Team 6: Offshore Oil Drilling

steamonlyOil and Offshore

Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

66 views

Elizabeth Wetzel

Jared Broughton

Aaron Sprague

Caroline Ibbotson

Sarah Grillo

Why Oil?


US strong dependence on oil


Many uses


Industrial boom




Definitions:


Offshore


Crude oil


“Oil Basics” U.S. Energy Information Administration.

21 Nov 2010.

<http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energy.cfm

?page=oil_home
-
basics>. Web


2

The Problem: Spills


Spills from drilling and shipping


Faulty equipment


Careless or poorly trained workers


Natural Disasters


Negative effects on aquatic biodiversity


Massive marine life mortality rate


Effect on food chain

3

M
ajor
S
pills

1.
Santa Barbara Spill
-

January 28, 1969

2.
Argo Merchant Vessel
-

December 15, 1976

3.
Burmah Agate
-

November 1, 1979
-
January 8, 1980

4.
Exxon Valdez
-

March 24, 1989

5.
Cibro Savannah Barge
-

March 6, 1990

6.
Megaborg
-

June 8, 1990

7.
Jupiter
-

September 16, 1990

8.
The barge Bouchard 155, the freighter Balsa 37, and
the barge Ocean 255 collision

9.
Deepwater Horizon
-

April 20
-

August 15, 2010


4

Response


NOAA Office of Response and Restoration


“Our role is stewardship; our product is science.”


5

Policies that Impact Oil Drilling


National Environmental Policy Act of 1969


Coastal Zone Management of 1972


Energy Policy Conservation Act of 1975


Energy Tax Act of
1978


1981
-

U.S Congress passed a moratorium on oil drilling in
the OCS


Moratorium lifted in 2008 under Bush Administration


MARPOL
-

1983 Convention for the Prevention of Pollution
from Ships


Oil Pollution Act 1990


Oceans Act of 2000

6

Polices Developed for Clean
-
Up
Regulation


1970
Formation of the NOAA through US Department
of Commerce
.


Clean Water Act Amendments of 1972


Comprehensive Environmental Rehabilitation,
Compensation and Liability Act of 1980


7

National Environmental Policy Act
of 1969


Became effective January 1, 1970


First introduced February 18, 1969 by Senator Henry
M. Jackson


Passed Senate on Dec. 20, 1969


Passed House of Representatives Dec. 23, 1969


Signed by President Richard Nixon Jan. 1, 1970

8

National Oceanic & Atmospheric
Administration


Published in July of 1970


Commission was created consisting of 15 members on
Marine Science, Engineering and Resources to review
and assess existing and planned U.S. marine science
activities.


Submitted document entitled
Our Nation and the Seas



Set the stage for the evolution of U.S. current programs
in marine science and research development


Approved and passed by President Richard Nixon in
October 1970

9

MARPOL


Combination of two treaties adopted in 1973 and 1978


1973 was an International Convention for the
Prevention of Pollution from Ships


1978 related to 1973 convention


Known as MARPOL 73/78


Entered into force on October 2, 1983 as a combination
of MARPOL 73/78

10

Comprehensive Environmental
Rehabilitation, Compensation and
Liability Act (CERCLA)



Most commonly known as “Superfund”


Signed by President Jimmy Carter as one of his last
acts in office


Administered by the EPA


In response to Love Canal, NY after discovery of
chemical dump


Had a history of failure


11

Oil Pollution Act of 1990


In response to the
Exxon Valdez

spill into the Prince
William Sound


Amended the Clean Water Act


OPA created the national Oil Spill Trust Fund, which
is available to provide up to one billion dollars per spill
incident

12


“There are many agencies involved, but the national
good that comes from this, and what you can bring
together to respond to it, is quite remarkable and
demonstrates the capabilities that we have in this
country.”




-

Coast Guard Rear Adm. Mary Landry








(on Gulf oil spill)

13

Drilling and Responses to Problems


Oil spills have a broad impact


Environment (air, water, sediment deposits, land), jobs,
etc.


Many agencies are involved in the policy
implementation and clean
-
up process


Policies usually involve heavy fines to discourage spills
and encourage corporations to be careful in their
drilling practices (especially OPA of 1990).

14

Agencies


Department of Homeland Security (DHS)


Department of the Interior (DOI)


Mineral Management Service (MMS)


Fish and Wildlife Service


National Park Service


Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)


U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ)


Internal Revenue Service (IRS)


U.S. Coast Guard (branch of the U.S. military)


National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA)

15

Agencies, cont.


Department of Defense (DOD)


Small Business Administration


Department of Labor


Department of Energy (DOE)


National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health


National Aeronautics and Space Administration
(NASA)


United States Geological Survey (USGS)


And many, many more…

16

17

Policies


Policies typically enacted once a problem arises



Reactive, not proactive



Radical policy decisions seldom happen due to risk of the loss of
political capital



Ex.:
Exxon Valdez
(1989); no comprehensive government policy
on oil spills


Oil Pollution Act of 1990



Ex.: MMS drilling permit practices (2010); ignored protocols

18

Moratorium on Offshore Drilling


1981: Congress approved moratorium


Protect beaches and tourism on east and west coasts.


