number

3.

Product Numb
er

4.

The last number is the check digit (which makes sure that the barcode has been read
correctly)

Benefits of the system to the Customers



Data are

entered automatically, which eliminates typing errors.



Customers will spend less time waiting to be served.



More promotions may be offered.



An itemized receipt is produced which often include detailed information.

Benefits of the system to the C
ompany



Checkout accuracy is improved, thus eliminating errors and frauds.



Saves time for the company.



Customer service
can be improved.



Productivity is increased.



Increase in sales.



More efficient stock control.



Wastage is reduced; goods can be ordered accurately using the sales information.



Promotional
analysis and sales analysis are improved.


EFTPOS (ELECTRONIC FUND TRA
NSFER POINT OF SALE)

EFTPOS means transferring money from
customer’s

credit card company directly to a
customer’s bank account.

EPOS means purchasing goods by use of credit cards/debit cards instead of using cash.

Advantages to the customer:



A customer
need not have cash on hand to make a purchase. This is especially convenient for
unplanned or impulse buying.



EFTPOS

saves the consumer money by sparing personal checks and ATM fees to withdraw cash.



no need to leave house and face the crowd in the shoppin
g mall;



easy to shop around for the best price or value



can see a lot of goods and read details about them;



Payment is easy.


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A
dvantages to the retailer are:



The retailer is paid 'instantly' without having to accept actual cash.



no need for a large premises to display the goods;



no wastage due to shoplifting;



not many staff needed;



customers can access the store twenty four hours a day, seven days a week;



Retailers can use the net to check competitors' prices.

MANAGING STOCK
CONTROL AND ORDER PROCESSING


Sales based ordering

It is the automatic reorde
ring of goods from the warehouse using the sales information from the
checkout.


Stock Control

All ordering is performed by the computer. This allows stock to arrive just on time
before sale,
so it is always fresh. There is direct contact with the suppliers; as a result time is saved.


Electronic shelf labeling

The labels applied on the goods are operated from the computer using radio signals and thus
avoids human error.

Changing d
ata on the computer database and on the shelf can be done at the same time.


Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)

It speeds up the transfer of orders to suppliers.

It is less expensive and faster than sending the orders by phone, post or fax.

Once orders have
been made, an electronic invoice is generated automatically by the suppliers.


Designing store using CAD



Computer Aided Design

CAD has reduced the time taken to plan new stores. It is able to show 3
-
Dimensional views of
the stores and
also used to design warehouse layouts.


INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN MUSIC INDUSTRY

ICT is having an enormous impact on the music industry


artists, recording studios,

record
labels, music stores and the customers/music fans.


The use of the Internet for buy
ing, selling and listening to music, websites for display of

public
relations information, and the use of digital technology for recording and

duplicating music, adds
to the variety of ways in which music products can be sold.



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MP3


a file format the all
ows CDs to be reduced from typically 5
-
700Mb to less than

100Mb
and still retain the quality. This means to main things
-

a lot of music can be

stored on portable
devices or
downloaded in a
short space o
f time.


Digital recording


using a standard laptop
or PC it is possible to create music tracks


form
scratch or by sampling other music stored digitally on the computer.


Digital

recording means there is no need for instruments at all since ‘synthesizers’ can

reproduce
almost any instrument. In addition
it is possible to fix recordings by removing

or changing bad
notes or enhancing a poor vocal track using effects.



ICT AND THE VIDEO INDUSTRY


It is now possible to have a ‘home cinema’ set up at home using large screen television

or
projectors, surround
sound systems and DVD players. Soon High definition DVD

players will be
available.


In addition to DVDs and HD DVDs you can also record your own movies and play them

directly
to a television or to download movies over the internet (file share).



1.

Computer
Generated Graphics



Images that are designed by graphic artists for e.g. logos, and new pictures needed during
TV or videos transmission.



Some of the sophisticated graphics produce 3D images. There are different types of
graphics packages e.g. Photoshop, in
kscape, GIMP, and so on.

2.

Special Effects



Images can be manipulated; this can be done by special s/w. E.g. blender, 3D Max &
others.



Can zoom, rotate, stretch and add colors

3.

Animation



Animation also involves manipulation

of images and requires software like flash, GIMP
and others.

ICT AND MEDICINE

1.

Organ transplants



Computers can be used to match and indentify a patient’s organ, usually when a person
dies and their organs are donated.



Computers can also be used to diagnose

illnesses


e.g. body scanners, computers to
measure heartbeat.



Different types of illnesses like Tumors can be easily detected by use of computers.



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2.

Intensive Care Unit (ICU)



Computers are used to monitor instruments which record important data about a
patient.



