State of the Art in Semiconductor Technology for RF

statementdizzyeyedSemiconductor

Nov 1, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Dr. LUCIDIO FINOL April 25, 2013 , page 1
FINEAU TECHNOLOGIES (www.fineautek.com)


State of the Art in Semiconductor
Technology for RF
ISTEC-Florida International University
International Symposium Technology Roadmap for Latin
America: Five-Year Strategic Outlook
MIAMI – FLORIDA April 25-26 2013
Dr. LUCIDIO FINOL April 25, 2013 , page 2
FINEAU TECHNOLOGIES (www.fineautek.com)


• 42 Years in Microelectronics
• Increase RF HLI
• RF Market
• State of the Art (iPhone 5 case)
• Current Technological Issues
• Summary


State of the Art in Semiconductor Technology for Wireless Integrated Circuit
OUTLINE
Dr. LUCIDIO FINOL April 25, 2013 , page 3
FINEAU TECHNOLOGIES (www.fineautek.com)


Micro meters
Nano meters
D S
G
Historical Time Line
1970 2020 1980 2010 2000 1990
10
100
1,000
10,000 10
1
0.1
0.01
Last 42 Years: Micro-electronics -- Next 10 Years: Nano-electronics

45 nm
65 nm
130 nm
Feature Size
(technology node)
< 10nm …Nano Science
750 nm
380 nm
Lithography Barrier
22 - 30 nm
(2012)
L
eff
90 nm
Transistor Physical
channel length L
eff
70 nm
50 nm
40 nm
Intense Activity
Low-Levels Int. (single
function per package)
Dr. LUCIDIO FINOL April 25, 2013 , page 4
FINEAU TECHNOLOGIES (www.fineautek.com)


Micro meters
Historical Time Line
1970
1980
1
0.5
Last 42 Years: Micro-electronics -- Next 10 Years: Nano-electronics

L
eff
Fully Integrated PLL
(1.2 mm BJT)-1985
1990
10
8
-
Bit Two-Steps Video
ADC (1 mm CMOS-1986)
2000
Programmable RF Demodulator
0.75 (mm Bi-CMOS-1996)
Programmable GMSK
p
/4 QPSK
Modulator (0.5 mm CMOS-1994
)
LNA & Mixer
(0.75 mm BJT)-1990
Externally Tuned
VCO (2
m
m CMOS)
RF Amplifier
(0.75 mm CMOS)
1980
MIXER
LNA
Dr. LUCIDIO FINOL April 25, 2013 , page 5
FINEAU TECHNOLOGIES (www.fineautek.com)


HOMODYNE
ZERO-IF RECEIVER
Reference
Modulator
DACs
Mixers
VCA
Limiter
LPF
Main Loop
Frac-N PLL
Main Loop
Accumulators
Pre-Scalars
Charge Pumps
Tx
SPI
VCO
Super
Filter
Offset
Loop
Tx
SPI
I&Q
MDAC
Up-Mixers
Rx SPI
Post
Demod
LPF
FM
FSK
Demod
IF
Limiter
I&Q
Mod.
AGC-RSSI
Rx ADC
LNA
2
nd
LO
Phase Shift
FB
Track
&
Offset
VCO
PA
&
DNM
State of the Art in Semiconductor Technology for Wireless Integrated Circuit
First Industry Fully Integrated RF IC. Motorola
Circa 1992 {5Volts 0.75
m
m (750 nm) Bi-CMOS}
Dr. LUCIDIO FINOL April 25, 2013 , page 6
FINEAU TECHNOLOGIES (www.fineautek.com)


