Fossil Fuels, Their Impacts, & Energy Conservation - Lincoln Park ...

steamonlyOil and Offshore

Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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FOSSIL FUELS, THEIR
IMPACTS, & ENERGY
CONSERVATION

Energy


Where does it come from?

What is energy?


Ability to do work


Energy Source


Provides heat, chemical, nuclear,
mechanical, or radiant energy.


Sources of Energy


Earth’s Core


Geothermal Energy



Gravitational pull of the moon and the sun



Solar Energy


wind patterns, hydrologic cycle,
photosynthesis


biomass



Fossil Fuels


oil, coal, natural gas






Energy

Source

Type

of Energy

Crude Oil

Nonrenewable


Natural Gas

Nonrenewable


Coal

Nonrenewable


Nuclear Energy

Nonrenewable


Biomass Energy

Nonrenewable


Hydropower

Renewable


Solar Energy

Renewable


Wind Energy

Renewable


Geothermal Energy

Renewable


Tidal

& Wave Energy

Renewable


Energy Sources We Use Today

Fossil Fuels


Highly combustible substances
formed from the remains of
organisms from past
geological ages.



Dominant Source of Energy


transportation, heating,
cooking, electricity.



Nonrenewable



Fuel created from “fossils”


Produced when organic material is broken down in
an
anaerobic
environment



Bottoms of deep lakes, swamps, shallow seas



Chemical composition subject to various
temperatures, & pressures


coal, oil, natural gas.

Fossil Fuel Reserves


Localized & unevenly distributed




How long will they last?

1.
Extraction

2.
Consume

3.
Imports & Exports









Worldwide Fossil Fuel Distribution

Coal


Organic matter, compressed under high pressure to
form dense, solid carbon structures.



Most Abundant


Coal Mining


Subsurface mining


shafts are dug deeply into the
ground & networks of tunnels are dug or blasted
out to extract coal



Strip mining


coal deposits near surface, heavy
machinery to remove huge amounts of earth to
expose coal.




Mountaintop removal


Mining Economics


Land Area


must be surveyed and quantified


Land Reclamation


Ore


rock that contains

minerals

with important
elements including

metals.



Coal & Ore unevenly distributed


Cookie Mining Pre
-
Lab Questions


What economic considerations should be considered
during this simulation?



What do the chocolate chips represent?



What are ores?



How many cookies does each miner obtain? How many
mining tools?



What does “reclamation of land” mean?


Surface Mining Control & Reclamation
Act of 1977


Regulate Surface Coal Mining & Reclamation
Activities



Mandatory Standards to minimize impacts on fish,
wildlife, other related environmental impacts.

Coal varies in its qualities


Vary in amounts of heat, pressure and moisture involved
in its formation.



Peat


precursor to coal, remains wet & near the
surface



4 types of Coal


different amount of energy

1.
Lignite (least compressed)

2.
Sub
-
bituminous

3.
Bituminous

4.
Anthracite (most compressed)





Formation of Coal

Impurities in Coal


Sulfur, mercury, arsenic



Sulfur content


Freshwater or Saltwater Sediments

1.
Produces sulfate air pollutants, industrial smog and
acidic deposition.



Combustion of Mercury


accumulates in organisms
tissues, poisoning animals in food chains



Acidic Deposition



Acid forming pollutants from the atmosphere


Many Effects on the Environment

1.
Leach nutrients from soil

2.
Elevate toxic elements in water systems

3.
Reduce species diversity and abundance in
aquatic life

4.
Damage agricultural crops



How is Electricity Generated?

Clean Coal?


Seeking ways to cleanse coal of its impurities to
minimize impact on health and the environment



Natural Gas


Consists of Methane & varying amounts of
hydrocarbons



Fastest growing fossil fuel, provides one
-
quarter of
global energy.



Cleaner


produces less pollution



World supplies projected to last 60 more years?

Formed in 2 ways


Biogenic gas


created at shallow depths by the
anaerobic decomposition of organic matter by
bacteria, contains pure Methane



Decay process in landfills, landfill operators selling
this gas as fuel.

1.
Decreases energy waste

2.
Reduces the release of methane

3.
Profitable






Thermogenic

gas


Compression and heat deep
underground

1.
Organic matter turns to
Kerogen
,
acts as a source
for gas & oil.

2.
Further heat & pressure breakdown
kerogen

into
simpler hydrocarbon molecules



Most gas extracted commercially


Has Only Recently Been Widely Used


Versatile and clean burning, emits half as much
carbon dioxide as coal and two
-
thirds as much as
oil



Shipped long distances in tankers



Deposits are greatest in Russia & Middle East


Russia & US lead in gas production and consumption



Extracting Gas


Horsehead

pump
moves a
rod in and out of a shaft,
creating pressure to pull
both natural gas and
crude oil to the surface.