Drilling in Alaska and western part of the Gulf OK.



1990: President George H.W. Bush, set to last until
2002.

19

Moratorium, cont.


1998: President Clinton renewed it in 1998, extending
the coverage of the policy 2008.



2008: President George W. Bush repealed.


Cited high gas prices, Congress approved.



2010: Obama, renewed. November 30, 2010.


Give companies time to develop/implement safety
measures.


20

OPA, 1990


Comes out of a long tradition of policies


OPA, 1924 (Army Corps of Engineers)


Clean Water Restoration Act


Water Quality Improvement Act


CERCLA


Response to the
Exxon Valdez

spill


Doesn’t deal directly with drilling but impacts it


Steep penalties

21

Energy Policy and Conversion Act
(1975) & Gas Guzzler Tax (1978)


Responses to Oil Shock I (1973)


EPCA signed by President Ford created a domestic
petroleum reserve


1 billion barrel cap.


Department of Energy


Gas Guzzler Tax


Lower fuel economy, higher taxes


IRS

22

NGOs

23

Average Large Spills Per Year

Figure 1

24

Percentage of Oil Split

Figure 2

25

Split vs. Shipped

Figure 3

26

Cause of Spillage

Spills < 7 tons

Spills > 700 tons

Figure 4

Figure 5

27

Suggestions



Obama’s current policies



Gulf Oil Spill in 2010



Needs to increase policies


28

Suggestions


The National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA)


29

Suggestions

Acts passed


National Environmental Policy Act of 1969


Clean Water Act Amendments of 1972


Coastal Zone Management of 1972


30

Suggestions


For the most part, policies have been fairly effective.


Government needs to realize the gravity of the
situation

31

Works Cited



Berry, James. Dennison, Mark. The Environmental Law and Compliance Handbook. New York:


McGraw
-
Hill Companies, 2000. Print.


Bill Summary & Status: 9
th

Congress (1975
-
1976) S.622
. The Library of Congress: THOMAS. Web. 22
Nov. 2010.


Bush Lifts Offshore Drilling Ban
. British Broadcasting Corporation, 14 July 2008. Web. 21 Nov. 2010.
<
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/7506346.stm>
.


Chasek, Pamela S., David L. Downie, and Janet Welsh Brown.
Global Environmental Politics: Fifth
Edition.
Westview Press, 2010.


Clinton Extends Moratorium on Offshore Oil Drilling
. Cable News Network, 1998. Web. 21 Nov. 2010.


Deepwater BP Oil Spill
. The White House, 2010. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.
<
http://www.whitehouse.gov/deepwater
-
bp
-
oil
-
spill/>
.


“Effects of Oil Spills on Wildlife and Habitat.” December 2004. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 21
November 2010. <http://alaska.fws.gov/media/unalaska/Oil%20Spill%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf>. Web.


epa.gov.
Clean Water Act.

10 Feb. 2009. 21 November 2010. <http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/cwa.cfm>.
Web.


Gas Guzzler Tax and Vehicles
. Environmental Protection Agency. Web. 20 Nov. 2010.
<
http://www.epa.gov/fueleconomy/guzzler/index.htm>
.


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Gradwohl, Judith.
Oil Pollution.

Ocean Planet: A Smithsonian Exhibit. 21 November
2010. <
http://seawifs.gsfc.nasa.gov/OCEAN_PLANET/HTML/peril_oil_pollution.html#SOURC
ES>. Web.


Haerens, Margaret, Ed.
Offshore Drilling.
Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2010. Print.


Hoff, Rebecca Z., ed.
Oil Spills in Coral Reefs: Planning and Response Considerations.

United States Department of Commerce, 2001. Print.


“International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL).”
International Maritime Organization.
2010. Web. 16 November 2010.
<
http://www.imo.org/About/Conventions/ListOfConventions/Pages/International
-
Convention
-
for
-
the
-
Prevention
-
of
-
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-
from
-
Ships
-
(MARPOL).aspx.
>


Kurtz, Rick S. “Coastal Oil Pollution: Spills, Crisis, and Policy Change.”

Review of Policy
Research

21.2 (2004): 201
-
219.

Academic Search Complete
. EBSCO. Web. 11 Nov. 2010.


Logan, Gail. “Procedure for Cleaning Up Oil Spills.” eHow. Web. 20 November 2010.


McCluney, Christen N.
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. U.S. Department of Defense, 18
May 2010. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.
<
http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=59237>
.

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“National Environmental Policy Act of 1969”.
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Web. 16
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-
law/fhpl_ntlenvirnpolcy.pdf>


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United States Coast Guard
-
National Pollution Funds Center.
6
May 2010. Web. 16 November 2010.


<
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>


“Oil Pollution Act Overview.”
United States Environmental Protection Agency.
17 March
2009. Web. 16 November 2010.
<
http://www.epa.gov/oem/content/lawsregs/opaover.htm
>


OR&R Web Team.
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. 19 November 2010. 21 November
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Washington,
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The New York
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>.


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-
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.>


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