Heavy Metals & Synthetic

steamonlyOil and Offshore

Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 5 months ago)

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Heavy Metals & Synthetic
Organics

Lecture #44

Ch 14
-
day 4

Catastrophic!


Toxic to all living things


Persistent


Floats & sinks


Thick, viscous coating of everything

Sources: 1: Undersea Offshore Drilling


5,000 N. America & 3,000 more globally


they leak
!


BBC Coverage



2010
Deepwater Horizon
, BP: Gulf of Mexico, I
mile deep


April

August

4 billion barrels
oil


(2) Oil Tankers


Exxon Valdez 1989, 11 million gallons (fig
14.14)


Decades of cleanup


2009 post
-
spill analysis


$1 billion clean
-
up, $500 million
damages



outcome: double hulled
tankers


more Valdez footage


(3) Pipelines


BP Prudhoe Bay 2006


Exxon: Yellowstone River 2011


Keystone Pipeline extension


(4) Natural Seepage

Cleaning Up an Oil Spill

Dawn

Floating Oil


Boom containment (down several meters) &
suck it up


Shallow waters: absorbent materials


Dispersants (toxic?
)


Burn it


GM Bacteria


Deepwater Horizon
-
What you can’t
See: the “plume”


CBS Evening News


Coastlines


Natural action

v
-

intervention

Lead (
Pb
)

SOURCE

HUMAN HEALTH
EFFECT

Lead (
Pb
)

SOURCE

Lead lined pipes in old homes, brass
fittings with lead in them, lead solder

HUMAN
HEALTH
EFFECT

Damage to brain, nervous system &
kidneys. Especially for fetuses

& infants

Arsenic (As)

SOURCE

HUMAN HEALTH
EFFECT

Arsenic (As)

SOURCE

Rocks, mining, wood preservatives

HUMAN
HEALTH
EFFECT

Long term, low level exposure from

drinking groundwater

Cancers of skin, lungs, kidneys, and
bladder

EPA new standard: 50

10
u
g/L

Arsenic is a Worldwide Problem


Wells in Bangladesh & eastern India


140 million people worldwide

Solution:

membrane
filters,
distillation,
reverse
osmosis

Mercury (Hg)

SOURCE

HUMAN HEALTH
EFFECT

Mercury (Hg)

SOURCE

Burning coal, incinerating garbage,
medical supplies, dental supplies,
**limestone from cement manufacturing

HUMAN
HEALTH
EFFECT

Methylmercury

enters food chain and
both
bioaccumulates

and biomagnifies.

Damages CNS of children & developing
embryos

siezures
, tremors, blindness

Remember:
Minamata

Bay, Japan


Acid Deposition

SOURCE

ENVIRONMENTAL

EFFECT

HUMAN HEALTH
EFFECT

Acid Deposition

SOURCE

SO
x
,
NO
x

from burning coal &
other fossil fuels react in
atmosphere to form H
2
SO
4

and
HNO
3

ENVIRONMENTAL

EFFECT

Lowers pH rainwater, Alters pH
of soil & lakes,

kills micro
-
organisms

DEAD Lakes, General forest
decline

HUMAN HEALTH
EFFECT

The solubility of heavy metals
INCREASES with decreasing pH
so contaminates water supplies

Cleaning Up Acid Deposition


Scrubbers:


Convert
SO
x

to a different,
less harmful substance



CaCO
3

+ SO
2



CaSO
4

+ H
2
O


Limestone (
CaCO
3
)

Acid Mine Drainage

SOURCE

Abandoned Flooded

mines:
Pyrite + water


Fe
+3
+ H
+

ions

ENVIRONMENTAL
EFFECT

Low pH

INCREASES the solubility
of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Al,
Mn
,
Fe,
Pb
, As)

Red/yellow streams/rivers

HUMAN HEALTH
EFFECT

Solubility of heavy metals
INCREASES with decreasing pH
so contaminates water supplies

Pesticides

SOURCE

ENVIRONMENTAL
EFFECT

Pesticides

SOURCE

Insecticides, fungicides,

herbicides,
rhodenticides

ENVIRONMENTAL

EFFECT

1.
Not target specific (insects &
frogs)

2.
Alters

other physiological
functions (DDT)


bioaccumulates
& biomagnifies

1.
Inert Ingredients toxicity
(Roundup & amphibians)

HUMAN HEALTH
EFFECT

Trace

amounts in drinking water,
how much is safe? Carcinogen?


Pharmaceuticals

SOURCE

Streams contaminated with
antibiotics, steroids,
reproductive

hormones, over
the counter drugs

ENVIRONMENTAL

EFFECT

Feminization of

male fish and
amphibians

HUMAN HEALTH

EFFECT

Long term, low level exposure:

Feminization,

decreased sperm
count

Perchlorates

(Military Compounds)

SOURCE

Rockets and explosives

HUMAN
HEALTH
EFFECT

Easily leached into groundwater where
contaminates food & water.

Thyroid gland

Decreased hormone production

PCB’s (polychlorinated biphenyls)

SOURCE

HUMAN HEALTH
EFFECT

ENVIRONMENTAL
EFFECT

PCB’s (polychlorinated biphenyls)

SOURCE

Manufacture of plastics,
insulating

electric transformers

HUMAN HEALTH
EFFECT

Carcinogenic (causes cancer)

ENVIRONMENTAL
EFFECT

Long
-
term persistence:
bioaccumulate

&
biomagnify

up
food chain

Cleaning Up PCB’s


General Electric (G.E.) and the Hudson River



To dredge or not to dredge?



Discharged from 1947
-
1977



Court Ruled 2002, work began 2009


VIDEO: returning a River To Health (EPA)

PBDE’s

(
polybrominated

diphenyl

ethers)

SOURCE

HUMAN HEALTH
EFFECT

PBDE’s

(
polybrominated

diphenyl

ethers)

SOURCE


flame retardants

added to
construction materials,
furniture, electrical
components, clothing

ENVIRONMENTAL
EFFECT

Turning up

in fish, aquatic birds,
human breast milk

HUMAN HEALTH
EFFECT

Brain damage, especially kids

The List Goes On


BPA (plastic bottles)
(
bisphenol
-
A)


Phthalates (plastics)


MBTE (gasoline additive)


Aspartame (artificial sweetener)




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