Transmitter Receiver
Multi bit Accumulator
Fractional-N Synthesizer
LNA
VCO

Mixers
Pre-Scalar

LO
Charge Pumps

Quadrature Active I-Q Filters
GMSK lookup ROM
Modulators

Demodulator (BPSK, QPSK,
QAM, etc.)
AMPS Digital Modulators Phase Shifters
AFC Multipliers
Reference Oscillators Data Converters (ADC-
DAC)
PA Gain Controllers Programmable AGC
SPI – I
2
C Programmability Low IF Receivers-Zero IF
(Homodyne Receivers)
Voltage Regulators RSSI
Super Filters Band-Pass S-D Converter
Higher-Levels of Integration of RF Building Blocks Same Die
Motorola’s GSM RF-IF
m
P controlled GMS Processor
- Multi-Bit Integrators Fractional PLL Synthesizer,
- Band-Pass Sigma-Delta Digital Filter Receiver
- (250 nm Bi-CMOS Circa Mid 2005)
Dr. LUCIDIO FINOL April 25, 2013 , page 7
FINEAU TECHNOLOGIES (www.fineautek.com)


Ubiquitous Handheld & Personal Internet Products
PDAs: Cell Phone - Tablet
I-Video &
IP Phones
Bluetooth
TM
Enabled Products
DSL
Modem
Wireless
Routers
Home Networking
Wireless Digital Still Camera &
Wireless Digital Camcorder
Wireless Audio
Wireless HDTV
Home Security
Dr. LUCIDIO FINOL April 25, 2013 , page 8
FINEAU TECHNOLOGIES (www.fineautek.com)


2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Wireless
37.5 40.0 51.8 58.6 65.1 72.9
Computers 41.3 39.1 50.2 53.7 53.5 54.0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Billions of US dollars
Global Semiconductor Demand for Wireless and
Computer Markets (Source : IHS iSuppli January
2013)
State of the Art in Semiconductor Technology for Wireless Integrated Circuit
Wireless-CPU
MKT Transition

Dr. LUCIDIO FINOL April 25, 2013 , page 9
FINEAU TECHNOLOGIES (www.fineautek.com)


GSM
(TDMA)
PDC
(TDMA)
iDEN
(TDMA)
IS-136
(TDMA)
IS-95A
(CDMA)
GPRS
154KBS
EDGE
256KBS
IS-95B
(CDMA)
UMTS
HSPA
1x
CDMA2000
EV-DO
CDMA2000
LTE
2008
LTE-A
2013-2015
WORLD
JAPAN
USA
USA
USA-ASIA
2G 2.5G 3G 4G
Cellular Generations – Technical Definition
Speeds:
Stationary 2Mb/s
Mobile 384kb/s
ITU (LTE-A) Speeds:
Stationary 1Gb/s
Mobile 100Mb/s
Speeds: Stationary 250kb/s Mobile 64kb/s
EDGE: Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution GPRS: General Packet Radio Service
UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecommunication System
HSPA: High Speed Packet Access
LTE: Long Term Evolution
EV-DO: Enhanced Voice-Data Optimized
20-22Mb/s
3.5G
Dr. LUCIDIO FINOL April 25, 2013 , page 10
FINEAU TECHNOLOGIES (www.fineautek.com)


Digital Baseband (CMOS)
DSP
ARM
Memory
Controller
RAM
ROM
Security
Accelerators
APPS
I/F
USB
I
2
C
UARTS
SRC
RX
ENC
TX
WCDMA
TPU
TSP
GEA
CRYPT
RIF
SPI
GSM/GPRS
Voice/IF
Audio
SIM Card
GPS
SDRAM
FLASH
Analog Baseband & Power
Management (SMART-MOS)
RF Transceiver GSM-GPRS (Bi-CMOS)
SPI
GSM-GPRS Baseband
DAC
ADC
RF
Control
SPI
WCDMA Baseband
DAC
ADC
RF
Control
32 kHz
XTAL
RTC
12 MHz
XTAL
GPIO
Vibrator
Drive
USB OTG
Tx-Rx
Touch
Screen I/F
MADC
BATT
Charger
Controller
Audio
I/O
Primary
Host I/F
Secondary
Host
Access
Arbitration
Power
Control
State
Machine
Buck
DC/DC
x2
LDOs
Voice
CODEC
Stereo
DAC
Audio
Power
Conversion
Control
Interface
SPI
Li-IoN
XY

DSP

ARM
Memory
Controller
SDRAM
NAND/NOR
FLASH
LCD
ROM
RAM
Security
Accelerators
I
2
S
MMC/SD
UARTS
I
2
C
USB OTG
Camera
Application Processor (CMOS)

Bluetooth
TM
Color
LCD
MMC/SD
IrDA
LEDS
Buzzer
3
rd



4
th

Generation Dual
-
Mode
-
Multi
-
Band GSM/CDMA Cellular Phone

I
Q
I
Q


PAD
GSM 1800/GSM 1900
GSM 800/GSM 900

Frac. N – Div.
3.6 GHz
Dual
Band
PA
SW
DIPLEXER

LNA 800/LNA 900
LNA 1800
LNA 1900
Voltage
Regulators
Super
Filters
SPI
Ant.