No need to have a nurse for each patient



Can make use of alarm to get medical help.


3.

Keeping Patient’s records



Computers provide accurate, up
-
to
-
date and readily available source of information about
a person’s health.



Records can be saved on
magnetic tapes or disks.

(Quicker access)

One

disadvantage
can be that while keeping the
personal
details in the computers, many patients
would not like their confidential information
to be
seen by everyone, so need to have passwords
in order to access a p
atient’s file.

The most obvious way that ICT is used in medicine is the database in each doctor’s surgery
in
which

the details of patients are kept.


These would include:



Patient’s name



Date of Birth



Address



Occupation



Lifestyle



Last visit to the doctor.

ICT has made a massive impact in medicine beyond doctors’ and hospital databases.


Other areas
that have seen a substantial impact from ICT include:



Computers controlling diagnostic machinery



Computer analysis of data from diagnostic machinery.


The images

from the NMR scan are
pretty unintelligible until they have been processed by computer.


Very clear cross sections
can be seen, of immense help to the doctor.


Such equipment has shown that unborn babies
smile and yawn from a very early age.



Expert system
s that enable doctors to access information about uncommon illnesses.



Remote operations by specialists from other countries.



CD
-
ROM material to enable junior doctors to learn new material.



Diagnosis over the Internet.

ICT AND BANKING

Banks have made extens
ive use of ICT for many years:



M
agnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR)



Bankers' Automated Clearing Services (BACS)



Automated Teller Machines (ATM)


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Electronic Funds Transfer at Point of Sale (EFTPOS)



Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT)





Smart Cards

ATM

(
Automatic teller machines
)

Automatic teller machines are familiar to most bank customers.


They insert a card in the wall,
type in a PIN number and

out comes the money.

They are connected to the bank via telephone lines and pass the details of
each
transaction

to a
transaction file.


This is updated at the end of the day to debit the customers' bank accounts with
the appropriate sums of money.



For the customer, the ATM:



is more anonymous.



provides a 24
-
hour a day service, seven days a week; ideal
for customers who work
irregular hours.



causes fewer queues since the transactions are quicker.

For the bank the ATM:



frees up staff from performing routine transactions so that more profitable sales
-
orientated work can be done.



reduces the number of st
aff, since the computer does the work.



provides a continuous service outside normal hours.





prevents customers withdrawing money that is not in the account.

ICT IN EDUCATION

In education, computers are used for

1.

Interactive Learning



Use of various media s
uch as videos, sound, graphics, animation and text in the
learning process.



For e.g. an interactive whiteboard is a large interactive display that connect to a
computer & projector. It displays all the details on the board’s surface.


2.

Electronic Learning



Students can work on their own at home.



Can provide communication with the teacher & other students via e
-
mail, electronic
forums, videoconferencing, chat rooms & other forms of computer
-
based
communication.



There is no face to face contact with the teache
r


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BENEFITS



Can do presentation by use of projectors



Can enhance knowledge of students



Instead of going to libraries and spend hours to get the same information which can be
obtained directly from your PC.



Can search for a word on the internet instead of us
ing dictionaries or Encyclopedia.



Can get up
-
to
-
date information from the internet (lectures on all subjects can be obtained
online)

Distance Learning



Distance learning means pupils/students not being in the same place as their teacher.



A course via an ope
n university can be obtained that uses manuals as well as television
programmes.



Using computers, the internet and digital interactive television, material can be presented
in a more interesting way with animation, sound, video, etc.



Chat rooms can also be

set so that students who live in different areas can discuss any
problems between themselves or with their course tutors.

Special Needs



People with communication difficulties e.g. Blind people are able to use Braille
keyboards to input data into the compu
ter. Here are also Braille monitors.

Using Computers To Organize Events In Schools



ICT can be used to organize events in schools for e.g. meetings, timetables school sports
day.

Data Logging Equipment



It involves collecting data automatically, from sensor
s over a period of time.



In geography lessons data logging can be used to record weather

whereas i
n science
lessons
it
can be used to record temperature

Computer Art



Instead of using the traditional or usual artists medium, many artists are producing works

using computer packages e.g. Photoshop, GIMP



Can add animations or special effects on the images and by adding more contrast



This helps the manipulation of pictures and making an old picture become a digital one
by applying the tools found in a computer
package



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ICT AT HOME & LEISURE ACTIVITIES



Can surf on the net



Chat in chat rooms



manipulating digital photographs



Make own website or playing games

Home Learning



ICT has enabled courses to be taken in many different ways (e.g. at night also)



Can pursue co
urses online

Games



Many people play games using ICT
, s
ome are games of skills, while others are simulation
games (flying planes, driving cars around motor racing)