Ontologies for Information

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Oct 20, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Formal versus Material
Ontologies for Information
Systems Interoperation in the
Semantic Web

Work in progress

R. Colomb

School of ITEE, The University of
Queensland

20 August, 2002

Outline


Ontologies, upper ontologies,and semantic
heterogeneity


Sample of upper ontology efforts


Semantic heterogeneity


The synthetic a priori of Kant


Application to the ontologies


So what?

Ontologies, upper ontologies,and
semantic heterogeneity


Application
-
specific
-

SIC, SNOMED


Upper ontologies application
-
independent


…what we now refer to as philosophical ontology has
sought the definitive and exhaustive classification of
entities in all spheres of being … including the types of
relations by which entities are tied together


Heterogeneity
-

enemy target example

Sample of upper ontology efforts


Cyc


SUMO


OntoClean


GOL


Bunge
-
Wand
-
Weber (BWW)


WordNet


Cyc


Transaction
-

The collection of actions performed by two or
more agents cooperating (willingly) under some agreement
wherein each agent performs actions in exchange for the
actions of the other(s). Note that a case of attack
-
and
-
counterattack in warfare is
not

a Transaction; nor is fortuitous
cooperation without agreement (e.g. where a group of investors
who, unknown to each other, all buy the same stock almost at
once, thereby driving up its price). For transactions involving
an exchange of user rights (to goods and/or money) between
agents, see the specialization of ExchangeOfUserRights


Subtype of PurposefulAction, CooperativeEvent


SUMO


Transaction

-

The subclass of ChangeOfPossession where something
is exchanged for something else.
subclass of

ChangeOfPossession


ChangeOfPossession

-

The Class of Processes where ownership of
something is transferred from one Agent to another.
subclass of

SocialInteraction


SocialInteraction

-

The subclass of IntentionalProcess that involves
interactions between CognitiveAgents.
subclass of

IntentionalProcess


IntentionalProcess
-

A Process that is deliberately set in motion by a
CognitiveAgent.
subclass of

Process

OntoClean


Quality


Quality Region


Aggregate


Amount of matter


Arbitrary Collection


Object



Physical Object


Body


Ordinary Object


Mental Object



Feature


Relevant Part


Place


Occurrence


State


Process


Accomplishment


GOL


Entity


Set

»
Extension


Urelement

»
Individual

»

Chronoid (temporal duration)

»

Topoid (spatial region)

»

Substance

»

Moment

»

Quality

»

Relational Moment

»
Universal

»

Relational Universal


Bunge
-
Wand
-
Weber (BWW)


Thing


Property and Attribute


State of a Thing
: at a point in time, the attributes of a thing
have values.


Event
: change of state in a thing.


History of a Thing
: a sequence of events in a thing.


Type/Class and Subtype/Subclass


Composite thing:

is composed of (made up of) things other
than itself. Things in the composite are
part
-
of

the
composite.


WordNet


Abstraction


Act (human)


Entity


Event


Group


Phenomenon


Possession


Psychological Feature


State

Semantic heterogeneity


Structural


Can be overcome with more or less elaborate views


vs Fundamental


The words mean something a little different in the two
systems

Transaction examples


the interaction with Amazon.com resulting in the placing of an
order and the supply of credit card details.


the subsequent packing and shipping of the order, its receipt by
the purchaser in good condition, and the acceptance of the
credit card charge by Visa.


the interaction with Medline resulting in the placing of a query
and the return of a collection of abstracts


the borrowing and ultimate return of a book by the University
of Queensland library from the University of Sydney library
(interlibrary loan), on behalf of an academic (who must also
borrow and return the book from the University of Queensland
library).


the interaction between the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter
Olympics results processing agent and the agents responsible
for the maintenance of results on multiple web sites ultimately
completing with the information that the medal results for ice
hockey have been recorded on all sites.


Searle’s Institutional Facts


Brute fact X counts as institutional fact Y in
context C


Eg Marriage, naming, buying


Result of speech act


Information systems concerned mostly with
institutional facts


Institutional facts need background for
interpretation

Background


Searle: The literal meaning of any sentence can
only determine its truth conditions or other
conditions of satisfaction against a background
of capacities, dispositions, know
-
how, etc.,
which are not themselves a part of the semantic
content of the sentence.


Eg our expectation of the behaviour of objects in
our environment, and of how various kinds of
situations are supposed to develop.

Institutional facts immanent


Nature of institutions means new
institutional facts easily created


eg UQITEE
-
funded travel


Transcendent system (rules of chess) give
global shape


Permit ontology of openings, end games, etc


Rule change part of game makes system
immanent, lose ontology.

Institutional Facts Immanent


Only local warrant needed for creation of
new institutional fact


Institutional facts are in complex contexts,
but ultimately immanent


So no reason to expect an a priori ontology

Synthetic a priori


We can know a priori only how we
represent knowledge, not what we can know

Synthetic a priori


Space

is the form of all appearances of
outer sense, i.e.. the subject condition of
sensibility, under which alone outer
intuition is possible for us


Includes identification of objects

Synthetic a priori


Time is the form of inner sense, i.e., of the
intuition of our self and our inner state


the possibility of either simultaneity or
succession in the perception of objects.

Synthetic a priori


Quantity

unity, plurality, and totality


Also number


Quality

reality, negation and limitation


Modality

possibility


impossibility, existence


non
-
existence, necessity


contingency


Relation

inherence and subsistence, causality and
dependence, and community (reciprocity between
agent and patient)

Elements of formal ontology


From space


identity


From time


sequence


From quantity


representation structures, the
part/whole relationship, arithmetic


From quality


negation, unity, identity of
complex objects


From modality


formal logic


From community


entities and attributes,
dependence, causality, mutual exclusion and
complex objects


Formal vs material ontology


Formal


GOL


Ontoclean


BWW


Material


WordNet


Mixed


Cyc


SUMO

formal ontologies <
-

knowledge
representation


Programs = algorithms + data structures


KR systems follow the categories


Not so well as humans


Formal ontologies add richness


But are not qualitatively different


A tsunami is not a partial differential equation



So what?


Material ontologies fail due to semantic
heterogeneity


Formal ontologies are neutral wrt content


More limited aim


Provide rich abstract data types


Do not resolve semantic heterogeneity


Final thought


Same entity can be represented differently for
different purposes. Eg, aircraft might be


Part/whole to manufacturer (bill of materials)


Set/instance to airline (seats)


Process/accomplishments to production scheduling


Physical object/ qualities to inspection system


But one view might incorporate elements of all of
these


Final thought


Formal ontologies not content


Formal concepts should not be at top of
subsumption structures


A tsunami is not a partial differential equation


A bill of materials is not a part
-
whole system


But using schemas/ variable instantiation


Separate formal and material as facets