SW

Antenna
RF Transceiver WCDMA (Bi-CMOS)


PLL
PLL
Receiver
Transmitter
Serial
IF
SPI
V Reg.
CDMA
PA
CP
DUPLEX
FILTER
Dr. LUCIDIO FINOL April 25, 2013 , page 11
FINEAU TECHNOLOGIES (www.fineautek.com)


MODEL RF Functionality
Technology
Node
40 nm RF CMOS TMSC {VDD (Volts) :
1.0 Core 1.8/2.5/3.3 IO’s}
Die Size 4.07 mm x 4.48 mm
US & Europe
GSM Bands
(A1428)
GSM model A1428: UMTS/HSPA+/DC-
HSDPA (850, 900, 1900, 2100 MHz);
GSM/EDGE (850, 900, 1800, 1900 MHz);
LTE (Bands 4 and 17)
US & Europe
GSM Bands
(A1429)
GSM model A1429: UMTS/HSPA+/DC-
HSDPA (850, 900, 1900, 2100 MHz);
GSM/EDGE (850, 900, 1800, 1900 MHz);
LTE (Bands 1, 3, 5)
US CDMA CDMA model A1429*: CDMA EV-DO
(800, 1900, 2100 MHz)
Wi-Fi 802.11a/b/g/n Wi-Fi (802.11n 2.4GHz and
5GHz)
Bluetooth
TM
Bluetooth 4.0 wireless technology
Introduction Q3 2012
Product iPhone 5
iPhone 5 RF-IF Processor. 40 nm CMOS TSMC
Dr. LUCIDIO FINOL April 25, 2013 , page 12
FINEAU TECHNOLOGIES (www.fineautek.com)


iPhone 5 Application A6 Processor 32nm Samsung HKMG
Custom Designed ARM Core (9.70 mm x 9.97 mm)

Integration of one or more ARM-cores (CPU), a graphics processing unit (GPU), cache memory and other blocks necessary to
provide integrated computing functions within a single physical package; transistor count 2.175 B.
MODEL A6
Technology
Node
32 nm HKMG {VDD (Volts) : 1.0 Core
1.5/1.8 IO’s}
Die Size 97.71 mm
2
(A5 122.6 mm
2
: 45nm)
CPU
Architecture
ARM-V7S
CPU 1.3 GHZ Dual-Core
Cache L1: 32 kB (instruction + data) & L2: 1MB
GPU PowerVR TRIPLE-Core @ 250MHz (36
GFLOPS)
Memory 32-bit Dual-Channel 533 MHz LPDDR2
(8.5 GB/sec)

Introduction Q3 2012
Product iPhone 5
Dr. LUCIDIO FINOL April 25, 2013 , page 13
FINEAU TECHNOLOGIES (www.fineautek.com)


Limits of CMOS Technology
Scaling

• Physical (tunneling & I
leak
@
10nm impacting performance)
• Material (lack dielectric +
isolation : reliable insulation +
conduction)
• Power-Thermal (higher # dev/ua)
• Technological (eUV 120-10nm,
x-ray steppers ion beam lit)
• Economical
IS CMOS SCALING COMING TO AND
END ?
Nano-Technology Possible Alternatives to
Silicon CMOS

T.U. Delft: <1 nm
SWCNT transistor
Intel’s 20 nm transistor
Current State of the Art
CMOS
TSMC
• 22nm
• 16 nm by 2014
Samsung
• 28 nm
Intel
• 32 nm
Dr. LUCIDIO FINOL April 25, 2013 , page 14
FINEAU TECHNOLOGIES (www.fineautek.com)


Summary