Fracturing technique
pumps
salt water under high
pressures into rocks to crack
them. Sand or glass beads
are inserted to hold the
cracks open once the water
is withdrawn.


Offshore Drilling


Takes place in the seafloor on the continental
shelves



Must withstand the forces of wind, waves, and
ocean currents



Accounts for 25% of gas and oil in the US, primarily
in the Gulf of Mexico and off the southern
California Coast

Oil


Most used fuel since the 1960s



Accounts for 37% of the world’s commercial energy
consumption.



Worldwide use has risen over 17% in the past
decade.

Petroleum Formation


Crude oil
, or
petroleum
, forms 1.3


3 km below
the surface.



Mixture of hydrocarbon molecules forms
sludgelike

liquid.



Chain’s length affects it chemical properties, has
consequences for human use.



Oil Consumption & Production

Location of Petroleum Oil Deposits


Geologists drill rock cores and conduct ground, air,
and seismic surveys to map underground rock
formations, and predict where fossil fuel deposits
might lie.



Proven recoverable reserve


technologically and
economically feasible to remove under current
conditions.

We drill to extract oil


Exploratory Drilling


holes drilled are small, and
descend to great depths., if enough oil is
encountered, extraction begins.



Primary Extraction


Initial drilling and pumping
(two
-
thirds of oil remains)



Secondary Extraction


Solvents, or underground
rocks are flushed with water or steam.



Oil Drilling

Petroleum Products


Refining techniques, and
chemical manufacturing
expand use of petroleum.



From lubricants to plastics to
fabrics to pharmaceuticals.



Concern for oil production
to decline…..

Depleted half of oil reserves?


Have used up about 1.1 trillion barrels of oil,
estimates hold that somewhat more than 1 trillion
barrels remain.



Reserves
-
to
-
production ratio or R/P ratio


dividing the amount of total remaining reserves by
the annual rate of production.



Current Levels


predict 1.2 trillion barrels would
last about 40 more years!!!

Hubbert’s

Peak

Consequences of Decreased Oil
Production?


Globalized economy would collapse, economies
would become intensely localized



Only feed a fraction of the world without petroleum
based fertilizers and pesticides.



Rising oil prices will lead to conservation of energy
and alternative energy sources.

Other Fossil Fuels


Oil sands can be mined and processed



Oil shale is abundant in the U.S. West



Methane hydrate shows potential



Downsides to other fossil fuels

Environmental Impacts of

Fossil fuel Use

Impacts


Burning of fuels alter certain flux rates in Earth’s
carbon cycle



Carbon Dioxide is a greenhouse gas, CO
2
warms
the planet and drives global climate change.



Greatest environmental impact of fossil fuel use



Other impacts…


Some pollutants considered to be carcinogenic



Burning of Oil and coal


release pollutants that
contribute to industrial and photochemical smog and to
acidic deposition.



Gasoline combustion


releases pollutants that irritate
the nose, throat, and lungs.



Pollute water


impacts on freshwater ecosystems,
potential of oil spills in oceans.

Coal Mining affects the environment


Surface strip mining can destroy large swaths of
habitat, & cause extensive soil erosion.



Cause chemical runoff into waterways


acid
drainage.



Mountaintop removal


immense areas if habitat
can be degraded or destroyed and creek beds can
be polluted and clogged.

Oil & Gas extraction can

alter the environment


Road networks must be constructed



Infrastructure for a drilling operation includes
housing for workers, access roads, transport
pipelines, waste piles for removed soil.



Extraction of salty groundwater can contaminate
soil and kill vegetation.


Mountaintop threatens welfare of nearby residents.



Subsurface mining raises health concerns for miners.



Inhaling coal dust, leads to respiratory diseases,
including fatal black lung disease.

Effects of Prudhoe Bay


Tundra vegetation has not fully recovered from
road production used 30 years ago.



Impact on Caribou


female caribou and their
calves avoid all parts of Prudhoe Bay oil complex,
reproductive rates is lower than other areas of
Alaska.

Negative impacts of drilling in ANWR


Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is home to large
mammals, grizzly bears, polar bears, wolves, Arctic
foxes, and herds of caribou.



Scientists anticipate damage to vegetation and
wildlife.

Political, Social, and Economic Impacts


Nations can become dependent on foreign energy



Oil supply and prices affect the economies of
nations



Residents may or may not benefit from their fossil
fuel reserves



Energy Conservation


Practice of reducing energy use to extend the lifetimes
of our nonrenewable energy supplies.



Energy conservation has followed economic need



Personal choice and increased efficiency are 2 routes to
conservation.



Both conservation and renewable energy are needed

Forms of Renewable Energy


Biomass Energy


Hydropower


Solar Energy


Wind Energy


Geothermal Energy


Tidal and wave energy